Home  

HOME                     Abhidhamma.org                        CONTENTS

The Commentary to the Discourse
on the Arousing of Mindfulness
with Marginal Notes

The Contemplation of the Body

The Section on Breathing

Now the Blessed One, desirous of bringing about diverse kinds of attainments of distinction in beings by the Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness, began to teach the analytically explanatory portion [niddesavara] with the word "And how o bhikkhus."

He did that after dividing into four the one mindfulness that is right [ekameva sammasatim] by way of the contemplation on the body, on feelings, on consciousness, and on mental objects.

The Blessed One's exposition of the Arousing of Mindfulness is similar to the action of a worker in mat and basket weaving who wishing to make coarse and fine mats, boxes, cases, and the like, should make those goods after getting a mammoth bamboo, splitting it into four, and reducing each of the parts to strips.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu = "Here, o bhikkhus, a bhikkhu."

"Here": In this Dispensation of the Buddha which provides the basis for the person producing body-contemplation in all modes. By the word "here", dispensations other than the Buddha's are excluded as they do not teach body-contemplation in the complete way it is taught in the Buddhadhamma. For this is said: "Here is the recluse; untenanted by recluses are the other, opposing ways of thought."

The person producing body-contemplation in all modes. As sects outside the Buddha's Dispensation also produce a part of this contemplation, by their words, the Buddha's disciple's complete knowledge or all-round grasp of this contemplation, when it is practiced by him, is told.

Ara˝˝agato va ..... su˝˝agaragato va = "Gone to the forest ..... or to an empty place." By this, here is the making clear of the getting of an abode appropriate to the meditator for the culture of mindfulness.

The mind of the meditator which for a long time (before he became a recluse) had dwelt on visual and other objects, does not like to enter the road of meditation and just like a wild young bull yoked to a cart, runs off the road.

A cowherd wishing to tame a wild calf nourished entirely on the milk of a wild cow, ties that calf, after leading it away from the cow, to a stout post firmly sunk in the ground, at a spot set apart for it. That calf, having jumped hither and thither, and finding it impossible to run away from here, will crouch down or lie down at that very post. Even so, must the bhikkhu who is desirous of taming the wild mind nourished long on the tasty drink of visible and other objects tie that mind to the post of the object of mindfulness-arousing with the rope of remembrance, after leading the mind from visible and other objects and ushering it into a forest, to the foot of a tree or into an empty place. The mind of the bhikkhu will also jump hither and thither. Not obtaining the objects it had long grown used to, and finding it impossible to break the rope of remembrance and run away, it will finally sit or lie down at that every object by way of partial and full absorption. Therefore, the men of old said:

As one who wants to break a wild young calf
Would tether it to stout stake firmly, here,
In the same way the yogi should tie fast
To meditation's object his own mind.

In this way this abode becomes appropriate in the meditator. Therefore, it is said, "This (namely, the passage beginning with the words, 'Gone to the forest .....') is the making clear of an abode appropriate to the meditator for the culture of mindfulness."

Because the subject of meditation of mindfulness on in-and-out-breathing is not easy to accomplish without leaving the neighbourhood of a village, owing to sound, which is a thorn to absorption; and because in a place not become a township it is easy for the meditator to lay hold of this subject of meditation, the Blessed One, pointing out the abode suitable for that, spoke the words, "Gone to the forest," and so forth.

The Buddha is like a master of the science of building sites [vatthu vijjacariya] because of the pointing out by him of the suitable abode for yogis [yoginam anurupa nivasatthanu-padissanato].

As a master in the science of selecting building sites, after seeing a stretch of ground good for building a town, and after considering it well from all sides, advises: "Build the town here," and when the building of the town is happily completed receives high honour from the royal family, so the Buddha having well considered from all points the abode suitable for the meditator advises: "Here, should the subject of meditation be yoked on to." When arahantship is gradually reached by the yogi, by the expression of the yogi's gratitude and admiration with the words: "Certainly, the Blessed One is the Supremely Awakened One," the Master, receives great honour.

The bhikkhu indeed, is comparable to a leopard, because like the leopard he lives alone, in the forest, and accomplishes his aim, by overcoming those contrary to him, namely, the passions.

Just as a great king of leopards concealed in the forest in grass-bush, jungle-bush or hill-thicket, seizes wild buffaloes, elks, pigs and other beasts, this bhikkhu yoking himself to the subject of meditation gains the Four Real Paths and Fruits [cattaro magge ceva ariyaphalani ganhati] one after another, in succession; and therefore the men of old said:

As leopard in ambush lies and captures beasts,
So does this son of the Awakened One,
The striving man, the man of vision keen.
Having into the forest gone seize therein
Fruition that truly is supreme.

And so the Blessed One, pointing out the forest abode, the fit place for speedy exertion in the practice of meditation, said "Gone to the forest", and so forth.

Nisidati pallankam abhujitva ujum kayam panidhaya parimukham satim upatthapetva so satova assasati sato passasati = "Sits down, bends in his legs crosswise on his lap, keeps is body erect, and arouses mindfulness in the object of meditation, namely, the breath which is in front of him. Mindful he breathes in, and mindful he breathes out."

"Bends in his legs crosswise on his lap." Three things pertaining to the sitting posture of the yogi are pointed out by that: firmness of the posture; easefulness of breathing due to the posture; and the expediency of the posture for laying hold of the subject of meditation.

One sits in this posture having locked in the legs. It is the entirely thigh-bound sitting posture, and is known as the lotus, and the immovable posture too.

"Keeps his body erect." Keeps the vertebrae in such a position that every segment of the backbone is said to be placed upright, and end to end throughout. The body, waist upwards, is held straight.

"Arouses mindfulness in front." Fixes the attention by directing it towards the breath which is in front.

"Mindful he breathes in and mindful he breathes out." Breathes in and out without abandoning mindfulness.

Digham va assasanto digham assasamiti pajanati digham va passasanto digham passasamiti pajanati: = "He, thinking, 'I breathe in long,' understands when he is breathing in long; or thinking, 'I breathe out long,' he understands when he is breathing out long.

"When breathing in long, how does he understand, 'I breathe in long.'? When breathing out long, how does he understand 'I breathe out long'? He breathes in a long breath during a long stretch of time, he breathes out a long breath during a long stretch of time, and he breathes in and he breathes out long breaths, each during a long stretch of time. As he breathes in and breathes out long breaths, each during a long stretch of time, desire [or intention; chanda] arises in him. With desire he breathes in a long breath finer than the last during a long stretch of time; with desire he breathes out a long breath finer than the last during a long stretch of time; and with desire he breathes in and he breathes out long breaths finer than the last, each during a long stretch of time. As with desire he breathes in and he breathes out long breaths finer than the last, each during a long stretch of time, joy [piti] arises in him. With joy he breathes in a long breath finer than the last during a long stretch of time; with joy he breathes out a long breath finer than the last during a long stretch of time; and with joy he breathes in and he breathes out long breaths finer than the last, each during a long stretch of time. As with joy he breathes in and he breathes out long breaths finer than the last, each during a long stretch of time, the mind turns away from the long in-and-out-breathings, and equanimity [upekkha] stands firm.

Sabbakayapatisamvedi Assasissami ..... passasissamiti sikkhati ..... = "Experiencing the whole body I shall breathe in ..... breathe out, thinking thus, he trains himself." He trains himself with the following idea: I shall breathe in making known, making clear, to myself the beginning, middle, and end of the whole body of breathings in; I shall breathe out making known, making clear, to myself the beginning, middle and end of the whole body of breathings out. And he breathes in and breathes out with consciousness associated with knowledge making known, making clear, to himself the breaths."

"To one bhikkhu, indeed, in the tenuous diffused body of in- breathing or body of out-breathing only the beginning becomes clear; not the middle or the end. He is able to lay hold of only the beginning. In the middle and at the end he is troubled. To another the middle becomes clear and not the beginning or the end. To a third only the end becomes clear; the beginning and the middle do not become clear and he is able only to lay hold of the breath at the end. He is troubled at the beginning and at the middle. To a fourth even all the three stages become clear and he is able to lay hold of all; he is troubled nowhere. For pointing out that this subject of meditation should be developed after the manner of the fourth one, the Master said: Experiencing .... He trains himself."

"Since in the earlier way of the practice of this meditation there was nothing else to be done but just breathing in and breathing out, it is said: He thinking, I breathe in ..... understands ..... and since thereafter there should be endeavour for bringing about knowledge and so forth, it is said, Experiencing the whole body I shall breathe in."

Passambhayam kayasamkharam assasissamiti ..... passasissamiti sikkhati = "Calming the activity of the body I shall breathe in .... breathe out, thinking thus, he trains himself." He thinks: " I shall breathe in and I shall breathe out, quieting, making smooth, making tranquil and peaceful the activity of the in-and-out-breathing body. And in that way, he trains himself."

"In this connection coarseness, fineness and calm should be understood thus: Without contemplative effort, the body and the mind of this bhikkhu are distressed, coarse. When the body and the mind are coarse, the in-and-out-breathings too are coarse and proceed uncalmly; the nasal aperture becomes inadequate and he has to breathe through the mouth, too. But when the body and the mind are under control then the body and the mind become placid, restful. When these are restful, the breathings proceed so fine that the bhikkhu doubts whether or not the breathings are going on."

"The breathing of a man who runs down from a hill, puts down a heavy burden from his head, and stands still is coarse; his nasal aperture becomes inadequate and he breathes through the mouth, too. But when he rids himself of his fatigue, takes a bath and a drink of water, and puts a wet cloth over his heart and is sitting in the shade, his breathing becomes fine, and he is at a loss to know whether it exists or not. Comparable to that man is the bhikkhu whose breaths become so fine after the taking up of the practice of contemplation that he finds it difficult to say whether he is breathing or not. What is the reason for this? Without taking up the practice of meditation he does not perceive, concentrate on, reflect on, or think over, the question of calming the gross activity of the breathing body, the breaths, but with the practice of meditation he does. Therefore, the activity of the breath-body becomes finer in the time in which meditation is practiced than in the time in which there is no practice. So the men of old said:

"In the agitated mind and body the breath is of the coarsest kind.
In the unexcited body, fully subtle does it wind."

"How does he train himself with the thought: Calming the activity of the body, I shall breathe in .... breathe out? What are the activities of the body? Those things of the body of breaths, those things bound up with that body, are the activities of the body. Causing the body-activities to become composed, to become smooth and calm, he trains himself ..... He trains himself thinking thus: Calming the body-activity by way of (quieting) the bodily activities of bending forwards, sidewards, all over, and backwards, and (by way of the quieting of) the moving, quivering, vibrating, and quaking of the body, I shall breathe in ..... I shall breathe out. I shall breathe in and I shall breathe out, calming the activity of the body, by way of whatsoever peaceful and fine body-activities of non-bending of the body forwards, sidewards, all over and backwards, of non-moving, non-quivering, non-vibrating, and non-quaking, of the body."[19]

Indeed, to that yogi training in respiration-mindfulness according to the method taught thus: "He, thinking 'I breathe in long,' understands when he is breathing in long ..... Calming the activity of the body ..... I breathe out, thinking thus, he trains himself" [digham va assasanto digham assasamiti pajanati ..... passambhayam kayasankharam passasissamiti sikkhati], the four absorptions [cattari jhanani] arise in the respiration sign [assasapassasanimitte uppajjanti].

In the respiration sign = In the reflex image [patibhaga nimitta].

Having emerged from the absorption, he lays hold of either the respiration body or the factors of absorption.

There the meditating worker in respiration [assasapassasa kammika] examines the body (rupa) thinking thus: Supported by what is respiration? Supported by the basis [vatthunissita]. The basis is the coarse body [karajja kaya]. The coarse body is composed of the Four Great Primaries and the corporeality derived from these [cattari mahabhutani upadarupa˝ca].

The worker in respiration examines the respiration while devoting himself to the development of insight through the means of corporeality.

The basis, namely, the coarse body, is where the mind and mental characteristics occur.

Thereupon, he, the worker in respiration, cognizes the mind (nama) in the pentad of mental concomitants beginning with sense-impression.

The first beginning with sense-impression are sense-impression, feeling, perception, volition, and consciousness. They are taken here as representative of mind.

The worker in respiration examines the mind and the body, sees the Dependent Origination of ignorance and so forth, and concluding that this mind and this body are bare conditions, and things produced from conditions, and that besides these there is neither a living being nor a person, becomes to that extent a person who transcends doubt.

Besides these phenomena there is neither a living being nor a person refers to vision that is purified [a˝˝o satto va puggalo natthiti visuddhiditthi].

Mind-and-body is a bare impersonal process. It is not unrelated to a cause and also not related to a discordant cause (which is fictive) like god, but is connected with (the really perceivable fact of) a cause like ignorance [tayidam dhammamattam na ahetukam napi issariyadi visamahetukam atha kho avijjadihi eva sahetukam].

A person who has transcended doubt regarding the past, the future and the present (of his own existence and so forth, as for instance taught in the Sabbasava Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya).

And the yogi who has transcended doubt while cultivating insight, applies the three characteristics of impermanence, suffering, and soullessness, to the mind and body together with the conditions and gradually reaches arahantship [sappaccaya nama rupe tilakkhanam aropetva vipassanam vaddhento anukkamena arahattam papunati].

Applies the three characteristics in order to grasp the qualities of the aggregates according to the method taught in the Anatta Lakkhana Sutta of the Samyutta Nikaya beginning with the words: "Whatsoever form."

The worker in absorption, namely, he who contemplates upon the factors of absorption, also thinks thus: Supported by what are these factors of absorption? By the basis. The basis is the coarse body. The factors of absorption are here representative of the mind. The coarse body is the body. Having determined thus, he, searching for the reason of the mind and the body, seeks it in Conditions' Mode beginning with ignorance, concludes that this mind and the body comprise just conditions and things produced by conditions and that besides these there is neither a living being nor a person, and becomes to that extent a person who transcends doubt.

And the yogi who transcends doubt thus, while cultivating insight, applies the three characteristics of impermanence, suffering and soullessness, to the mind and the body together with conditions and gradually reaches arahantship.

Iti ajjhattam va kaye kayanupassi viharati = "Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally." This bhikkhu dwells in contemplation of the body in his own respiration body.

By way of the practice of quietude [samatha bhavana] however there is no arising of the sign of full absorption [appana nimittuppatti] in another's respiration-body.

Bahiddha va kaye kayanupassi viharati = "Or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally." Or this bhikkhu dwells in contemplation of the body in another's respiration-body.

Or ..... in another's respiration-body. This portion deals with reflection for the growth of insight and has no reference to the growth of full absorption of quietude.....

Ajjhatta-bahiddha va kaye kayanupassi viharati = "Or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally." At one time in his own and at another in another's respiration-body, he dwells in contemplation of the body. By this there is reference to the time when the yogi's mind moves repeatedly back and forth (internally and externally by way of object) without laying aside the familiar subject of meditation [kalena attano kalena parassa assasapassasakaye etenassa pagunakammatthanam atthapetva aparaparam sa˝carana kalo kathito].

Without leaving aside at intervals, nor from time to time nor occasionally [antarantara na thapetva].

The time when the mind moves repeatedly back and forth. Or the time when the meditation proceeds incessantly, in the internal and external phenomena [ajjhatta-bahidha dhammesu pi nirantaram va bhavanaya pavattana kalo].

Both cannot occur at once [eka kale pana idam ubbayam na labbhati].

