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Part V

The Development of Insight

Chapter 1

The Factors leading to Enlightenment

Defilements can be classified according to different degrees, they can be subtle, medium or coarse defilements.
The coarse defilements, vítikkama kilesas
1 are the defilements which are the condition for committing akusala kamma through the body or through speech. One can abstain from vítikkama kilesa by the observance of síla.
The medium defilements, pariyuììhåna kilesas
2, arise with the akusala citta which is not of the degree of akusala kamma. They can be temporarily subdued by kusala jhånacitta, and that is elimination by suppression, (vikkhambhana pahåna 3).
The subtle defilements are the inherent tendencies, anusaya kilesas
4. So long as defilements have not been completely eradicated the anusaya kilesas lie dormant in the cittas which arise and fall away in succession. They are like germs which condition the arising of the medium defilements. Defilements cannot arise again when they have been completely eradicated (samuccheda pahåna 5). When the lokuttara magga-citta realizes the noble Truths and experiences nibbåna, anusaya kilesas are eradicated in accordance with the stage of enlightenment which has been attained. They are successively eradicated at the different stages of enlightenment.
Before the Buddha’s enlightenment people abstained from akusala by the observance of síla and they could, by the development of samatha, temporarily subdue defilements (vikkhambhana pahåna). They could cultivate samatha even to the highest stage of arúpa-jhåna, the stage of “neither-perception-nor-non-perception”. However, nobody could eradicate the inherent tendencies, the anusaya kilesas. The Buddha, after he had accumulated the perfections (påramís) for four incalculable periods of time and a hundred thousand aeons, attained Buddhahood and thereby became the Sammå-sambuddha, who is unsurpassed in wisdom. He taught the way which should be followed to realize the ariyan Truths. There were many disciples who could realize the noble Truths and eradicate defilements and thus, the ariyan Sangha
6 came into being. From that time on people could study and apply the Dhamma which the Buddha had realized when he attained enlightenment and which he taught in all details for fortyfive years. The Dhamma the Buddha taught is subtle, intricate and deep in meaning. The Buddha taught the characteristics of all realities he had penetrated at the time of his enlightenment. One should study and investigate the Dhamma the Buddha taught in detail so as to have right understanding of it. Otherwise it will be impossible to develop the paññå which can penetrate the true nature of realities and eradicate defilements.
One should have right understanding of the Dhamma from the beginning so that paññå can be developed which knows the characteristics of realities as they are. From the beginning it should be known precisely which dhammas paññå can penetrate: all that is reality and that appears right now through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the bodysense and the mind-door.
Each moment when one sees, hears, smells, tastes, experiences tangible object or thinks, there is bound to be ignorance of the true nature of realities. The Buddha taught in all details about the dhammas which arise and appear all day long, at each moment, through the sense-doors and the mind-door. He taught the Dhamma so that we could see the disadvantages of defilements and the danger of being in the cycle of birth and death. So long as one does not see the danger of being in the cycle of birth and death, there is no sense of urgency, no energy to develop insight, vipassanå. Paññå developed in vipassanå sees as they are the characteristics of realities as they are naturally appearing in daily life, and this kind of paññå can eradicate defilements.
The development of samatha and the development of vipassanå are different with different objectives and they are also different as to the degree of paññå which develops them. In samatha, mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå meditates on specific subjects so that calm can be obtained and the citta is firmly concentrated on the meditation subject. In vipassanå ultimate realities, paramattha dhammas, are the objects of paññå. These are the nåma dhammas and rúpa dhammas which arise and appear and then fall away. Mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå can begin to notice and investigate one reality at a time, over and over again. In that way it can gradually be realized that dhammas are not a being, person or self. The result of the development of samatha is rebirth in one of the brahma-planes. The result of the development of vipassanå is paññå which knows realities as they are and eradicates defilements. The lokuttara magga-citta has nibbåna as object and eradicates defilements in accordance with the stage of enlightenment which has been attained. When the stage of the arahat is attained all defilements are eradicated completely by the magga-citta; that means the end to the cycle of birth and death, no more rebirth.
The person who develops vipassanå should be truthful with regard to himself. He should realize that he still has all kinds of defilements and he should not erroneously believe that lobha has to be eradicated first of all; this would be impossible. Someone who is still an ordinary person cannot pass over stages of development of understanding and become an arahat immediately. First of all, the clinging to “personality view” (sakkåya-diììhi), by which one takes realities for a “whole”, for self, being or person, should be completely eradicated. After that other defilements can be eradicated stage by stage. If someone does not know that while he is seeing there is no self, being or person, how could he eradicate defilements such as attachment or aversion? It is the same with regard to the other doorways. So long as there is personality view, defilements cannot be eradicated.
Each reality which arises falls away very rapidly, it vanishes completely. Realities arise and fall away all the time. The Buddha taught the way to develop the paññå which knows the characteristics of realities as they are. The development of the eightfold Path is the one and only way to realize the truth. The factors of the eightfold Path are the following cetasikas: right understanding (sammå-diììhi, paññå cetasika), right thinking (sammå-sankappa, vitakka cetasika), right speech (sammå-våca cetasika), right action (sammå-kammanta cetasika), right livelihood (sammå-åjíva cetasika), right effort (sammå-våyåma, viriya cetasika), right mindfulness (sammå-sati, sati cetasika) and right concentration (sammå-samådhi, ekaggatå cetasika).
In the beginning, when lokuttara citta has not yet arisen, the Path is still “worldly”, lokiya, not lokuttara. Then there are usually five Path-factors performing their functions together, which means that the citta is not accompanied by the three abstentions, virati cetasikas, of right speech, right action and right livelihood. When there is an opportunity to abstain from akusala, only one type of virati arises at a time. Only at the moment of lokuttara citta the three virati cetasikas arise together. The five Path-factors (apart from the virati cetasikas) perform their functions together when there is awareness of a characteristic of nåma or rúpa appearing through one of the six doors. Paññå cetasika which arises together with sammå-sati gradually begins to consider and to investigate the characteristics of nåma and rúpa. Paññå has to consider realities very often, over and over again, so that it can clearly discern whether it is a nåma or a rúpa which appears.
The realities which appear through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the bodysense or the mind-door can be classified as the four “Applications of Mindfulness”, Satipaììhånas. They are the following:
1. Application of mindfulness of the body, kåyånupassanå
7 satipaììhåna. When sati arises and is aware of a characteristic of a rúpa of the body there is at such a moment kåyånupassanå satipaììhåna.
2. Application of mindfulness of feeling, vedanånupassanå satipaììhåna. When sati arises and is aware of a characteristic of feeling which appears there is at such a moment vedanånupassanå satipaììhåna.
3. Application of mindfulness of citta, cittånupassanå satipaììhåna. When sati arises and is aware of a characteristic of one of the different types of citta there is at such a moment cittanupassanå satipaììhåna.
4. Application of mindfulness of dhammas, dhammånupassanå satipaììhåna. This application of mindfulness includes the realities classified under aspects other than those of the first three applications of mindfulness
8. When sati arises and is aware of a dhamma included in this application of mindfulness, there is at such a moment dhammånupassanå satipaììhåna.