This pair of things stated in combination as internal and external cannot be found in the form of an object at one time, simultaneously. It is not possible to objectify (these two) together is the meaning [ajjhattam bahiddhati ca vuttam idam dhammadvayaghatitam ekasmim kale, ekato arammanabhavena na labbhati. Ekajjham alambitum na sakkati attho].

Samudaya-dhammanupassi va kayasamim viharati = "He lives contemplating origination-things in the body." Just as the air moves back and forth depending on the smith's bellows' skin, the bellows' spout, and appropriate effort, so, depending on the coarse body, nasal aperture, and the mind of the bhikkhu, the respiration-body moves back and forth. The things beginning with the (coarse) body are origination (kayadayo dhamma samudayo]. The person who sees thus, is he who lives contemplating origination-things in the body.

Vayadhammanupassi va kayasmim viharati = "Or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body." In whatever way, the air does not proceed when the bellows' skin is taken off, the bellows' spout is broken, and the appropriate exertion is absent, even in that same way, when the body breaks up, the nasal aperture is destroyed, and the mind has ceased to function, the respiration-body does not go on. Thus through the ending of the coarse body, the nasal aperture and the mind there comes to be the ending of the respirations [kayadi-nirodha assasapassasa-nirodho]. The person who sees in this way, is he who lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body.

Samudaya-vaya-dhammanupassi va kayasmim viharati = "Or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body." He lives contemplating origination at one time and dissolution at another [kalena samudayam kalena vayam anupassanto].

Origination [samudaya] is that from which suffering arises.

Contemplating origination-things. Possessing the character of contemplation connected with the coarse body, the nasal aperture and the mind, the cause of the respirations [assasapassasanam uppatti hetu karaja kayadi tassa anupassanasilo].

As the contemplation on origination-and-dissolution-things, too, is split up as regards the scope of the object, it is not possible to objectify both origination and dissolution at the same time.

Atthi kayoti va panassa sati paccupatthita hoti = "Or, indeed, his mindfulness is established, with the thought: 'The body exists.'" Mindfulness is established for the yogi through careful scrutiny. He thinks: There is the body, but there is no being, no person, no woman, no man, no soul, nothing pertaining to a soul, no "I", nothing that is mine, no one, and nothing belonging to anyone [kayoti ca attli, na satto, na puggalo, na itthi, na puriso, na atta, na attaniyam naham, na mama, na koci, na kassaciti evam assa sati paccupatthita hoti].

Yavadeva = "To the extent necessary." It denotes purpose.

This is said: The mindfulness established is not for another purpose. What is the purpose for which it is established?

Nanamattaya patissatimattaya = "For just knowledge and remembrance." That is just for the sake of a wider and wider, or further and further measure of knowledge and of mindfulness [aparaparam uttaruttari ˝anapamanatthaya ceva satipamanattha-yaca]. For the increase of mindfulness and clear comprehension is the meaning.

For the purpose of reaching the knowledge of body-contemplation to the highest extent [kayanupassana ˝anam param pamanam papanatthaya] is the meaning of: To the extent necessary for just knowledge [yavadeva ˝anamattaya].

Anissito ca viharati = "And he lives independent." He lives emancipated from dependence on craving and wrong views.

With these words is stated the direct opposition of this meditation to the laying hold on craving and wrong views.

Na ca ki˝ci loke upadiyati = "And clings to naught in the world." In regard to no visible shape ..... or consciousness, does he think: this is my soul; or this belongs to my soul.

Evampi = "Thus also."

With this expression ("Thus also") the Blessed One wound up the instruction on the section on breathing.

In this section on breathing, the mindfulness which examines the respirations is the Truth of Suffering. The pre-craving which brings about that mindfulness is the Truth of Origination. The non-occurrence of both is the Truth of Cessation. The Real Path which understands suffering, abandons origination, and takes cessation as object, is the Truth of the Way. Thus having endeavoured by way of the Four Truths, a person arrives at peace. This is the portal to emancipation of the bhikkhu devoted to meditation on breathing.

The Section on the Modes of Deportment

The Buddha, after dealing in the aforesaid manner with body-contemplation in the form of respiration-meditation, in detail, said: "And further," in order to deal exhaustively with body-contemplation, here, according to the meditation on the modes of deportment [iriyapatha].

Gacchanto va gacchamiti pajanati = "When he is going (a bhikkhu) understands: 'I am going.'" In this matter of going, readily do dogs, jackals and the like, know when they move on that they are moving. But this instruction on the modes of deportment was not given concerning similar awareness, because awareness of that sort belonging to animals does not shed the belief in a living being, does not knock out the percept of a soul, and neither becomes a subject of meditation nor the development of the Arousing of Mindfulness.

Going. The term is applicable both to the awareness of the fact of moving on and to the knowledge of the (true) characteristic qualities of moving on. The terms sitting, standing and lying down, too, are applicable in the general sense of awareness and in the particular sense of knowledge of the (true) characteristic qualities. Here (in this discourse) the particular and not the general sense of awareness is to be taken.

From the sort of mere awareness denoted by reference to canines and the like, proceeds the idea of a soul, the perverted perception, with the belief that there is a doer and an experiencer. One who does not uproot or remove that wrong perception owing to non-opposition to that perception and to absence of contemplative practice cannot be called one who develops anything like a subject of meditation.

But the knowledge of this meditator sheds the belief in a living being, knocks out the idea of a soul, and is both a subject of meditation and the development of the Arousing of Mindfulness.

Indeed, who goes, whose going is it, on what account is this going? These words refer to the knowledge of the (act of) going (the mode of deportment) of the meditating bhikkhu.

In the elucidation of these questions the following is said: Who goes? No living being or person whatsoever. Whose going is it? Not the going of any living being or person. On account of what does the going take place? On account of the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity. Because of that this yogi knows thus: If there arises the thought, "I shall go," that thought produces the process of oscillation; the process of oscillation produces expression (the bodily movement which indicates going and so forth). The moving on of the whole body through the diffusion of the process of oscillation is called going. The same is the method of exposition as regards the other postures: standing and so forth. There, too, the yogi knows thus: If there arises the thought, "I shall stand," that thought produces the process of oscillation. The process of oscillation produces bodily expression. The raising upright of the whole body from below owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation is called standing. If there arises the thought "I shall sit," that thought produces the process of oscillation. The process of oscillation produces bodily expression. The bending of the lower part of the body and the raising upright of the upper part of the body owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation is called sitting. If there arises the thought, "I shall lie down," that thought produces the process of oscillation. The process of oscillation produces bodily expression. The straightening or the spreading of the whole body horizontally or across, owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation, is called lying down.

There, who goes? is a doer-question of the action of going, without first separating efficient cause and action (tattha ko gacchatiti sadhanam kriya˝ca avinibbhutam katva gamana kriya kattu puccha]. That is for indicating just the bare phenomenon of going, through the condition of denying the-doer-state-endowed-with-a-soul [sa kattubhava visittha atta patikkhepatta dhamma mattasseva gamana dassanato]. (Or in other words the question "Who goes?" anticipates a negative answer, for according to the Abhidhamma there is no doer or goer but just a process dependent on conditions. There is merely a going. No one goes.)

With the words, whose going is it?, the commentator says the same thing in another way after separating efficient cause and action for making clear the absence of a doer-connection [kassa gamananti tamevattham pariyayantarena vadati sadhanam kriya˝ca akattu sambandhi bhava vibhavanato].

On what account is it? This is a question for the real reason of the action of going from which the idea of a goer is rejected. [kim karanati pana patikkhitta kattukaya gamana kriyaya aviparita karana puccha].

Going is here shown to be one of the particular modes of bare phenomenal movement due to appropriate cause-and-condition, without attributing it to a fallacious reason such as the one formulated thus: The soul comes into contact with the mind, the mind with the sense-organs and the sense-organs with the object (thus there is perception). [ida˝hi gamanam nama atta manasa samyujjati mano indriyehi indriyani atthehiti evamadi miccha karana vinimutta anurupa paccaya hetuko dhammanam pavatti akara viseso[20]].

No living being or person, because of the proving of the going of only a bare phenomenon and because of the absence of anyone besides that phenomenon. Now to show proof of the going of a bare phenomenon the words beginning with on account of the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity were spoken by the commentator [dhammamattasseva gamanasiddhito tabbinimuttasa ca kassaci abhavato idani dhammamattasseva gamana siddhim dassetum citta kriya vayo dhatu vippharenati adi vuttam].

There mental activity and the diffusion and agitation in the process of oscillation which is mental activity = diffusion of the process of mental activity [tattha citta kriya ca vippharo vipphandana˝cati citta kriya vayo dhatu vippharo]. The commentator, by mentioning mental activity, eschews the diffusion of the process of oscillation connected with inanimate things, and by the mention of the diffusion of the process of oscillation eschews the class of mental activity producing volitional verbal-expression. By the terms mental activity and the process of oscillation, the commentator makes clear bodily expression [tena ettha ca citta kriyaggahanena anindriyabaddha vayodhatu vippharam nivatteti: vayodhatu vippharaggahanena cetana vacivi˝˝atti bhedam citta kriyam nivatteti. Ubhayena pana kaya vi˝˝attim vibhaveti].

Produces the process of oscillation. Brings about the group of materiality with the quality of oscillation in excess.

This group of materiality is that of the pure octad consisting of the Four Great Primaries [mahabhuta] symbolized by earth, water, fire and air, and the four derived from these: colour, smell, taste and nutritive essence [pathavi apo tejo vayo vanna gandha rasa oja].

Excess is to be taken here by way of capability (adequacy or competency) and not by way of measure (size or amount).

The process of oscillation produces expression. This was said concerning the process of oscillation arisen from the thought of going. This process is a condition to the supporting with energy, the bearing up, and the movement of the conascent body of materiality.

Expression is that change which takes place together with the intention.

Oscillation is mentioned by way of a predominant condition [adhika bhava] and not by way of production through oscillation alone. Otherwise the state of derived materiality pertaining to expression would not be a fact [a˝˝atha vi˝˝attiya upadaya rupa bhavo durupapado siya].

He who knows (that by the diffusion of this process of oscillation born of mental activity take place going, standing, sitting and lying down) pursues the line of thinking (called investigation) in the following manner: "A living being goes," "A living being stands," (according to the false belief of those unacquainted with the reality of the matter or according to conventional speech), but there is no living being going or standing. This talk of a living being going or standing is similar to speech in the following way: "A cart goes." "A cart stands." In fact there is no going cart and no standing cart. When with bulls (tied to a cart) a skilled driver is driving, one conventionally speaking says: "A cart goes" or "A cart stands." In the sense of a thing not able to go of itself, the body is like the cart. Mind-born oscillation are like the bulls. Mind is like the driver. When the thought, "I go," or the thought "I stand," arises, the process of oscillation producing expression comes to existence. By the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, going and the other modes of deportment take place, and then there are these forms of conventional speech: "A living being goes," "A living being stands," "I go," "I stand." Therefore the commentator said:

Just as a ship goes on by winds impelled,
Just as a shaft goes by the bowstring's force,
So goes this body in its forward course
Full driven by the vibrant thrust of air.
As to the puppet's back the dodge-thread's tied
So to the body-doll the mind is joined
And pulled by that the body moves, stands, sits.
Where is the living being that can stand,
Or walk, by force of its own inner strength,
Without conditions that give it support?

Accordingly this yogi, who considers by way of causes and conditions, the states of going, standing and so forth, knows well that he is going, when he is in the state of going, that he is standing when he stands, that he is sitting when he sits, and that he is lying down when he lies down, as it is told in the passage in the discourse beginning with the words: "When he is going, a bhikkhu understands: 'I am going.'"

Yatha yatha va panassa kayo panihito hoti tatha tatha nam pajanati = "Or just as his body is disposed so he understands it."

Iti ajjhattam va = "Thus internally." In this way the bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body, examining his own four modes of deportment.

Bahiddha va = "Or externally." Or examining the four modes of deportment of another.

Ajjhatta-bahiddha va = "Or internally and externally." Or examining at one time his own four modes of deportment and at another time another's four modes of deportment, he lives.

Samudaya-dhammanupassi = "Contemplating origination-things." Also dissolution-things are included here. Origination and dissolution should be dwelt upon by way of the fivefold method beginning with the words: "He, thinking 'the origination of materiality comes to be through the origination of ignorance,' in the sense of the origin of conditions, sees the arising of the aggregate of materiality."

In the same way he sees the arising of the aggregate of materiality through the origination of craving, karma and food, in the sense of the origin of conditions, and also while seeing the sign of birth [nibbatti lakkhana passanto pi]. He sees the passing away of the aggregate while thinking that the dissolution of materiality comes to be through the dissolution of ignorance, in the sense of the dissolution of conditions, and through the dissolution of craving, karma and food, in the same way, and while seeing the sign of vicissitude [viparinamalakkhana].

For the arising of the materiality-aggregate ignorance, craving, karma and food are the principal reasons. But these are not all. As it is said that one sees the arising of the materiality-aggregate when beholding also the rebirth-sign or the bare origination state called the integration-succession [upacaya santati] of the various material forms [rupa] becoming manifest in the conscious flux [savi˝˝anaka santana], owing to ignorance, craving, karma, and nutriment, and from consciousness [citta] and the process of caloricity [utu], the knowledge of arising is fivefold.

Similarly the knowledge of passing away or ceasing is fivefold. The sign of vicissitude or change is the bare state of dissolution [bhanga sabhava] called impermanency [aniccata].

Atthi kayoti va panassa, sati paccupatthita hoti = "Or, indeed, his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'The body exists'." The exposition of this is to be done in the manner already stated in the preceding section.

Here, the mindfulness which examines the four modes of deportment is the Truth of Suffering. The pre-craving which brings about that mindfulness is the Truth of Origination. The non-occurrence of either is the Truth of Cessation. The Real Path which understands suffering, abandons origination, and takes cessation as object, is the Truth of the Way.

The yogi having endeavoured thus by way of the Four Truths, arrives at peace.

This is the portal to emancipation up to arahantship of the bhikkhu occupied with the four modes of deportment.

The Section on the Four Kinds of Clear Comprehension

1. Clear comprehension in going forwards and backwards

After explaining body-contemplation in the form of the meditation on the four modes of deportment, the Master said, "And further," to explain body-contemplation by way of the four kinds of clear comprehension [catu sampaja˝˝a].

On who is clearly comprehending [sampajano] is one who knows according to every way, intensively, or (item by item) in a detailed way [samantato pakarehi pakattham va savisesam janati]. Clear comprehension [sampaja˝˝am] is the state of that one. It is likewise the knowledge of that one [tassa bhavo sampaja˝˝am. Tatha pavatta ˝anam].

Abhikkante patikkante = "In going forwards (and) in going backwards." Here, the meaning is as follows: -- Going forwards is called going. Going backwards is called turning back. Both these are to be found in all the four modes of deportment.

Going, here, is going after turning back (returning) and going after not turning back (going straight). Turning back is the bare fact of turning back. This dyad is only mutually supported action [gamana˝cettha nivattetva anivatteva ca gamanam. Nivattanam pana nivatti mattameva. A˝˝ama˝˝amupadana kriya matta˝-cetam dvatayam].

First, in going, carrying the body to a position in front -- bringing the body along -- is called going forwards. Turning back -- returning thence -- is called turning back.

And in standing, one just standing and bending the body to a position in front does what is called going forwards, and one bending away behind -- drawing back -- does what is called going backwards. In sitting down, one sitting and moving on -- creeping on, sliding on -- to front portion comprising the frame and so forth of the seat, i.e., chair, stool or similar thing, does going forwards; and one moving away -- sliding back -- to the parts comprising the frame and so forth at the back of the chair or stool does what is called turning back. In lying down too the explanation is to be done according to the method stated above.

Sampajanakari = "Practising clear comprehension." Doing without fail all actions with clear comprehension [sampaja˝˝ena sabba kicca kari]. Or the doing of only clear comprehension [sampaja˝˝asseva va kari].

Clear comprehension [sampajananam] = comprehending clearly [sampajanam]. Both words mean the same thing; their difference is only one of affix. Doing without fail all actions with clear comprehension is the character of doing what ought to be done by oneself, with clear comprehension [attana kattabba kiccassa karana sila]. The doing of only clear comprehension is the character of practising clear comprehension [sampajanassa karana sila].

For the yogi practices only clear comprehension and is nowhere bereft of clear comprehension, in going forwards and going backwards.

There are these four kinds of comprehension: clear comprehension of purpose [satthaka sampaja˝˝a], of suitability [sappaya sampaja˝˝a], of resort [gocara sampaja˝˝a], and of non-delusion [asammoha sampaja˝˝a].

The discerning of things rightly, entirely and equally is clear comprehension. Nothing else. This way of explanation is different from the commentary's. As it provides non-delusion in going forwards and backwards, the action of clear comprehension is practice of clear comprehension. Who has that practice of clear comprehension is (one) practising clear comprehension.

What takes place together with the aim called growth according to the Dhamma is purpose. The clear comprehension of purpose in going forwards and backwards is clear comprehension of purpose. The clear comprehension of what is suitable, fit, to oneself is clear comprehension of suitability. The clear comprehension of the (mental) resort which is called the subject of meditation that is unrelinquished, in going backwards and forwards on the alms resort and elsewhere, is the clear comprehension of resort. Clear comprehension of non-delusion is non-delusion that is clearly comprehending and is called non-stupefaction.

Among these four kinds of clear comprehension, the clear comprehension of purpose is the comprehension of (a worthy) purpose after considering what is worthy and not worthy, with the thought, "Is there any use to one by this going or is there not?" One does this not having gone immediately, just by the influence of the thought, at the very moment the thought of going forwards is born.

In this context, purpose is growth according to the Dhamma, by way of visiting a relic shrine, Tree of Enlightenment (Bodhi Tree), the Sangha, the elders, and a place where the dead are cast (a cemetery) for seeing the unlovely (a corpse, a skeleton and the like).

By visiting a relic shrine, a Bodhi Tree, or the Sangha, for producing spiritual interest, and by meditating on the waning of that interest one could reach arahantship; by visiting elders and by getting established in their instruction one could reach arahantship; and by visiting a place where the dead are cast, by seeing a corpse there and by producing the first absorption (pathamajjhana] in that unlovely object, one could reach arahantship. So the visiting of these is purposeful.

Arahantship. This is mentioned by way of the highest kind of exposition. Since the generating of quietude and insight too is growth according to the Dhamma for a bhikkhu.

Some [keci] however say: Increase by way of material gain, too, is (a worthy) purpose, since material gain is helpful for the holy life.

Some = Dwellers at the Abhayagiri Vihara at Anuradhapura.

Material gain = Material requisites like robes.

Clear comprehension of suitability is the comprehension of the suitable after considering what is suitable and not.

For instance, the visiting of a relic shrine could be quite (worthily) purposeful. But when a great offering is made to a relic shrine, a multitude of people in a ten or twelve yojana area gather, and men and women according to their position go about adorned like painted figures. And if in that crowd greed could arise for the bhikkhu in an attractive object, resentment in a non-attractive one, and delusion through prejudice; if he could commit the offence of sexual intercourse; or if harm could come to the holy life of purity; then, a place like that relic shrine would not be suitable. When there could be no such harm it would be suitable.

Prejudice [asamapekkhana] is the name given to the grasping of an object without wise reflection by way of worldly ignorant complacency [gehasita a˝˝anupekkha vasena arammanassa ayoniso gahanam].

Commit the offence of sexual intercourse by way of bodily contact with a woman.

Harm come to the life through trampling down by an elephant and so forth.

(Harm come to) purity through seeing those of the opposite sex and so forth.

The visiting of the Savgha is a purpose of worth. Still when there is all-night preaching in a big pandal in the inner village and there are crowds and one could possibly come to hurt and harm in the way mentioned earlier, that place of preaching is not suitable to go to. When there is no hurt or harm possible one may go there as it would then be suitable. In visiting elders who are surrounded by a large following suitability and non-suitability should also be determined in the way stated above.

To visit a place where the dead are cast for beholding a corpse is fit, and to explain the meaning of this the following story has been told:

It is said that a young bhikkhu went with a novice to get wood for tooth-cleaners. The novice getting out of the road proceeded in front to a place in search of wood and saw a corpse. Meditating on it he produced the first absorption, and making the factors of the absorption a basis for developing insight realized the first three fruitions of arahantship, while examining the conformations [sankhare sammasanto], and stood having laid hold of the subject of meditation for realizing the path of full arahantship.

The young bhikkhu not seeing the novice called out to him. The novice thought thus: From the day I took up the homeless life I have endeavoured to let me never be called twice by a bhikkhu, so, I will produce the further distinction (of full arahantship) another day, and replied to the bhikkhu with the words: "What's the matter, reverend sir?" "Come," said the bhikkhu and the novice returned. The novice told the bhikkhu as follows: "Go first by this way: then stand facing north, at the place I stood, for a while and look." The young bhikkhu followed the novice's instruction and attained just the distinction reached by the novice. Thus the same corpse became profitable to two people. For the male the female corpse is not suitable, and vice versa. Only a corpse of one's own sex is suitable. Comprehension of what is suitable in this way is called the clear comprehension of suitability.

Further, the going on the alms round of that one who has thus comprehended purpose and suitability after leaving and taking up just that resort -- among the thirty-eight subjects of meditation -- called the subject of meditation after his own heart is clear comprehension of resort.

Subject of meditation [kammatthana] refers to the object of concentration by way of locality of occurrence of the contemplative action that is being stated.

Resort [gocara]. Literally, pasturing ground. This word is applied to the wandering for alms of a bhikkhu and to the subject of meditation in the sense of the locus [sphere, range or scope) of contemplative action.

For making manifest this clear comprehension of resort the following set of four should be understood: In the Dispensation of the Buddha a certain bhikkhu on the journey out for alms takes along with him in the mind the subject of meditation, but on the journey back from the work of alms-gathering he does not bring it along with him, having become unmindful of it. Another does not take it along with him on the outward journey, but returns from the alms-tour with the subject of meditation in his mind. Still another neither takes it along with him on the outward journey nor returns with it on the journey home. And, lastly, there is the fourth kind of bhikkhu who both takes the subject of meditation along with him on the journey out for alms and brings it back with him on the journey home.

Among these four kinds, there is a certain bhikkhu who lives thus: -- By day he cleanses his mind of things that becloud -- the hindrances [nivarana] -- through meditation on the ambulatory and in the sitting posture. By night, likewise, on the ambulatory and in the sitting posture, through meditation, in the first watch, and in the last watch, he cleanses his mind of things that becloud, after sleeping in the middle watch.

Quite early in the day having done the duties connected with the terraces of the relic-shrine and the Bhodhi-tree -- sweeping and so forth -- he sprinkles the Bodhi-tree with water, places water for drinking and washing and attends to the Khandhaka duties beginning with the duties connected with the teacher and the preceptor. Thereafter, having looked to the needs of his body -- that is, after bestowing that attention on the body which consists of washing the face and so forth -- he enters his dwelling and practices the subject of meditation begun that day [tadahe mula bhutam kammatthanam], at several sittings [dve tayo pallanke usumam gahapento = during two or three sittings while the body happens to be put into a state of warming up]. There two or three sittings = two or three sitting turns [dve tayo nisajjavare]. Warming up is said concerning the matter of causing warmth to be taken up twice or thrice [dve tini unhapanani sandhaya vuttam]. The word sitting [pallanka] means sitting by way of the thigh-bound or locked posture [urubaddha asana]. It is the posture called the lion-pose [sihasana] and the firm pose [thirasana]. It is the sitting down of one with the left foot crossed on to the right thigh and the right foot on to the left thigh, by way of interlocking, through the bending of the thighs

(One sits in meditation not for a long time at a stretch. There are short intervals of relaxation through brief changes of posture when the body gets warm or uncomfortable in the cross-legged sitting pose.)

When it is time to wander for alms, he having got up from the sitting meditation-pose, and takes his bowl and robe with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind [kammatthana siseneva] leaves his dwelling, attending only to the thought of meditation [kammatthanam manasikarontova].

With just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind = Just with the subject of meditation in the forefront of the mind [kammatthana mukheneva], keeping to the thought of meditation [kammatthanam avijahanto].

If, when going to his alms collecting place, the bhikkhu's thought of meditation is contemplation on the Buddha's qualities [buddhanussati kammatthanam], he, on arriving at the relic-shrine, enters the shrine's precincts, without having put aside his thought of meditation on the Buddha. But should his thought of meditation be something other than the Buddha-subject, he having stood at the foot of the stairway leading to the shrine-terrace, put by his thought of meditation as if it were goods hand-carried, and acquired the joy begotten of the Buddha-subject of meditation, goes up the stairway.

If the relic-shrine is a big one, it should be worshipped at four places, when the bhikkhu has gone round it three times to the right.

If it is a small shrine, it should be worshipped by the meditator in eight places when he has gone round it three times to the right just as in the case of the big shrine.

By a bhikkhu who, having worshipped a relic-shrine, has reached a Bodhi-tree shrine even the Bodhi-tree should be worshipped. And he should worship the Bodhi-tree showing meek demeanour as though he were in the very presence of the Buddha, the Bhagava.

In this way, that monk, having worshipped relic-shrine and Boddhi-tree shrine, goes to the place where he had put by his first subject of meditation, namely, to the bottom of the stairway. There, having taken up the subject of meditation he had put by earlier, and robed himself (with the upper robe and the shoulder cloak held together and worn as one, that is, with the upper robe falling within the shoulder-cloak at all edges), near the village with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, he enters the village for alms.

There, people, after seeing the bhikkhu, say: "Our venerable one has come," and having gone forward to meet the bhikkhu, taken his bowl, conducted him to the sitting-hall (hall where meals are served to the bhikkhus in a village) or to a house and made him take a seat, offer gruel to him. Thereafter, they wash and anoint his feet, and till rice is ready sit in front of him and ask him questions or become desirous of listening to a talk on the Dhamma from him. Even if the people do not ask him to speak to them on the Dhamma, the commentators say that a talk on the Dhamma should be given to the people in order to help them. The bhikkhus should expound the Dhamma for the purpose of assisting the folk with the grace of the Dhamma, thinking, "If I do not expound the Dhamma to them, who will?"

There is no Dhamma-talk separate from the thought of meditation. This is said to strengthen the dictum of the commentators mentioned above.

Therefore, after expounding the Dhamma even with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, after partaking of the food, with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind he leaves the village followed by the people who in spite of his requesting them to stop accompanying him. There, after turning back those who followed him, he takes the road to his dwelling-place.

After expounding the Dhamma even with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind = After expounding the Dhamma just in accordance with the character of the thought of meditation that is being attended to by oneself, by way of sticking to that thought. The method of exegesis is the same in regard to the next expression concerning food. After giving thanks. Here too the governing expression is: Even with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind. There, just at the place of departure from the village. The point at which the bhikkhu actually gets out of the village.

Then, novices and young bhikkhus who had taken their meal outside the village, having left the village earlier than this bhikkhu see this bhikkhu coming. And they, after going forward to meet him, take his bowl and robe.

It is said that bhikkhus of old did this duty without looking at the face of the returning bhikkhu and thinking: (this is) our preceptor (or) our teacher. In ancient times, they did this duty according to the arriving-limit (the arriving division, section, or company). As the elder bhikkhu came the younger ones performed this duty not looking to see who the elder was.

Those novices and young bhikkhus question the elder thus: "Reverend Sir, who are these people to you? Are they relatives on the maternal side? Are they relatives on the paternal side?" -- "Having seen what, do you query?" -- "Their affection and respect for you." -- "Friends, what even parents find it hard to do these people do for us. Our very robes and bowls are just due to them. Owing to these people we know no fear on occasions of fear and know no lack of food on occasions of famine. There are no people so helpful to us as these folk." Speaking well of these people, thus, he goes. This bhikkhu is spoken of as a person who carries forth (takes along with him) the subject of meditation when he leaves his dwelling but does not return with the thought of meditation.

If to a bhikkhu who performs the duties detailed above, betimes, (there arises an intense feeling of discomfort owing to hunger) if his kamma-produced caloricity becomes very strong (pajjalati, lit, flames up and lays hold of the derived, assimilated material of the body owing to the absence of undigested food in the stomach, if sweat exudes from his body and if he is unable to concentrate on his subject of meditation, he takes his bowl and the robe quite early in the morning, worships the relic shrine speedily, and enters the village to get gruel just when the village herds go out of their pens for pasturing. After he gets the gruel he goes to sitting-hall and drinks it.

Then, with the swallowing of just two or three mouthfuls, the kamma-produced caloricity letting go the material of the body -- i.e., the inner lining of the stomach [udara patalam] lays hold of the property of the food taken in.

And that bhikkhu, having got to the assuagement of the distress of the caloric process like a man bathed with a hundred pots of cool water, having partaken of the (rest of the) gruel with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, washed bowl and mouth, attended to the subject of meditation till the later forenoon meal, wandered for alms in the remaining places -- in the places where he got no gruel and so where he could still go for alms -- and taken the meal with just the thought of meditation uppermost in mind, returns, having taken up just that subject of meditation which is thence forward present in his mind. This person is called the one who does not carry forth but returns with the thought of meditation.

Kamma-produced caloricity [kammajja tejo] is an expression referring to the function of that part of the alimentary tract where the bile helps digestion and from which vital heat spreads -- the grahani according to Ayurveda. It is stated that the commentator said kamma-produced caloricity concerning "the seizure," the name of the alimentary function explained above [gahanim sandhayaha].

Becomes very strong means: generates a condition of heat.

Subject of meditation does not get on to the road of contemplative thought owing to the disappearance of concentration of the wearied body through hunger-fatigue.

When in the stomach, indeed, property like cooked rice (called the underived, the unassimilated or that which is not due to pre-clinging) is absent; kamma-produced caloricity gets hold of the inner lining of the stomach. That causes the utterance of words like the following: "I am hungry; give me food."

When food is taken, kamma-produced caloricity having let go the inner lining of the stomach, gets hold of the food-property. Then the living being becomes calm. Therefore in the commentaries kamma-produced caloricity is spoken of as (a malignant spirit, a devourer of the living, frequenting pools, fording-places and the like and known by the shadow it casts on the water) a shadow-demon.

And bhikkhus, like this one, who, after drinking gruel and exerting themselves in the development of insight, reached the state of Arahantship in the Buddha's Dispensation are past all numbering (so many have they been). In the Island of the Lion Race, alone [sihala dipe yeva], there is not a seat of sitting-hall in the various villages which is not a place where a bhikkhu, having sat and drunk gruel, attained Arahantship (tesu tesu gamesu asanasalaya na tam asanam atthi yattha yagum pivitva arahattam patta bhikkhu natthi].

"And bhikkhus, like this one," and so forth. With these words the commentator points out the state of benefit of the bhikkhu attending to the thoughts of meditation, even, in the way aforesaid.