The word satipaììhåna has three meanings:
1. The objects sati is aware of, thus, a paramattha dhamma, a nåma dhamma or a rúpa dhamma. These are classified as the four satipaììhånas.
2. Sati cetasika which arises together with kåmåvacara citta accompanied by paññå (ñåùa-sampayutta), and which is aware of the objects of mindfulness, the four satipaììhånas.
3. The Path the Sammå-sambuddha and the ariyan disciples have developed.
The development of the ariyan eightfold Path is actually the development of the four satipaììhånas. It is the development of awareness and right understanding of the characteristics of realities as they appear one at a time in our daily life, through the sense-doors and through the mind-door. Mindfulness is not easy and in the beginning it cannot often arise. The reason is that ignorance, clinging and all the other akusala dhammas have been accumulated for an endlessly long time in the cycle of birth and death. And also in this life, from the time we were born, defilements have been accumulated each day. The person who correctly understands cause and result of realities knows that he needs great patience and perseverance so that he is able to listen to the Dhamma, to study it carefully and to consider it. Only thus can one have understanding of the realities which appear through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the bodysense and the mind-door. By listening and considering the right conditions are being accumulated for the arising of satipaììhåna, awareness and investigation of the characteristics of the realities which are appearing. In this way realities can be known as they are. Through awareness of realities one will directly understand the truth in conformity with what one has learnt and understood intellectually, namely, that all dhammas, including satipaììhåna and the factors of the eightfold Path, are anattå, non-self. Satipaììhåna can arise when there are the right conditions, that is, when mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå has arisen time and again, and paññå has thus been accumulated. Then people will not deviate anymore from the right Path. They will not follow a practice other than being aware of, noticing and considering the nåma dhammas and the rúpa dhammas appearing through the six doors.
The person who develops paññå is truthful, sincere with regard to his own development. When satipaììhåna arises he knows that that moment is different from forgetfulness of realities. When satipaììhåna arises there cannot yet immediately be clear understanding of the characteristics of nåma and rúpa. Paññå develops only very gradually.
When sati of satipaììhåna notices and considers the characteristics of the nåmas and rúpas which appear, there is also right effort arising together with sati. Right effort can be classified as fourfold, as four sammåppadhånas, right efforts: the effort to avoid, saóvara-padhåna, the effort to overcome, pahåna-padhåna, the effort to develop, bhåvanå-padhåna, and the effort to maintain, anurakkhaùa-padhåna.
Saóvara-padhåna is the effort to avoid the arising of akusala dhammas which have not arisen yet.
Pahåna-padhåna is the effort to overcome or eliminate the akusala dhammas which have arisen.
Bhåvanå-padhåna is the effort to develop the kusala dhammas which have not yet arisen.
Anurakkhaùa-padhåna is the effort to maintain the kusala dhammas which have arisen so that they will reach completion.
These four right efforts are the foundation for the accomplishment of result, but there are other sobhana dhammas needed to reach the goal and among these are the four “Roads to Power” or “Bases of Success”, iddhi-pådas
9. These are the following:
1. The Basis of Success of chanda. This is chanda cetasika or wish-to-do. Chanda wishes to consider and to be aware of the characteristics of the nåmas and rúpas which are appearing, so that they can be known as they are. Chanda is compared to a royal attendant who is diligent in his service to the King. Evenso is chanda a basis of accomplishment so that the right result can be reached
10.
2. The Basis of Success of viriya. This is viriya cetasika or energy, energy to notice and consider the characteristics of the nåmas and rúpas which are appearing. By dependance on energy the right result can be accomplished. Viriya is compared to a royal attendant who assists the King by his courage in the performance of his task.
3. The Basis of Success of citta. Through citta the right result can be achieved. Citta is compared to a royal attendant who gives assistance to the King by accomplishing his task well because of his natural good qualities.