But a bhikkhu who is a loose liver [pamada vihari, lit. liver in negligence, carelessness or indolence], who is a slacker [nikkhitta dhuro, lit. One who has thrown away the yoke -- or the burden of right exertion -- and so is an irresponsible person], having broken all observances [sabba vattani bhinditva] whilst living spiritually frozen through the fivefold bondage of mind [pa˝ca vidha ceto vinibandha baddha citto viharanto], having entered the village for alms without having even shown a sign of the fact that there is a thing called a subject of meditation (of contemplation), and having walked about and eaten his meal in unbefitting company, comes out of the village an empty fellow. This bhikkhu is called a person who neither carries forth nor returns with the thought of meditation.

Who is spoken of with the words "This one carries forth and carries back" must be known just through the means of the observance of carrying forth and carrying back (the subject of meditation from the beginning to the end of the journey to and from the village).

Just through the means of the observance of carrying forth and carrying back means: By way of whatsoever going for and returning from alms-gathering only with the thought of meditation.

Men of good family, desirous of self-improvement, having become homeless ones in the Dispensation of the Buddha, when living in a group of ten, twenty, fifty or a hundred make a covenant of observance, with these words: "Friends, you renounced not because you were troubled by creditors, not because of fear of punishment from the king, and not because of difficulties of subsistence produced by famine and the like, but because you were desirous of release here. Therefore, you should restrain the defilement that is born when going (forwards or backwards) just in the process of going; you should restrain the defilement that is born when standing just in the process of standing; you should restrain the defilement that is born when sitting just in the process of sitting; and you should restrain the defilement that is born when lying down just in the process of lying down.

When after the making of such a covenant of observance they go on to a village for alms, if there are stones, by the road, at distances of half-an-usabha, one usabha and one gavuta, these bhikkhus proceed attending to the subject of meditation with awareness of those stones. If in the course of going (for alms) a defilement of the mind arises in one, just in the course of going one restrains or suppresses it. If one fails to do so one stops. Then he who comes behind one stops too. And one thinks: "This bhikkhu here knows the unclean thought that has arisen in you; unbecoming is that to you." Thus having reproved oneself and developed penetrative insight, one steps into the Plane of the Noble Ones (i.e., arahantship; so ayam bhikkhu tuyham uppanna vitakkam janati ananucchavikam te etanti paticcodetva vipas sanam vaddhetva tattheva ariyabhumim okkamati).

If one is not able to do that, one sits down and he who comes behind sits down too, it is said: that just is the method. Should one be not able to enter into the Plane of the Noble Ones, then, one having stopped the defilement, goes, attending to only the subject of meditation. One does not raise the foot with mind bereft of the subject of meditation but should one do so, one, having turned, gets back again even to the earlier step.

Desirous of self-improvement (atta kamati) -- (Those bhikkhus) wishing for personal good and well-being (attano hita sukhamicchanta) -- those wishing for (delighting in, intent on) the Dhamma is the true meaning [dhammacchandavantoti attho] -- by reason of the fact that the Dhamma is truly good and well-being [dhammo hi hitam sukha˝ca tannimittakam]. Or to the wise the Dhamma is the self owing to the absence of difference (of the Dhamma) from the self, and (because the Dhamma is contained in the self) owing to the (Dhamma's) state of being included in the living being [atha va vi˝˝anam attato nibbisesatta attabhava pariyapannatta ca dhammo atta nama]. They (the bhikkhus who have genuinely renounced, in the Dispensation of the Buddha) desire, wish for, that (tam kamenti icchanti].[21]

Newly (or recently) -- at the time this sub-commentary was written -- however the reading: desirous of attainment, by way of (moral) good, is seen (adhuna pana attha kamati hitavacakena attha saddena patho dissati]. The true meaning of that is: (those) wishing for good that is connected with the Dhamma or (those) wishing for the Dhamma that is good [dhamma sa˝˝uttam hitamicchanta hita bhutam va dhammamicchantati].

Unbecoming is that means: unbecoming is another's knowing of one's own defilement [parassa jananam].

This also should be understood as included even by another's knowing: He (the monk who is trying to overcome the adventitious defilement) makes systematic attention strong on account of (his awareness of) the hungry condition of those coming behind (pacchato agacchantanam chinna bhatta bhava bhayenapi yoniso manasikaram paribruhetiti idampi parassa jananeneva sangahitanti datthabbam].

Even to the earlier step means: just to the first footprint made with mind separate from the thought of meditation [purima pade yevati pathamam kammatthana vippayutta cittena uddharita pada vala˝je yeva].

Like the elder Maha Phussa, the verandah-dweller. With the stories beginning, here, the commentator lays low the misgiving about this observance, for instance, expressed thus: Just impossible is that what is pointed out was, indeed, in this way, practiced before [atthane yevetam kathitam khvayam evam patipanna pubboti asankam nivatteti].

It is said that this elder dwelt for nineteen years fulfilling the observance of "carrying forth and carrying back." Ploughmen, sowers, threshers of grain and other people having seen the elder go in this manner, said: "This elder goes having halted again and again. Why does he do so? Has he got confused about the way or has he forgotten something?"

The elder by just doing the recluse's duty, with mind yoked to the thought of meditation, without giving heed to the talk of the people, attained Arahantship within twenty years.

On the very day be became an Arahant, a deva who was living at the end of the elder's walking path, stood emitting a radiance that came from the fingers of the deva. The Four Regents of the Earth, Sakka the deva-king and Brahma Sahampati came to serve the elder. Maha Tissa the forest-dweller, also an elder, saw that radiance and inquired of the arahant the next day: "Last night, there was a radiance about your reverence; what was that?"

Diverting the talk, the arahant said: "Radiance is that of light, of gem and the like." But on being pressed repeatedly with the words: "You are concealing," he acknowledged, saying, "Yes" and informed Tissa of his attainment.

Like the elder Maha Naga of the Black Creeper Pavilion. He, it is said, when fulfilling the observance of carrying forth and back the subject of meditation, resolved upon keeping to only the postures of standing and of walking for seven years, with the thought: "I will honour the Blessed One's great struggle." And after fulfilling for sixteen years again the observance of carrying forth and carrying back the subject of meditation, he attained Arahantship.

This is said of him: He (when going out for alms to the village) raises his foot only with mind yoked to the subject of meditation. If he raises with mind not yoked thus, he turns back again. After standing at such a distance from the village as would raise (in the mind of one looking from the village) the doubt: "Is it indeed a cow or a recluse?" and robing himself, he fills his mouth with a draught of water from the water-carrier slung over the shoulder and hanging under the armpit, having washed the bowl with water from the same source. For what reason does he fill his mouth so? He does it thinking: "Let there be no distraction of the mind even by the uttering of the words: 'May you live long!' to people coming to worship me or give me alms." But when he is asked the question, "Reverend Sir, which stage of the half-month is today?" concerning the date, or when he is questioned about the number of monks, he answers, after swallowing the water. If there is no questioning about the day and so forth, he having spat out the water, at the village gate, at the time of leaving, goes.

Like the fifty bhikkhus who entered upon the rainy season residence, at the Monastery of the Galamba Landing Place.

On the full-moon day of July (asalha), they made this covenant of observance: -- "Without attaining Arahantship we shall not converse with one another."

These bhikkhus used to enter the village for alms filling the mouth with a draught of water, and when questioned about the date and so forth they acted just according to the method mentioned above.

In that village people, having seen the spots on which mouthfuls of water had been spurted forth by the returning bhikkhus, said: "Today one came; today, two," And those people thought: "What indeed is the reason that these bhikkhus neither talk with us nor with each other? If they do not speak with each other, surely, they are persons who have had a dispute amongst themselves," and saying: "Come, we must make them forgive one another," went -- in a body -- to the monastery. There, they saw that no two bhikkhus were in the same place. Then a wise man in that crowd said: "Good people, a place which quarrelsome folk occupy is not like this. The relic-shrine and the Bodhi-shrine terraces are well swept. The brooms are well arranged. And water for drinking and water for washing are well set." Then those people just turned back. And the bhikkhu of that monastery attained Arahantship within three months and performed a Pure Pavarana ceremony.

Diverting the talk = Turning away the talk because of unostentatiousness due to Realization [adhigamappichiccha-taya]. Keeping to only the postures of standing and walking: This is said by way of the postures proper to be resolved upon for adherence. One restricts oneself to these postures not however by way of refusing to practice the proper-to-be-practiced and necessary posture of sitting at meal-time and on such other occasions; for, by the word, only, it should be understood that one tops the remaining forms of sitting, namely, every sitting-posture not absolutely necessary of practice, and the posture of lying down.

I will honour the Blessed One's great struggle. According to my strength, I will do worship to the six-year asceticism of extreme torture undertaken by the World's Redeemer for our sakes, since even the honouring of the Master, through conduct, is the more praiseworthy kind of worship. Not so praiseworthy is the worship (of him) with material things.

Pure pavarana. The Pavarana through the state of destruction of the outflowings -- Arahantship [khinasava bhavena pavaranam].

Thus like the elder Maha Naga dweller in the Black Creeper Pavilion and like the bhikkhus who went into rainy season at the Galamba Ford Monastery, the bhikkhu (who does the observance of carrying forth and carrying back the subject of meditation) raises his foot only with mind yoked to the thought of meditation. Having reached the neighbourhood of the village, filled the mouth with a draught of water, and looked at the streets, he enters the street where there are no quarrelsome drunkards, gamesters and such folk or where there are no restive elephants, horses and the like.

There, wandering for alms, he does not go speedily like one in a great hurry since there is no ascetic practice of begging food, speedily. He goes, rather, having become motionless, like a water cart on uneven ground. Entering into each house in order, spending such time as is suitable for concluding whether there is or not the tendency to offer alms (on the part of the occupants of each house), he receives alms, and comes to the inner village, outer village or even to the monastery. There he seats himself in a place pleasant and good (proper), attends to the thought of meditation with the setting up of the perception of loathsomeness in food, and reflects by way of the similes of axle-greasing, applying ointment to ulcer and feeding on own child's flesh, and eats the food fully followed with awareness of the eight attributes, (and) not for sport, intoxication, adornment or the filling up of those places of his body that have a deficiency of flesh.

And he, having eaten, washes. Then he rests for a while the body that is tired with the business of eating. He attends to just the thought of meditation, in the time after eating as in the time before eating, and in the last watch of the night as in the first watch.

This person is called one who carries forth and carries back the subject of meditation.

The person who fulfils this observance of one who carries forth and carries back, called the carrying forth (of the thought of meditation) when going out for alms and the bringing back (of the thought of meditation) when returning from the alms-round, reaches Arahantship even in the period of youth (i.e., early age or the first stage of life), if he is possessed of the sufficing condition, the wherewithal to accomplish the destruction of ignorance and its defilements.

If he fails to reach Arahantship, in early age, then he reaches it in middle age; if he fails in middle age, then at the time of death; if he fails at the time of death, then, after becoming a deva; if he fails as a deva, then, at a time when no Buddha has appeared on earth, he is born as a man and realizes the truth as a Buddha who is not able to communicate the truth to others; and if he fails to realize the truth in that way, then, immediately on meeting a Fully Enlightened Buddha he becomes a person who intuits quickly like the elder Bahiya Daruciriya, or a greatly wise one like the elder Sariputta, or one of great psychic power like the elder Mogallana the Great, or an exponent of ascetic practice like the elder Kassapa the Great, or one endowed with clairvoyant power like the elder Anuruddha, or an expert in discipline like the elder Upali or an expounder of the Dhamma like the elder Punna Mantaniputta, or a forest dweller like the elder Revata, or one of great learning like the elder Ananda, or one desirous of training like the elder Rahula, the Buddha's son.

Amongst these four that form the set, he who carries forth and carries back the subject of meditation reaches the crest of the clear comprehension of resort.

Further, non-confusion in going forwards and so forth is the clear comprehension of non-delusion. That should be understood in the following way: -- In this Dispensation, a monk, without confusing himself, like a blinded worldling who, while going forwards or backwards, becomes muddle-headed, and believes thus: "The soul (or self) goes forward" or "The act of going forwards is produced by the soul," or "I go forwards" or "The act of going forwards is produced by me," and the like, thinks: "When there is the arising in one of the thought 'I am going forwards,' just with that thought, appears the process of oscillation originating from mind which brings to birth bodily expression (or intimation). Thus by the way of the diffusion of the process of oscillation due to mental activity, this skeleton called the body goes forward."

In raising up the foot A [paduddharane] two processes [dhatuyo]: extension [pathavi] and cohesion [apo], are low, weak [omatta honti dubbala], and the other two processes: caloricity [tejo] and oscillation [vayo] are high, powerful [adhimatta honti balavatiyo]; so, too, in stretching out the foot B [atiharane] and in shifting away the foot C [vitiharane]. But in dropping down the raised foot D [vossajjane], and likewise in keeping the foot on the ground E [sannikkhepane] and in pressing the foot against the ground F [sannirumbhane] the first two processes are high and powerful and the second, low and weak. There, the material and mental phenomena in A do not occur in B; those in B do not occur in C; those in C do not occur in D; those in D do not occur in E; those in E do not occur in F. These phenomena after coming into existence in the form of several sections, links, and parts, break quickly just in those places, crackling like sesamum seeds thrown into a heated pan. In this matter, who is the one that goes forward, or whose going forward is there? In the highest sense (paramatthato) what takes place is the going, the standing, the sitting down and the lying down of the processes. With material form in the several divisions (groups or parts),

One conscious state arises
And quite another ceases,
In sequence, like a river's flow,
These states (of mind and matter) go.

(a˝˝am uppajjate cittam a˝˝am cittam nirujjhati
avicimanusambandho nadi soto va vattati].

Low [omatta] = Negligible [avamatta], poor in regard to standard [lamakappamana].

Since the process of caloricity with (its cognate process) oscillation coming (as a servant or follower) behind it [vayo dhatuya anugata tejo dhatu] is the condition for upraising [uddharanassa paccayo], caloricity and oscillation are in preponderance, by reason of capability, in the action of upraising. Caloricity is specially conducive to the action of upraising and so in upraising oscillation is subordinate to caloricity. The processes of extension and cohesion are low in the action of upraising owing to their incapacity to raise up.

Since the process of oscillation with (its cognate process) caloricity coming (as a servant or follower) behind it [tejo dhatuya anugata vayo dhatu] is the condition for stretching out and shifting away [atiharana vitiharananam paccayo], oscillation and caloricity are in preponderance by reason of capability, in stretching out and shifting away. Oscillation is naturally active and because in the actions of stretching out and shifting away its movement is excessive, caloricity is subordinate to oscillation in these actions. The other two processes are low in stretching out and shifting away because of the incapacity of these processes to stretch out and to shift away.

Raising up is the lifting of a foot from a place already stepped on to.

Stretching out is the carrying of a foot to the front from the place on which one is standing.

Shifting away is the carrying of a foot sidewards (by moving it laterally) for the purpose of avoiding stake and the like or for avoiding contact with the other foot already set on the ground.

Or stretching out is the carrying of a foot (near) to the place where the other foot is set and shifting away is the carrying of a foot further to a point beyond the place on which the other foot is.

Since the process of cohesion with (its cognate process) extension coming (as a servant or follower) behind it [pathavi dhatuya anugata apodhatu] is the condition for dropping down [vossajjane paccayo], cohesion and extension are in preponderance by reason of capability in the action of dropping down. The nature of cohesion is most gravid and so in the laying down of an upraised foot extension is subordinate to cohesion. Because of their incapacity to drop down what is upraised the processes of caloricity and oscillation are called low in this connection.

Since the process of extension with (its cognate process) cohesion coming (as a servant or follower) behind it [apodhatuya anugata pathavidhatu] is the condition for the keeping (of a foot) on the ground, extension and cohesion are in preponderance by reason of capability, in the keeping (of a foot) on the ground. In keeping the foot on the ground too, as in the state of something fixed, cohesion is subordinate to extension owing to the excessive functioning of the latter process.

Cohesion is subordinate to extension also by way of the contactual action of the process of extension in pressing the foot against the ground.

And here dropping down is lowering by way of relinguishment or laying down. The setting down, thence, of the foot on the ground and so forth is keeping the foot on the ground. After keeping the foot on the ground, the coming to a complete standstill of the action of going, by way of contacting is pressing the foot against the ground.

There = In this going forward or among the six aforesaid divisions known as raising up, stretching out, shifting away, dropping down, keeping down, and pressing against.

In raising up = In the moment of upraising. Material and mental phenomena = The material phenomena proceeding in the form of upraising (or through the mode of upraising), and the mental phenomena originating that materiality do not occur in stretching out by reason of their existing only for a moment. Throughout, this is the method of exegesis in this passage.

Just in these places = Wherever, in the divisions beginning with upraising, phenomena come to be, just in those very places, they perish. To be sure, owing to swift change there is no going over of phenomena to another place.

Sections = Division. Links = Joints. Parts = Portions. And all here is stated concerning the abovementioned divisions of the action of going which take place in the form of a differentiated serial process.

More fleet than the group of devas running before the Sun's chariot -- the group of devas in the shape of horses with keen-edged razors attached to their heads and hoofs, engaged in and taken to going, plunging forwards, some above and some below, but never knocking against each other, though moving close together -- is the moment of existence of material phenomena.

As the break-up of sesamum seeds that are roasted takes place almost at once with the sound of crackling, the destruction of conditioned phenomena takes place almost at once with phenomena's arising. For, similar to the crackling sound, the sign of the breaking up of the sesamum seeds, is arising the sign (indicatory) of the (eventual) breaking up of conditioned phenomena, owing to the destruction (inevitably and) assuredly of phenomena that have arisen.

Who is the one that goes forward? Just no one. [ko eko abhikkamati nabhikkamati yeva].

Could it be said: Whose going forward is there? No. Why? In the highest sense, what takes place is the going, the standing, the sitting down, and the lying down of the processes.

The passage just mentioned is for dispelling the false idea of a self that goes forward which a confused blinded worldling is apt to possess or the passage is stated by way of objection and refutation.

With material form in the several divisions [tasmim tasmim kotthase rupena saddhim] means: with material form in the aforesaid sixfold division.

The conscious state of the thought-unit that comes into existence when any material form comes into existence, runs a course of its own and does not get into close contact with the material form in question, nor does it get into repeated contact or relation with that material form. Therefore it is said: one conscious state arises with material form and quite another ceases when that material form ceases. By reason of the absence of close or repeated contact [apaccamatthatta] of mind with matter this happens. Tension, oscillation or vibration of mind is quicker than that of matter, seventeen times.

The words: with material form in relation to the first sentence of the stanza mean: with whatsoever material form arising simultaneously with a conscious state [yena kenaci sahuppajjanakena rupena]. And the same words in relation to the second sentence of the stanza refer to the material form already arisen and existing at the starting point of the seventeenth thought-unit that occurs after the ceasing-phase of the thought-unit with which the aforesaid material form arose and which material form arisen already has a total duration from its arising to ceasing of seventeen consecutive thought-units and is possessed of the nature of ceasing together with the cessation of the seventeenth thought-unit mentioned above, namely, of the seventeenth thought-unit in its phase of dissolution or ceasing [dutiya pada sambandhe pana rupenati idam yam tato nirujjhamana cittato upari sattarasama cittassa uppadakkhane uppannam tadeva tassa nirujjhamana cittassa niroddhena saddhim nirujjhanakam sattarasa cittakkhanayukam rupam sandhaya vuttam].

Material and mental phenomena would perhaps be taken as things of equal duration, if the matter were put in a different way to this. Should these two kinds of phenomena be wrongly considered as things of equal duration then there would be contradiction with such commentarial sayings as: "Material form is slow-changing, is tardy as regards ceasing," and with such textual sayings as: "I do not see a single thing so swiftly changing, o bhikkhus, as this mind" [a˝˝atha ruparupadhamma samanayuka siyum yadi ca siyum atha rupam garu parinamam dandha nirodhanti adi atthakatha vacanehi naham bhikkhave eka dhammampi samanupassami evam lahu parivattam yathayidam bhikkave cittanti evamadi pali vacanehi ca virodho siya].

Since the nature of mind and mental characteristics [citta cetasika] is to cognize or to have objects, mind and mental characteristics arise cognizing [vibhaventa] according to their strength [yatha balam] the thing become a condition to mind and mental characteristics, in the form of an object or the thing become an object-condition to mind and mental characteristics [attano arammana paccayabhutamattam]. And immediately after the accomplishment or the effectuating of that which comprises the nature or quality of mind and mental characteristics, and that quality is just the process of cognizing, there occurs the ceasing of mind and mental characteristics [tesam sabhava nipphatti anantaram nirodho].

Material phenomena, however, do not take objects, have no objects [anarammana]; they do no cognizing. Material phenomena have to be cognized [pakasetabba]. Cognizibility's fulfillment [pakasetabba bhava nipphatti] occurs with sixteen thought-units [solasehi cittehi hoti]. Hence the reduction of material phenomena to seventeen thought-units, together with the one thought-unit of the past, is acknowledged, by the commentator, it is said [tasma eka cittakkhanatitena saha sattarasa cittakkhanayukata rupadhammanam icchitati].

The swift changeability of mind or consciousness [vi˝˝anassa lahuparivattita] takes place through the mere combination of the other three mental aggregates with variform consciousness [the protean mind] and through the mere combination of objects with the same consciousness that is replete with variegation [lahuparivattana vi˝˝ana visesassa sangati matta paccayataya tinnam khandhanam visaya sangatimattataya ca].

The state of slow change of material form [rupassa garu parivattita] occurs owing to the condition of sluggishness of the primaries, namely, of the processes of extension, cohesion, caloricity and oscillation symbolized by earth, water, fire and air, respectively [dandha maha bhuta paccayataya].

Only the Tathagata, he who has arrived at the Truth by traversing the Ancient Road of the Buddhas, has knowledge of the different processes according to reality [yatha bhutam nana dhatu ˝anam kho pana tathagatasseva]. And by means of that knowledge of the Tathagata, the condition of pre-nascence as just a material phenomenon is stated. Likewise, by that knowledge of the Tathagata, the condition of post-nascence, too, is stated. Because of the statement of the pre-nascent and post-nascent conditions (the idea of) the identity of moment of occurrence of mental and material phenomena is just not fit. Therefore it was said by the commentator, the elder Ananda thus: Just according to the method stated should the meaning be understood here [tena ca pure jata paccayo rupa dhammova vutto paccha jata paccaya ca tathevati ruparupa dhammanam samanakkhanata na yujjateva tasma vuttanayenevettha attho veditabboti acariyena vuttam].

This matter was stated in this way because it is easy to understand the simultaneity of cessation of mind and bodily or vocal expression [tadetam cittanuparivattiya vi˝˝attiya eka nirodha bhavassa suvi˝˝eyyatta evam vuttam].[22]

The meaning should be understood thus: Quite another conscious state (i.e., thought-units) ceases with the ceasing of the material form arisen at the starting point of the seventeenth thought-unit which is earlier to the material form together with expression that is physical, in short, seventeen thought-units arise and pass away during the life-time of all material form except those connected with expression [tato savi˝˝attikena puretaram sattarasama cittassa uppadakkhane uppannena rupena saddhim a˝˝am cittam nirujjhatiti attho veditabbo].

The passage should be constructed thus: One conscious state ceases and quite another arises -- i.e., the conscious states at the arising and the ceasing of material phenomena are different [a˝˝am cittam nirujjhati a˝˝am uppajjate cittanti yojetabbam]. Indeed one is the word explanation; another is the explanation of the sense [a˝˝o hi saddakkamo a˝˝o atthakkamo]. While the conscious state arisen earlier, in ceasing, it ceases in just the form of proximity-condition and so forth, to another conscious state arising after it [yam hi purimuppannam cittam tam nirujjhantam a˝˝assa paccha uppajjamanassa anantaradi paccaya bhaveneva nirujjhati]. Then another conscious state which has just obtained a condition, arises [yathaladdha paccayameva a˝˝ampi uppajjate cittam]. And here (mind is) in a different state by reason of the difference of occasion [avattha visesato cettha a˝˝atha].

2. Clear comprehension in looking straight on and in looking away from the front

Alokite = "In looking straight on." Vilokite = "In looking away from the front." Here, looking straight on [alokitam] = seeing in the direction in front of oneself [purato pekkhanam]. Looking away from the front [vilokitam] = Looking out in all other directions [anudisa pekkhanam].

And other kinds of seeing, by way of turning the eye in the direction above, in the direction beneath and in the direction behind are called looking upwards, looking downwards and looking backwards. Here those are not taken. But just these two -- looking straight on and looking away from the front -- are taken, by way of what is befitting. Or, by this method, it is said, all those are also taken.

By way of what is fitting = In the form of that which is suitable to a recluse.

Since looking downwards could happen in such actions as sweeping and plastering the floor with clay and cow-dung, looking upwards in removing cob-webs and other similar actions, and looking backwards in such actions as the avoiding of danger coming from behind, it is said, that the commentator uttered the passage beginning with the words: Or, by this method. By that the commentator points out that the statement is also one of the kind that implies what is not expressed -- an elliptical statement.

Here, the comprehending of purpose (in looking straight on), without having just looked by the force of the thought, when the thought "I shall look straight on" arises, is clear comprehension of purpose. That should be understood by making the venerable elder Nanda the example of a person who perceives through experience by the body [kaya sakkhi].[23] The following is stated in this connection: "Should looking straight on in the eastern direction become a thing that must be done, by Nanda, he looks straight on in the eastern direction, having reflected with all his mind thus: 'May no covetous, grief-producing, mean, unskillful mental phenomena flow upon (overcome) me while I am looking in the eastern direction.' There, he becomes mindful, thus." Further, purposefulness and suitability, here, too, should be understood just according to the manner in which they are explained in connection with the worshipping of a relic shrine and so forth.

When the venerable elder Nanda was working for insight he slid into an unfavourable state of mind beginning with boredom in regard to the holy life and on becoming aware of that state of mind of his, he stirred himself, saying, "I shall restrain myself well." Then having become energetic and very conscientious regarding guardedness at the doors of the controlling faculties of sense, he reached the state of one of great perfection in self-restraint, through the fulfillment of all duties. By reason of that perfection the Master placed him in the position of pre-eminence in regard to the controlling faculty of restraint, with the words: "This one, namely, Nanda, O bhikkhus, is the chief among my disciples endowed with the controlling faculty of restraint."

Because clear comprehension of resort is just the keeping to the course of meditation, looking straight on and looking away from the front should be done just according to each person's meditation (on the aggregates, processes and bases or on a contemplation-device and so forth) with the thought of meditation uppermost in mind.

Within, it is said, there certainly is no self or soul which looks straight on or looks away from the front. Still, at the arising of the thought "I shall look straight on," and with that thought the process of oscillation (vayo dhatu) originating from mind, [citta samutthana] bringing into being bodily expression [vi˝˝atti] arises. Thus owing to the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity [cittakiriyavayodhatu vipphara], the lower eyelid goes down and the upper eyelid goes up. Surely there is no one who opens with a contrivance.

Thereupon, eye-consciousness arises fulfilling the function of sight [tato cakkhu vi˝˝anam dassana kiccam sadhentam uppajjati], it is said. Clear comprehension of this kind here is indeed called the clear comprehension of non-delusion [evam sampajananam panettha asammoha sampaja˝˝am nama]. Further, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be also understood, here, through accurate knowledge of the root (mula pari˝˝a), through the casual state (agantuka bhava) and through the temporary state [tavakalika bhava]. First (is the consideration) by way of the accurate knowledge of the root: --

There is (first) the mental state of the life-continum,
And (then) there are adverting, seeing, receiving,
Considering, determining, and impulsion
Which is seventh (in cognition's course).
[bhavangavajjana˝ceva dassanam sampaticchanam
santiranam votthapanam javanam bhavati sattamam].

There, in the course of cognition, the life-continum goes on fulfilling the function of a (main) factor of the rebirth-process [tattha bhavangam upapatti bhavassa anga kiccam sadhayamanam pavattati]; after the turning round of the life-continum, a barely active mind process, fulfilling the function of adverting or attending to an object at the sense-door of the eye, goes on [tam avattetva kiriya mano dhatu avajjana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, fulfilling the function of seeing, eye-consciousness goes on [tannirodha cakkhu vi˝˝anam dassana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, a resultant mind process, fulfilling the function of receiving, goes on [tannirodha vipaka mano dhatu sampaticchanna kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, a resultant mind consciousness process, fulfilling the function of considering, goes on [tannirodha vipaka mano vi˝˝ana dhatu santirana kiccam sadhyamana]; from the cessation of that, a barely active mind consciousness process, fulfilling the function of determining, goes on [tannirodha kiriya mano vi˝˝ana dhatu votthapana kiccam sadhayamana]; from the cessation of that, an impulsion impels seven times [tannirodha sattakkhattum javanam javati].

Now, among the mental states of the life-continum and so forth or even in the mental state of the first impulsion, there is no looking straight on or looking away from the front, by way of lust, hatred or ignorance by him who sees in any direction. Also there is no such stained vision by him in the mental state of the second impulsion, the third, the fourth, the fifth, sixth or even in the seventh impulsion. But when, like soldiers in a battlefield, the mental states, after breaking-up gradually are fallen, one atop of another, there takes place looking straight on or looking away from the front, by way of lust, hate and ignorance, accompanied by the discriminatory thought: "This is a woman," or "This is a man," much in the same way as the fallen are distinguished after a battle; for in the frenzy of fighting there is no room for recognition of the individuals engaged in the fray.[24]

Thus here in the first instance, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, by way of the accurate knowledge of the root.

The passage beginning with the words: Within, it is said, there certainly is no self or soul is stated to explain that looking straight on or looking away from the front is, to be sure, just a variety of occurrence of even bare phenomena and that therefore clear comprehension of non-delusion is the knowing of that fact as it really is [yasma pana alokitadi nama dhamma mattasseva pavatti viseso tasma tassa yathavato jananam asammoha sampaja˝˝anti dassetum abhantareti adi vuttam].

Accurate knowledge of the root [mula pari˝˝a] = comprehension of the fundamental reason of impulsion at the mind-door [mano dvarika javanassa mula karana parijananam].

Through the casual state [agantuka bhava]: through the state of one coming as a stranger [abbhagata bhava]. Through the temporary state [tavakalika bhava]: through the state of proceeding only at a certain moment (tam khana matta pavattakassa bhava].

Fulfilling the function of a (main) factor of the rebirth-process means: accomplishing the principal work of a link; what is stated by that is this: having become substance. The life-continum is, indeed, the principal factor and the principal basis because of similarity to the relinking mind. Therefore, it is called the principal factor and basis or it is called so owing to its fulfilling of the function of a ground or reason by way of the causal condition of unbroken procedure [patthana bhutam anga kiccam nipphadentam asariram hutvati vuttam hoti, bhavangam hi patisandhi sadisatta patthanam angam patthana˝ca sariranti vuccati, avicchedappavatti hetu bhavena va karana kiccam sadhayamananti attho].

The expression: After the turning round of that has been stated by way of general reference to the life-continum, threefold as regards procedure: past thought-unit of the life-continum, movement of the life-continum and stoppage of the life-continum. At this place turning round refers just to the stoppage of the life-continum [tam avattetvati bhavanga sama˝˝a vasena vuttam pavattakara visesa vasena pana atitadina tibbidham tattha ca bhavangupacchedasseva avattanam].

From the cessation of that (tannirodha) = Owing to the dissolution of that [tassa nirujjhanato] -- expressions of reason by way of proximity-condition [anantara paccaya vasena hetu vacanam].

Even in the first impulsion and so forth ending with the seventh impulsion. This passage has been stated concerning the absence (in a definite way) of lust, hate and ignorance with the thought: This is a woman or This is a man, in the course of cognition at the five doors of sense. In this matter, indeed, owing to the existence of mental states, by way of adverting and the rest up to determining, without radical reflection, on account of reflecting unwisely prior to adverting-determining, impulsion that is with a bare semblance of greed arises in regard to a liked object such as a female form, and impulsion that is with a bare semblance of hate arises in regard to an object not liked. There is however no occurrence of lust, hate and ignorance in an extreme way, with strong moral consequences in the course of sense-door cognition. Only in the course of mind-door cognition lust, hate and ignorance occur absolutely, that is, with strong moral consequences. But impulsion of the course of sense-door cognition is the root of lust, hate and ignorance of mind-door course of cognition. Or even all beginning with the mental state of the life-continum can be taken as the root of mind-door impulsion. Thus accurate knowledge of the root has been stated by way of the root-reason of mind-door impulsion. The casual state and the temporary state (are) indeed (stated) on account of the newness of just impulsion of the course of cognition at the five doors of sense and on account of the brevity of the same impulsion [pathama javanepi ..... pe ...... sattama javanepiti idam pa˝ca dvarika vithiyam ayam itthi ayam purisoti rajjana dussana muyhananam abhavam sandhaya vuttam tattha hi avajjana vatthabbananam puretaram pavatta yoniso manasikara vasena ayoniso avajjana votthabbanakarena pavattanto itthe itthi rupadimhi lobha sahagata mattam javanam uppajati anitthe ca dosa sahagata mattam na pana ekanta rajjana dussanadi hoti tassa pana mano dvarikassa rajjana dussanadino pa˝ca dvarika javanam mulam yatha vuttam va sabbampi bhavangadi evam mano dvarikassa javanassa mula karana vasena mulapari˝˝a vutta. Agantuka tavakalikata pana pa˝ca dvarika javanasseva apubba bhava vasena ittarata vasena ca].

After breaking up gradually are fallen, one atop of another, on account of the turning round -- changing, moving -- early and later or before and after or below and above, in the form of the arising of the mental state of the life-continum [hettha ca upari ca parivattamana vasena aparaparam bhavanguppatti vasena].

Likewise indeed (is indicated) the falling after breaking down of the (other) mental states on account of the arising of the mental state of the life-continum (tatha bhavanguppada vasena hi tesam bhijjitva patanam].

By this indeed the commentator shows, by way of the gradual arising of the earlier and the later mental state of the life-continum, the arising of the impulsion of the mind-door course of cognition which is different to the impulsion of the course of cognition at the five doors of sense [imina pana hetthimassa uparimassa ca bhavangassa aparaparuppatti vasena pa˝ca dvarika javanato visadisassa mano dvarika javanassa uppadam dasseti].

Because of the proceeding of lust and the like by just the way of mind-door impulsion, the commentator said even thus: There takes place looking straight on or looking away from the front, by way of lust, hatred and ignorance.

On an object falling within reach of consciousness at the eye-door, impulsion arises right at the very end when from the movement of the life-continum onwards, the states of adverting, seeing, receiving, considering and determining, having arisen, have ceased.

That impulsion is like a visitor, at the eyedoor which is comparable to a house belonging to the states of adverting and the rest mentioned above born there before the arising of impulsion.

As it is not fit for a visitor who has arrived at a strange house for the purpose of getting some assistance from the owners of the house to do any kind of ordering when the owners themselves are silent, so it is unfit for impulsion to be involved in lust, hate and ignorance, at the eyedoor house of adverting and the other states of mind, when those states of mind are themselves not lusting, hating or bound up with ignorance. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should thus be known by way of the casual state.

At the eye-door, the mental states that close with the state of determining arise and break up together with associated phenomena, at just those places on which they arise. They do not see each other. Therefore the mental states that close with determining are brief and temporary. There, as in a house of the dead, where here is one more to die just at that very instant, it is not proper for that one who is to die to be given to delight in dancing and singing and the like, even so, at a sense-door, when the states of adverting and the rest with associated phenomena have died just where they arose, it is not fit for the remaining impulsion that is to die shortly to take delight in anything by way of lust and the like. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood thus by way of the temporary state.

Like a visitor = Like someone come specially, a stranger [agantuka puriso viya].

Visitors are of two kinds, by way of a guest, that is, a person who comes and goes, a person who does not stay permanently in a place, and by way of someone who comes specially to a place, a stranger. In this connection, one who is an acquaintance, or one who is known, is a guest. One who is not an acquaintance and is unknown, is a stranger. According to the context here a stranger is meant.

Since to these mental states there is just that duration limited to the process of rise-and-fall of mental phenomena, these states of mind are called temporary.

And further this clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, by way of the reflection on the aggregates, bases, processes and conditions.

To be sure, here, eye and visible object are materiality-aggregate; seeing is consciousness-aggregate; feeling that is associated with seeing is feeling-aggregate; perceiving is perception-aggregate, and those beginning with sense-impression are formation-aggregate. Thus looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these five aggregates. There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front?

Seeing = Eye-consciousness [cakkhuvi˝˝anam]. By reason of knowing the acts of looking straight on and of looking away from the front in that way only as "eye-consciousness", adverting and the rest are left out, as bare seeing only is in "eye-consciousness" [tassa vaseneva alokana vilokana pa˝˝ayananto avajjanadinam agahanam].

Separate from that fivefold aggregate, who, singly, looks straight on? Who, singly, looks away from the front? None, singly, only by oneself indeed, looks straight on, and none, singly, only by oneself, looks away from the front -- this reply is intended to be given to the questions.

In the same way, eye is eye-base; visible object is materiality-base; seeing is mind-base; feeling and so forth, the associated things, are thing-base. Thus looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these four bases. There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front? Likewise, eye is eye-process; visible object is materiality-process; seeing is eye-consciousness-process; and the things beginning with feeling associated with eye-consciousness are mind-process. Thus, looking-straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these four processes. There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front? Exactly, in the manner already stated, eye is support-condition; visible object is object-condition; adverting is condition of proximity, contiguity, decisive-support, absence and disappearance; light is condition of decisive-support and those beginning with feeling are conascence-condition. Thus looking straight-on-and-looking-away-from-the-front is seen in the combination of these conditions. There, who, singly, looks straight on? Who looks away from the front?

With the words: light is the condition of decisive-support the conditionality of seeing is stated through the Suttanta method, through the way of illustrated discourse, discursively, indirectly.

Conascence-condition too belongs to just seeing. This is (given as) only an example owing to the obtaining also of conditions of mutuality, association, presence, non-disappearance and so forth.

Here, in this way, by reflection on the aggregates, bases, processes, and conditions, too, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood.

3. Clear comprehension in the bending and the stretching of limbs

Sammi˝jite pasarite = "in bending and in stretching." In the bending and the stretching of the joints.

The consideration of purpose and lack of purpose in regard to any contemplated act of bending or stretching, and the taking up of that which is purposeful, after not bending and stretching according to merely the mind's inclination, is clear comprehension of purpose.

In this matter, a person who experiences pain every moment due to standing long with bent or stretched hands or feet does not get concentration of mind (mental one-pointedness), his subject of meditation entirely falls away, and he does not obtain distinction (absorption and so forth). But he who bends or stretches his hands and feet for the proper length of time does not experience pain, gets concentration of mind, develops his subject of meditation and attains distinction. Thus the comprehension of purpose and non-purpose should be known.

Clear comprehension of suitability is the comprehension of the suitable after considering the suitable and the non-suitable even in a matter that is purposeful. In this connection, the following is the method of explanation: It is said that on the terrace of the Great Relic Shrine, while young bhikkhus were rehearsing the doctrine, young bhikkhunis standing at the back of the bhikkhus were listening to the rehearsal. Then a young bhikkhu came into bodily contact with a bhikkhuni while stretching out his hand, and, by just that fact, became a layman. Another bhikkhu in stretching his foot stretched it into fire and his foot got burnt to the bone. Another stretched his foot on an ant-hill and was bitten in the foot by a poisonous snake. Another bhikkhu stretched out his hand till it rested on the pole of a robe-tent, a ribbon-snake on the pole bit the hand of that bhikkhu.

Therefore the stretching of one's limbs should be done in a suitable and not an unsuitable place. This should be understood here as clear comprehension of suitability.

Just by the showing of the tribulation of non-comprehension of that, the felicity of comprehension is made clear; thus here, the illustration of these should be understood.

In the terrace of the Great Relic Shrine = In the terrace of the great relic shrine known by the name of Hemamali, at Anuradhapura, in Lanka, built by the king Dutthagamini.

By just that fact, became a layman = By reason of coming into bodily contact with a female, that bhikkhu having become filled with longing for sense-delights turned to the lower life of the world.

On the pole of a robe-tent = On a pole fixed to the roof of a tent covered with robes.

It is said by the commentator that bhikkhus having made a robe-tent were in that tent rehearsing the doctrine even on the terrace of the Great Relic Shrine.

It is said by the commentators, the elders Ananda and Dhammapala, that the ribbon-snake is a snake-species found in Lion Island.

Clear comprehension of resort should indeed be illustrated by the story of the senior bhikkhu called Great Elder.

It is said that Great Elder seated in his day-quarters bent his arm quickly whilst talking to his resident pupils and then after putting back his arm to the position in which it first was, bent it again slowly. The resident pupils questioned him thus: "Reverend Sir, why, after bending the arm quickly, did you, having placed it in the position in which it first was, bend it slowly?" "Friends, until now I did not bend this arm with a mind separate from the subject of meditation ever since I began to attend to the subject of meditation. Therefore, having put back the arm in the place it was first in, I bent." "Good! Reverend Sir. A bhikkhu should be one who acts thus." Here, too, it should be understood that the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation is clear comprehension of resort.

Subject of meditation -- The subject of meditation of the elements (modes or processes) that is according to the method about to be stated with the words "Within there is no soul" and so forth.

Within there is no soul that bends or stretches. By the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, bending and stretching occur. Indeed, here, it should be understood that the knowing in this way is clear comprehension of non-delusion.

4. Clear comprehension in wearing shoulder-cloak and so forth

Sanghati patta civara dharane = "In wearing the shoulder-cloak, the other (two) robes and the bowl."

In this connection, purpose is what accrues materially to one, on the almsround, and what is stated by the Blessed One according to the method beginning with the words, "for keeping out cold, for keeping out heat."

Suitable to one who is naturally warm-bodied is fine clothing, and that is suitable to one who is weak, too. To the susceptible to cold is suitable thick clothing made of two pieces of cloth laid one over the other and stitched together (called also a double cloth), Non-suitable to these is clothing contrary to the kind mentioned above.

A worn-out robe is indeed not suitable as that robe will even be hindrance-causing when one patches and sews or darns it.

Likewise, hindrance-causing are robes of silk, fine hemp and similar material that stimulate cupidity. For, to the lone-dweller in the forest such robes are productive of loss of clothing and of life.

With the words, to the lone-dweller in the forest such robes are productive of loss of clothing, the commentator mentioned in part what constitutes the loss of (or destruction of) the life of purity and it is stated so because clothing is properly free to be taken or used by or accessible to thieves and the like.

The robe acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the robe which decreases the good and increases the bad in the one who wears it, are irreversibly not suitable.

Just by that statement (or irreversibility) the commentator shows that the non-suitable mentioned earlier is not non-suitable absolutely because of the possibility of the non-suitable mentioned earlier becoming suitable to someone, at some time, owing to this or that reason. This pair (of robes mentioned) here is however absolutely non-suitable, on account of the absence of suitability to anyone at any time

Here, from the foregoing, clear comprehension of the suitable and the non-suitable should be understood; as the holding fast to the line of meditative thought, by way of the non-abandoning of the line of contemplation which the commentator is going to state [vakkhamana kammatthanassa avijahana vasena], clear comprehension of resort should be understood.

Within there is nothing called a soul that robes itself. According to the method of exposition adopted already, only by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity does the act of robing take place. The robe has no power to think and the body too has not that power. The robe is not aware of the fact that it is draping the body, and the body too of itself does not think: "I am being draped round with the robe.," Mere processes clothe a process-heap, in the same way that a modelled figure is covered with a piece of cloth. Therefore, there is neither room for elation on getting a fine robe nor for depression on getting one that is not fine.

Within. In one's own mental flux [abbhantareti attano santane].

Body too. Body too is only an ego-concept [kayapiti atta pa˝˝atti matto kiyopi].

I = Karma produced body [ahanti kamma bhuto kayo].

Processes = External processes called robes [civara sankhata bahira dhatuyo].

Process-heap = The internal process-collection called the body [dhatu samuhanti kaya sankhatam ajjhattikam dhatu samuham].

Some honour an ant-hill where a cobra de capello lives, a tree-shrine, and so forth, with garlands, perfumes, incense, cloth, and similar things. Others maltreat these objects. Ant-hill, tree-shrine and the like are, however, neither elated by the good nor depressed by the bad treatment. Just in the same way there should be no elation on receiving a good robe or depression on getting a bad one. Clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood, in this connection, as the proceeding of reflective thought, in this way.

And in using the bowl, clear comprehension of purpose should be understood, by way of the benefit obtainable through the action of one who takes the bowl unhurriedly and thinks: "Going out to beg with this I shall get alms."

With the seeing of the purpose, the obtaining of food, should the bowl be taken by one. In this way indeed does clear comprehension of purpose arise.

To one with a lean body which is weak a heavy bowl is not suitable. And not suitable is a damaged bowl that is tied with thread and stopped in four or five places and hard to wash properly. A bowl that is hard to wash well, certainly, is not fit. There will be inconvenience caused to him who washes that kind of bowl.

A bowl that is hard to wash well: This was said concerning a bowl difficult to wash properly, naturally, though it may be without mends.

A bright bowl which shines like a gem and therefore is capable of stimulating the cupidity of others is not suitable for the same reasons given in regard to robes of silk, fine hemp and so forth.

Just irreversibly unsuitable are the bowl acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the bowl by which good decreases and evils increase. Through this explanation, clear comprehension of suitability in this connection should be understood.

And by the fact even of the holding fast to the subject of meditation should clear comprehension of resort be understood.

Within there is nothing called a self that is taking the bowl. As stated already, by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, there is the taking of the bowl. In this matter of taking the bowl, the bowl cannot think. Hands too cannot think. The bowl does not cognize that it is taken by the hands. Hands do not cognize that the bowl is taken by them. Just processes take a process-heap. It is comparable to the taking of a red-hot vessel with a pair of tongs. By way of the proceeding of reflective thought in this way, clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood in bowl-taking.

And further, it is like this: When kindly people see, in a refuge for the helpless, unfortunate persons, with hands and feet cut off, and with blood, pus, and many maggots in the open wounds, and give to the unfortunate persons bandages and medicine in containers, some of the miserable sufferers in the refuge may get thick bandages and containers not shapely; others may get thin bandages and shapely containers. None of the sufferers will feel elated or depressed about the kind of bandages and containers they receive. That is because they merely want cloth to cover their wounds and containers for keeping medicine. Now, the bhikkhu who regards the robe as a bandage, the bowl as a medicine-container, and alms-food as medicine in the bowl, through clear comprehension of non-delusion should be taken as a person endowed with the highest clear comprehension.

A person endowed with the highest clear comprehension should be known by way of the discernment of fineness of the characteristic activity of one possessed of the highest clear comprehension and by way of the highest state of the previous practicers of clear comprehension.

5. Clear comprehension in the partaking of food and drink

As to purpose, there is the eightfold purpose referred to with the words, "Not for sport" and so forth in the formula of reflection on the four requisites of a bhikkhu. As such should clear comprehension of purpose be known.

Non-suitable to one is the food by which to that one there is discomfort, whatever the food may be in quality or taste: coarse or fine or bitter or sweet or anything else. Suitable is food that does not cause discomfort.

Just irreversibly non-suitable are these: the food acquired by wrong means of livelihood and the food by which good decreases and evils increase in one who partakes of it. Food which is got by right means and food which does not cause decrease of good and increase of evil in the one taking it are suitable.

In this matter of the partaking of food, clear comprehension of suitability should be understood according to the explanation given above, and the clear comprehension of resort should be understood by way of the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation.

Within there is no eater called a self. As stated already, by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, there is the receiving of food in the bowl; by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, there is the descent of the hand into the bowl; and by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, only, the making of the food into suitable lumps, the raising of the lumps from the bowl, and the opening of the mouth take place. No one opens the jaws with a key. No one opens the jaws with a contrivance. Just by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity, take place the putting of a lump of food in the mouth, the pestle-action of the upper row of teeth, the mortar-work of the lower row of teeth, and the tongue's activity comparable to that of the hand collecting together material that is being crushed. Thus that lump of food in the mouth is mixed together with the thin saliva at the end of the tongue and the thick saliva at the root of the tongue. That food in the mortar of the lower teeth, turned by the tongue, moistened by the saliva, and ground fine by the pestle of the upper teeth is not put into the stomach by anyone with a ladle or a spoon. Just by the process of oscillation it goes on. There is no one within who having made a straw mat is bearing each lump that goes in. Each lump stands by reason of the process of oscillation. There is no one who having put up an oven and lit a fire is cooking each lump standing there. By only the process of caloricity the lump of food matures. There is no one who expels each digested lump with a stick or pole. Just the process of oscillation expels the digested food.

It is oscillation [vayodhatu] that does the taking onward, the moving away from side to side; and it is oscillation that bears, turns round, pulverizes, causes the removal of liquidity, and expels.

Extension [pathavidhatu] also does bearing up, turning round, pulverizing and the removal of liquidity.

Cohesion (apodhatu] moistens and preserves wetness.

Caloricity [tejodhatu] ripens or digests the food that goes in.

Space [akasadhatu] becomes the way for the entering of the food.

Consciousness [vi˝˝anadhatu] as a consequence of right kind of action knows in any particular situation.

According to reflection of this sort, should the clear comprehension of non-delusion be understood here.

Taking onward: moving on up to the mouth.

Moving away from side to side: taking forwards from there to the belly.

Again, taking onward = carrying beyond the mouth-aperture.

Moving away from side to side = taking what is going belly-wards, side-wise.

Bears = causes to stand in the stomach.

Turns round = causes to turn back and forth.

Pulverizes = causes the complete powdering as if by a pestle.

Expels = causes the depositing outside the belly.

In regard to the functions of the process of extension, too, the explanation is similar to that which has been already stated.

Indeed, these -- bearing, turning, pulverizing, drying -- the process of oscillation is able to do, only, together with the process of extension. Not singly by itself. Therefore, these -- bearing, turning, pulverizing, the removal of liquidity or drying -- too, are stated by way of the function of the process of extension.

Moistens = makes humid.

Preserves wetness: Just as there is no very great drying by the process of oscillation and so forth, so the process of cohesion preserves wetness by not wetting quite.

The way = the way for entering, turning round, expelling (actually the openings or vacuities which provide the range for such functions).

Process of consciousness = mind-consciousness process, the knowledge in regard to seeking food, swallowing and the like.

In any particular situation = in any function of seeking, swallowing or other similar act.

Right kind of action. The act which even completes a function and becomes a condition for any particular kind of knowledge. That act causes fulfillment of even the knowledge of the scope of that function, by reason of that knowledge not arising without the act.

Knows. Perceives, understands, by way of seeking, by way of full experience of swallowing, by way of the digested, the undigested and so forth.

It should be understood that as knowledge is always preceded by the adverting or the turning of the mind to a thing, knowledge too is included here.

Further, the clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood through reflection on the unpleasantness connected with food, in the following ten ways: By way of the need to go to get it (1), to seek it (2), the process of eating it (3), by way of the receptacle (in the form of secretion of bile, and so forth) (4), by way of the belly (5), by way of food that is undigested (6), by way of food that is digested (7), by way of the consequences of eating (8), by way of the trickling or oozing of food from the body's openings in the form of excretions (9), and by way of the pollution due to food (10).

The detailed exposition of the contemplation on the unpleasantness connected with food is given in the Path of Purity (and its commentary, The Casket of the Highest Thing, Paramattha Ma˝jusa).

By way of the need to go for it (food): By way of going towards the alms-village in the sense of wandering for alms. The return journey is also included.

By way of the need to seek it: By way of wandering for alms in the alms-village. Entry into a retiring hall and the like become included in this, naturally.

By way of the process of eating it: By way of taking in the contemptible food comparable to dog's vomit in a dog's food trough, rid of colour and odour just when the tongue turns the food which has been reduced to pulp by the pestles of the teeth.

By way of the receptacle (in the form of excretion of bile, phlegm, pus and blood): Through the food thus taken in becoming the condition for prime contemptibility, by way of the fourfold receptacle placed on the top of the stomach.

What stands, exists, there, in the upper part of the stomach is the staying place, the receptacle.

By way of the food that is undigested: By way of non-preparation of the food in the stomach and the intestines for absorption by the body, through the process of karma-produced caloricity called "the seizer", a supposed organ of the body which functions in digestion, according to Ayurvedic teaching of ancient India.

By way of the food that is digested: Digested through just the karma-produced process of caloricity abovementioned.

By way of the consequences of eating: By way of effect. By way of the business called the bringing about of carcass-products like hair, and diseases, like skin eruptions through the digested and undigested food. This is stated by the commentator as the fruit of food.

By way of the trickling or oozing of food from the body's openings in the form of excretions: By way of the flowing out from eye, ear and several other openings, here and there. For it is said by the Ancients:

Hard eats, soft eats, food and drink superfine,
Get in at one door and get out by nine.

By way of the pollution due to food: By way of the smearing throughout, when eating, of the hands, lips, and other members of that kind, and, after eating, of the nine openings or doors of the body.

6. Clear comprehension of cleansing the body

Uccara passavakamme = In defecating and in urinating" means: When the time is come, when the time is proper, if one does not defecate or urinate, then, one's body perspires, one's eyes reel, one's mind is not collected, and illness in the form of sharp pain, fistula, and so forth arise for one. But to one who defecates and urinates at the proper time none of these discomforts, disadvantages, troubles and illnesses arise. This is the sense in which this matter should be understood, and in this sense should clear comprehension of purpose in defecation and urination be taken.

By defecating or urinating in an improper place, one commits disciplinary offences, one goes on getting a bad name, and one endangers one's life. Fields occupied or frequented by humans and places occupied or frequented by devas, and deva-sanctuaries, are improper. Angry men and spirits cause even death to those who defecate or urinate in such places. By using such places for cleansing the waste of the body bhikkhus and bhikkunis become guilty of the disciplinary offences of minor wrong-doing (dukkata) or of acts expiable by confession (pacittiya) according to the circumstances.

But to one evacuating the bowels or the bladder in a place suitable for such evacuation those offences or troubles just mentioned above have no reference. And by way of that fitness of place, clear comprehension of suitability should be understood.

By the non-abandoning of the subject of meditation, clear comprehension of resort should be understood.

Within there is no doer of the act of defecation or urination. Only by the diffusion of the process of oscillation born of mental activity defecation and urination occur, just as in a matured boil, by the bursting of the boil, pus and blood come out without any kind of wishing to come out and just as from an overfull water-pot water comes out without any desire for coming out, so too, the faeces and urine accumulated in the abdomen and the bladder are pressed out by the force of the process of oscillation. Certainly this faeces-and-urine coming out thus is neither that bhikkhu's own nor another's. It is just bodily excretion. When from a water-vessel or calabash a person throws out the old water, the water thrown out is neither his nor other's. It simply forms parts of a process of cleansing. In the form of reflection proceeding in this way clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood.

7. Clear comprehension of walking and so forth

Now we come to the explanation of the instruction dealing with clear comprehension "in walking, in standing in a place, in sitting in some position, in sleeping, in walking, in speaking and in keeping silence" = Gate thite nisinne sutte jagarite bhasite tunhibhave.

By the words: "When he is going a bhikkhu understands 'I am going,'" and so froth, postures of long duration are indicated. And by the words, "in going forwards and backwards .......... in bending and in stretching," postures of middling duration; and by the words, "in walking, in standing .......... In sleeping," postures of short, brief duration. Therefore in these three parts of the instruction the practising of clear comprehension should be known even by the triple method stated here.

Postures of long duration [addhana iriyapatha]: postures kept up long or postures existing in a process of going for or of one wayfaring long.

Postures of middling duration [majjhima]: postures proceeding neither too long in time nor involving too long wayfaring, namely, those connected with wandering for alms and so forth.

Postures of short duration [cunnika iriyapatha]: postures become diminutive, by reason of brief duration and proceeding by way of going about and so forth in the monastery or elsewhere.

The Elder Tipitaka Maha Siva indeed said: Who, after walking or exercising long in the ambulatory, stands and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of exercises on the ambulatory ended just there on the ambulatory", is called a doer of clear comprehension in walking.

When, after standing for a long time in study or answering a question or minding a subject of meditation, sits and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of standing ended just at the time of standing," is called a doer of clear comprehension in standing.

Who, after sitting for a long time in study or other similar work, lies down and reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed when sitting ended just at the time of sitting," is called a doer of clear comprehension in sitting.

Who, after lying down falls asleep, and, then, after getting up from his sleep, reflects: "The bodily and mental things which existed during the time of sleep ended just during sleep," is called a doer of clear comprehension in sleeping and waking.

By reason of proximity of the word "waking", here the action of lying down is only sleep in the sense of the descent of the mind into the state of the life-continum. It is not merely the stretching out of the back.

The non-occurrence of processes which make action or are made of action is sleep; the occurrence, waking.

Action is doing, function of body and so forth (i.e., bodily expression or verbal expression, kayavi˝˝atti va vacivi˝˝atti). The processes which make action produce the function of bodily expression or the function of verbal expression. Or action is the double function of adverting. The things made of or produced from that action or double function are processes made of action. For by way of adverting, when there is the stoppage of the life-continum, courses of cognition arise [karanam kriya kayadikiccam. Tam nibbattentiti kriyamayani. Athava avajjanadvayakiccam kriya; taya pakatani, nibbattani va kriyamayani. Avajjanavasenahi bhavangupaccede sati vithicittani uppajjanti].

Processes are things which go on, move changing, by arising gradually in different ways. Somewhere there is the reading "of mental states", "of action-making mental states, kriyamaya cittanam." It should be understood that this is not a reading of the Ancients as it is against the commentary and explanation to the Abhidhamma and other books [aparaparuppattiya nanappakarato vattanti parivattantiti pavattani. Katthaci pana cittananti patho. So Abhidhammatthakathadihi tattikahi ca viruddhatta na Parana pathoti veditabbo].

Impulsion of either course of cognition (mind-door or five-door course of cognition) is a process made of action. Therefore it is said in the explanation to the Abhiddhamma, "On account of the condition of processes making action of body and so forth and by reason of the condition of originating action of adverting, impulsion of either course of cognition, or lust of every process of the six doors gets known as a process which makes or is made of action." [javanam sabbampi va chaddvarika vithi cittam kriyamaya pavattani. Tenaha Abhidhammatikayam kayadi kriyamayatta avajjamakriya samutthitatta ca javanam sabbampi va chaddvarapavattam kriyamayapavattam namati].[25]

Non-occurrence: Non-arising (of the processes which make action or are made of action) at the time of falling asleep is called sleep. Thus the thing should be understood. Otherwise sleep could be called the proceeding of even all states of door-free consciousness (namely, every instance of the supervention of the life-continum), before and after the six-door states of consciousness; so, it should be understood that the supervention of the life-continum at a time other than that of falling asleep is included in waking [appavattanti niddokkamana kale anuppajjanam suttam namati attho gahetabbo. Itaratha chaddvarika cittanam pure caranucaravasena uppajjantanam sabbesampi dvaravimutta cittanam pavattam suttam nama siya, eva˝ca katva niddokkamana kalato a˝˝asmim kale uppajjantanam dvaravimutta cittanampi pavattam jagarito sangayhatiti veditabbam].

He who whilst speaking thinks: "This sound arises dependent on the lips, teeth, tongue, palate, and the act of the mind that accords to that sound," speaks, mindful and clearly comprehending.

He who for a long time has studied or expounded the Teaching or recited the words of the subject of meditation, or cleared a question, and later, on becoming silent, thinks: "The bodily and mental things which arose during the time of speaking ended just then," is called a doer of clear comprehension in speaking.

He who, after remaining silent long considering the Teaching or his subject of meditation, thinks that the bodily and mental things that existed in the time of silence ended just then, that the occurrence of derived material qualities is speech, and that the non-occurrence of these is silence, is called a doer of clear comprehension in keeping silence.

This dominance of non-delusion stated by the Elder Maha Siva is intended here in this Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness. But in the Discourse on the Fruit of the Homeless Life (Sama˝˝a phala Sutta) even the entire fourfold clear comprehension is found. Therefore in a special way, here, only by way of clear comprehension of non-delusion should be understood the state of doing clear comprehension.

The occurrence of the sound-base is speech; its non-occurrence is silence [saddayatanassa pavattanam bhasanam appavattanam tunhi].

Since, indeed, in the exposition of the Elder Maha Siva the state of clear comprehension is considered by way of the vision of the ending then and there of material and mental qualities occurring in posture after posture, without a break, the state of clear comprehension should be known by way of the insight portion of the clear comprehension of non-delusion come down in the Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness; not by way of the detailing of the fourfold clear comprehension. Therefore, only, in the Discourse on the Fruit of the Homeless Life (Sama˝˝aphala Sutta) is that fourfold clear comprehension intended.

The dominance of non-delusion refers to the statement to which non-delusion is the dominant or principal thing. This statement of the Elder Maha Siva contains the reason that is found only in the Satipatthana Sutta in this connection, namely, clear comprehension of non-delusion, by way of the insight portion or turn; and not the detailing of fourfold clear comprehension as given in the Sama˝˝aphala Sutta.

In all statements the meaning of the term "clear comprehension" should be understood by way of only clear comprehension that is endowed with mindfulness. Indeed in the Book of Classifications (Vibhangappakarana) these are put just in this way: "One goes forward, mindful and clearly comprehending; one goes backwards, mindful and clearly comprehending."[26]

By the words only clear comprehension that is endowed with mindfulness, both the importance of clear comprehension by way of function and that of mindfulness are taken. Indeed it is not the pointing out of merely the condition of mindfulness with clear comprehension for it is said, "nowhere does knowledge exist without mindfulness."

Now in order to reinforce that thing by the Classificatory Method too [vibhanga nayenapi tadattham samatthetum], the words "Indeed, in the Book of Classifications" and so forth were spoken by the commentator.

By this indeed, one makes clear the importance even of mindfulness here as of clear comprehension [imina pi hi sampaja˝˝assa viya satiya pettha patthanam (padhanam) yeva vibhaveti].

There, "these" refers to the synoptical statement beginning with "In going forwards and in going backwards, he is a doer of clear comprehension." [tattha etani padaniti abhikkante patikkante sampajana kari hoti adini uddesa padani].

The reciters of the Middle Collection [Majjhimabhanaka] however and the scholars of the Abhidhamma [Abhidhammika] say thus: "A certain bhikkhu goes thinking the while of something else, considering something else (that is, not thinking of or considering his action of going, or his subject of meditation.)

Another goes without causing the abandoning of the subject of meditation. In the same manner, a certain bhikkhu thinking the while of something else, considering something else, is standing, sitting, or sleeping (lying down); another sleeps (lies down) without causing the abandoning of the subject of meditation." [eko bhikkhu gacchanto a˝˝am cintento a˝˝am vitakkento gacchati. Eko kammatthanam avissajjetva va gacchati. Tatha eko titthanto nisidanto sayanto a˝˝am cintento a˝˝nam vitakkento sayati. Eko kammatthanam avissajjetva va sayati].

Indeed the earnest bhikkhu comprehends thus: The material and mental qualities which existed at the east end of the ambulatory passed away just there without reaching the west end of the ambulatory. The material and mental qualities which existed at the west end of the ambulatory, too, passed away just there without reaching the east end of the ambulatory. The material and mental qualities which existed at the very centre of the ambulatory passed away just there without reaching either end of the ambulatory. The material and mental qualities which existed in walking, passed away without reaching the position of standing. The material and mental qualities which existed in the position of standing passed away just there without reaching the position of sitting; of sitting, without reaching the position of sleeping. Comprehending in this way again and again, the mind enters the life-continum, the unconscious. When arising, he at once takes up the subject of meditation. This bhikkhu is a doer of clear comprehension in walking (going about) and so forth. In this way, however, the subject becomes unclear in sleep; the subject of meditation should not be made unclear. Therefore the bhikkhu, having exercised to the full extent of his ability on the ambulatory, stood, and sat, lies down comprehending thus: "The body is unconscious; the bed is unconscious. The body does not know, 'I am lying down on the bed.' The bed also does not know, 'On me the body is lying down.' He, whilst just comprehending again and again thus, "The unconscious body is lying down on the unconscious bed," the mind enters the life-continum, the unconscious. On awakening, he at once takes up the subject of meditation. This bhikkhu is called a doer of clear comprehension in sleeping.[27]

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." Thus the bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body by way of the laying hold of the fourfold comprehension either in his own body or in another's body, or at one time in his own body, and in another's at another time. And, here too, "in contemplating origination" and so forth, the origin and the dissolution of only the materiality aggregate should, in the exposition, be taken out. The remainder is to be understood just by the method already stated by the commentator. Here, the Truth of Suffering is the mindfulness which lays hold of the fourfold clear comprehension; the Truth of Origination is the pre-craving which originates that mindfulness; the non-occurrence of either is the Truth of Cessation; the Real Path already stated is the Way-truth. Thus, the bhikkhu having striven by way of the Four Noble Truths reaches peace. This is indeed the means of deliverance up to arahantship of one who lays hold of the fourfold clear comprehension.

The Section of Reflection on Repulsiveness

After explaining body-contemplation by way of the fourfold clear comprehension, to explain it by way of the reflection of repulsiveness, the Master said: "And further," and so forth.

Everything that should be said in connection with the passage beginning with "On just this body" and so forth, is stated in detail, taking into consideration all aspects of the matter, in the Path of Purity, the Visuddhi Magga, and its commentary, The Casket of the Highest Thing, Paramattha Ma˝jusa; a summary of that account is given here.

This reflection by way of mindfulness directed bodywards, called the reflection of repulsiveness is unknown to non-Buddhists in the form of subject of meditation development (kammatthana bhavana vasena). Hence it is a thing which comes into being when a Buddha arises; not at other times. This mindfulness directed bodywards leads to the following:

Great moral-emotional upsurge (maha samvega).

The great tranquillity or security based on effort (maha yogakkhema)

Great mindfulness and clear comprehension (maha sati sampaja˝˝a)

Attainment of insight-knowledge (˝anadassanapatilabha)

Happy living here and now (ditthadhammasukhavihara)

Realization of the fruition of wisdom and freedom[28] (vijjavi-muttiphalasacchikiriya).

This mindfulness has been explained in the following sections: Breathing-in-and-out; four kinds of deportment; the fourfold clear comprehension; the reflection on repulsiveness; the reflection on the elements or modes of existence; and the nine cemetery contemplation.

There are these seven kinds of skill in study to be acquired in regard to this subject of meditation, by:

Repetition of the thirty-two parts of the body verbally (vacasa).

Repetition of the parts only mentally (manasa).

Determining of the hair of the head and so forth according to colour (vannato).

Determining of the parts according to shape (santhanato).

Determination of situation of the parts as above or below the navel, on the upper or lower side of the body, directionally (disato).

Determination of the place in the body acquired by a part, that is, determination spatially (okasato).

Determination of one part by the position of another to it and by way of dissimilarity of one part to another (paricchedato).

There are these ten kinds of skill in reflecting on this subject of meditation:

Doing the meditation gradually as one climbing a stairway one step after another in due order taking one part after another serially (anupubbato).

Doing it not too quickly (natisighato).

Doing it not too slowly (natisanikato).

Doing it by warding off mental rambling (vikkhepapatibahanato).

Practice by way of going beyond the concept of hair and so forth to the idea of repulsiveness (pannattisamatikkamanato).

Practice by gradual elimination of the less clear parts (anupubbamu˝canato).

Practice by way of the part which is the source of ecstasy (appanato).

Practice by way of the Three Discourses: Adhicitta,[29] Sitibhava,[30] and Bojjhangakosalla.[31]

The following is the application of the simile: Like the bag with the two openings is the body made up of the four great primaries, earth, water, fire and air. The thirty-two parts beginning with hair-of-the-head are like the various grains thrown into that bag after mixing them. Like a man with seeing eyes is the yogi. Comparable to the time when after loosening the bag the various grains become clear to one reflecting, is the time when the thirty-two parts become clear to the yogi.

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." The bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in his body or in another's. Sometimes he contemplates the body in his own body, at other times in another's, by way of laying hold on things beginning with the hair of the head.

From here the meaning should be known just in the way already stated by the commentator. Here the mindfulness which lays hold of the thirty-two parts, is the Truth of Suffering. Having interpreted, thus, the portal to emancipation should be understood.

The Section of Reflection on the Modes of Materiality

The Master having explained body-contemplation in the form of reflection on the repulsiveness of the thirty-two parts of the body, said: "And further", now, to set forth body-contemplation by way of reflection on the modes (or elements) of materiality.

The elaboration of the meaning together with the application of the simile, in this connection, is as follows:

Just as if some cow-butcher or a cow-butcher's apprentice, a man who works for his keep, having killed a cow and made it into parts, were sitting at a four-cross-road, just so, a bhikkhu reflects, by way of the modes, on the body, in any one of the four postures thus: "There are in this body the modes of extension, cohesion, caloricity, and oscillation."

The cow-butcher does not get rid of the cow-percept while feeding the cow, driving it to the place of slaughter, tying it and putting it up there, killing it, and even when seeing the dead carcass of the cow; not until he cuts it up and divides it into parts does the perception of a cow disappear. To that butcher sitting (with the meat before him) after cutting up the cow, however, the perception of a cow disappears, and the perception of flesh comes into being. To him, there is not this thought: "I am selling the cow; these people are taking away the cow." But to him, indeed, there occurs this thought: "I am selling flesh; these people indeed, are taking away flesh." .......

To the bhikkhu, similarly, the perception of a being or the perception of a person does not disappear as long as he does not reflect, by way of the modes of materiality, in this body as it is placed or disposed in whatsoever position, after sifting thoroughly the apparently compact aggregation. To him who reflects by way of the modes of materiality, however, the perception of a being disappears; the mind gets established by way of the modes of materiality. Therefore, the Blessed One declared: "A bhikkhu reflects on just this body according as it is placed or disposed, by way of the mode of materiality, thinking thus: 'There are, in this body, the mode of solidity, the mode of cohesion, the mode of caloricity, and the mode of oscillation.' O bhikkhus, in whatever manner, a clever cow-butcher or a cow-butcher's apprentice having slaughtered a cow and divided it by way of portions should be sitting at the junction of a cross-road, in the same manner, a bhikkhu reflects .... thinking thus: 'There are, in this body, the mode of solidity .... And the mode of oscillation.' = Imameva kayam yatha thitam yatha panihitam dhatuso paccavekkhati: atthi imasmim kaye pathavidhatu apodhatu tejodhatu vayodhatuti. Seyyathapi bhikkhave dakkho goghatako va goghatakantevasi va gavim vadhitva catummahapathe bilaso pativibhajitva nissinno assa evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhu imameva kayam .... paccavekkhati atthi imasmim kaye pathavidhatu .... vayodhatuti.

The yogi is comparable to the cow-butcher; the perception of a being is comparable to the perception of a cow; the fourfold posture is comparable to the cross-road; and the reflection by way of the modes of materiality is comparable to the state of sitting with the cow's flesh in front after dividing the cow into parts. Here, this is the textual explanation. Details of the reflection on the modes of materiality as a subject of meditation, however, are given in the Path of Purity.

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally". One dwells contemplating the body in the body thus by way of the laying hold of the four modes of materiality, in one's own or in another's body or at one time in one's own body and at another time in another's body. From here on the exposition should be known just by the method already mentioned. The mindfulness which lays hold of the four modes of materiality is the Truth of Suffering. Thus the portal to deliverance should be known.

By the word placed there is the elucidation of occasion by way of own (or particular) function of material things known as the body in various moments [kaya sankhatam rupadhammanam tasmim tasmim khane sakicca vasena avatthana paridipanam].

By the word disposed here the following meaning should be known: By way of condition, the putting down or settling owing to the arrangement of several conditions [paccaya vasena tehi tehi paccayehi pakarato nihitam].

Reflects (paccavekkhati) = Considers again and again, sees analytically, part by part, separately after sifting thoroughly with the eye of wisdom [pati pati avekkhati ˝anacakkhuna vinibhujjitva visum visum passati].

The Section on the Nine Cemetery Contemplations

After explaining body-contemplation in the form of the modes of materiality, the Master said, "And further," in order to explain body-contemplation through the nine cemetery contemplations.

Uddhumatam = "Swollen". By reason of the swelled state of the corpse comparable to a pair of wind-filled bellows owing to the gradually uprising bloattedness after death.

Vinilakam = "Blue" is stated to be the colour of fully differing shades [viparibhinnavannam]. Blue is that corpse which is reddish in the protuberantly fleshy parts, and whitish in the purulent parts, while, in those parts which are predominantly blue it seems to be as though covered with a blue mantle. This is the descriptive statement of the "blue" corpse.

Vipubbakajatam = "Festering" is the corpse that is full of pus flowing from the broken parts or from the nine openings of the body.

So imameva kayam upasamharati ayampi kho kayo evam dhammo evam bhavi evam anatitoti = "He thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that (dead) body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'"

This has been stated: By the existence of these three: life [ayu], warmth [usma], consciousness [vi˝˝anam], this body can endure to stand, to walk, and do other things; by the separation of these three however this body is indeed a thing like that corpse, is possessed of the nature of corruption, is going to become like that, will become swollen, blue and festering and cannot escape the state of being like that, cannot transcend the condition of swelling up, become blue and festering.

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." Thus by laying hold of the state of swelling and so forth, in regard to one's own body or another's, or at one time in regard to one's own and at another in regard to another's, one dwells contemplating the body in the body.

Khajjamanam = "Whilst it is being eaten": When crows and other creatures after sitting on the belly or another part of the corpse are eating the carcass by picking the flesh of the belly, of the lips, the corners of the eye and so forth.

Samamsalohitam = "Together with (some) flesh and blood": With the flesh and blood still remaining.

Nimmamsalohitam = "Blood-besmeared (skeleton) without flesh": When, though rid of flesh, the blood is still not dry.

A˝˝ena = "In a different place": In a different direction.

Hatthatthikam = "Bone of the hand": the sixty-four kinds of bones of the hand; when these are lying in different places separate from one another. In the explanation of the bone of the foot and so forth, the method is the same as this.

Terovassikani = "More than a year old": beyond a year in a state of exposure.

Putini = "Rotten": just those in the open become rotten by being exposed to wind, sun and rain for over a year. Bones buried in the earth last longer.

Cunnakajatani = "Become dust": scattered in the form of powder.

Everywhere, according to the method already stated beginning: "He thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine too is of the same nature as that (dead) body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body."

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally": Thus through the laying hold of the corpse from the state in which it is being eaten by crows and other creatures to the state when it is dust, one dwells contemplating the body in one's own body, or in another's or at one time in one's own body and at another time in another's body.

Further having stopped here one should put together the nine cemetery contemplations thus:

Ekahamatam va dvihamatam va tihamatam va = "A body dead one, two or three day." This is the first contemplation.

Kakehi va khajjamanam = "Whilst it is being eaten by crows." This portion of the Discourse where the devouring of the body of various kinds of animals is stated refers to the second contemplation.

Atthikasamkhalikam samamsalohitam naharusamban-dham = "A skeleton together with (some) flesh and blood held in by the tendons." This is the third contemplation.

Nimmamsalohitamakkhitam naharusambandham = "A blood-smeared skeleton without flesh but held in by the tendons." This is the fourth.

Apagatamamsalohitam naharusambandham = "A skeleton held in by the tendons but without flesh and not besmeared with blood." This is the fifth.

Atthikani apagatasambandhani = "Bones gone loose, scattered in all directions." This is the sixth.

Atthikani setani sankhavannupanibhani = "Bones white in colour like a conch." This is the seventh.

Atthikani pu˝jakitani terovassikani = "Bones more than a year old heaped together." This is the eighth.

Atthikani putini cunnakajatani = "Bones gone rotten and become dust." This is the ninth.

Evam kho bhikkhave = "Thus, indeed, o bhikkhus." He said this bringing to an end body-contemplation after pointing out the nine cemetery contemplations. The mindfulness which lays hold of the nine cemetery contemplations is the Truth of Suffering; the previous craving which originates that mindfulness is the Truth of Origin; the non-occurrence of both that mindfulness and the craving is the Truth of Cessation. The Real Path that understands suffering, casts out the origin, and has cessation for its object is the Truth of the Way. Endeavouring in this way by means of the Four Truths one arrives at peace. This is for the bhikkhu who lays hold of the nine cemetery contemplations the portal of deliverance up to arahantship.

Now, these are the fourteen portions which comprise body-contemplation: The section on breathing in and breathing out, on the postures, on the four kinds of clear comprehension, of reflection on repulsiveness, on the modes of materiality, and on the nine cemetery contemplations. There, only the sections on breathing in and breathing out and of the reflection on repulsiveness can become meditation-subjects of full absorption. As the cemetery contemplations are stated by way of consideration of disadvantages, dangers or evils, all the remaining twelve are only meditation-subjects of partial absorption.

HOME                     Abhidhamma.org                        CONTENTS