4. The Basis of Success of vimaóså, investigation. This is paññå cetasika which carefully considers and investigates the characteristics of realities. By dependance on paññå the right result can be achieved. Vimaóså is compared to a royal attendant who gives assistance to the King by his wisdom.
Each of these royal attandants can, because of his own natural capability be a dependable support in the accomplishment of the goal. Evenso the Bases of Success are a dependable support to reach the right result.
The four Bases of Success have to depend on the five “spiritual faculties”, indriyas, so that they can perform their functions. These faculties have to be developed so that they can have a leading function with regard to the development of the right Path. They are the following:
1. The faculty of confidence, which is saddhå cetasika. This is a leader when there is confidence in awareness of the characteristics of realities which are appearing.
2. The faculty of energy, which is viriya cetasika. This is a leader when there is energy and courage which prevents one from being lazy and disheartened with regard to awareness right now. It is energy for awareness of the characteristics of realities which are appearing.
3. The faculty of mindfulness, which is sati cetasika. It is a leader which prevents forgetfulness, it is mindful of the characteristics of realities which are appearing.
4. The faculty of concentration, samådhi, which is ekaggatå cetasika. It is a leader in focussing on the object which is appearing.
5. The faculty of wisdom, which is paññå cetasika. It is a leader in careful consideration, investigation and study of the characteristics of the realities which appear.
When the five faculties have been developed they become powerful and unshakable. They do not vacillate with regard to their task of considering whatever object appears. Then they can become “powers”, balas. The powers are the following:
1. The power of confidence, saddhå, which cannot be shaken by lack of confidence.
2. The power of energy, viriya, which cannot be shaken by discouragement.
3. The power of mindfulness, sati, which cannot be shaken by forgetfulness of the realities which appear.
4. The power of concentration, samådhi, which cannot be shaken by distraction with regard to the object which appears.
5. The power of wisdom, paññå, which cannot be shaken by ignorance.
Saddhå, viriya, sati and samådhi can become strong when paññå has become a power. When paññå thoroughly understands the characteristics of nåma and rúpa, it has become unshakable, it does not vacillate. When seeing appears paññå can realize its characteristic as nåma, the reality, the element which experiences. It is the same with regard to hearing, smelling, tasting, the experience of tangible object and thinking; these can be realized as nåma.
When paññå accompanied by sati considers the characteristics of nåma and rúpa over and over again, it becomes more accomplished, so that different stages of insight, vipassanå ñåùas, can be reached. Then paññå is accompanied by seven factors of enlightenment, bojjhangas. These factors which lead to the realization of the noble Truths are the following:
1. The enlightenment factor of mindfulness, sati cetasika.
2. The enlightenment factor of investigation of Dhamma, dhamma-vicaya. This is paññå cetasika.
3. The enlightenment factor of energy, viriya cetasika.
4. The enlightenment factor of rapture, píti cetasika.
5. The enlightenment factor of calm, passaddhi. These are the cetasikas which are calm of cetasikas, kåya-passaddhi, and calm of citta, citta-passaddhi.
6. The enlightenment factor of concentration which is samådi, ekaggatå cetasika.
7. The enlightenment factor of equanimity, upekkhå, which is tatramajjhattatå cetasika.
When paññå has become accomplished to the degree that it can realize the noble Truths it is accompanied by these seven factors of enlightenment. Paññå reaches accomplishment by means of thirtyseven dhammas pertaining to enlightenment, the bodhipakkhiya dhammas. These are: the four applications of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of success, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment and the eight Path-factors
11.
The lokuttara citta is accompanied by all eight Path-factors. These are the following cetasikas: sammå-diììhi, right view, sammå-sankappa, right thinking, sammå-våca, right speech, sammå-kammanta, right action, sammå-åjíva, right livelihood, sammå-våyåma, right effort, sammå-sati, right mindfulness, and sammå-samådhi, right concentration. The lokuttara citta is accompanied by all the dhammas pertaining to enlightenment, bodhipakkhiya dhammas, when enlightenment is attained and nibbåna is experienced in a mind-door process. That process runs as follows:

bhavanga-cittas , vipåkacittas which are ñåùa-sampayutta
12
bhavanga-calana, vibrating bhavanga, vipåkacitta, ñåùa-sampayutta
bhavangupaccheda, arrest bhavanga, vipåkacitta, ñåùa-sampayutta
manodvåråvajjana-citta which is kiriyacitta
|parikamma (preparatory), mahå-kusala, ñåùa-sampayutta
|upacåra (proximatory), mahå-kusala, ñåùa-sampayutta, of
| the same type as parikamma javana- |anuloma (adaptation), mahå-kusala ñåùa-sampayutta, of the cittas | same type as parikamma
|gotrabhú (change-of-lineage
13), mahå-kusala citta ñåùa-
| sampayutta, of the same type as parikamma
|sotapatti magga-citta, lokuttara kusala citta
|sotapatti phala-citta, lokuttara vipåkacitta
|sotapatti phala-citta, lokuttara vipåkacitta

bhavanga-citta, vipåkacitta, ñåùa-sampayutta

In the case of lokuttara jhåna
14, the lokuttara jhånacitta is accompanied by the jhåna-factors of the stage of jhåna which was attained just before enlightenment. Thus, if there is lokuttara jhånacitta accompanied by the factors of the second stage of jhåna, vitakka cetasika, sammå-sankappa (right thinking) does not arise 15 . If there is lokuttara jhånacitta accompanied by the factors of the third stage of jhåna, vicåra cetasika (sustained thinking) does not arise. If there is lokuttara jhånacitta accompanied by the factors of the fourth stage of jhåna, píti cetasika (rapture) does not arise. If there is lokuttara jhånacitta accompanied by the factors of the fifth stage of jhåna, there is upekkhå vedanå (indifferent feeling), instead of somanassa (pleasant feeling).
A person who is keen (tikkha puggala) and realizes the noble Truths rapidly, does not need parikamma (preparatory consciousness) in the process during which magga-citta arises. Thus, in that process there are upacåra (proximatory consciousness), anuloma (adaptation), gotrabhú (change-of-lineage), magga-citta, and then, instead of two moments of phala-citta, there are three moments of phala-citta
16 .
When the magga-víthi-cittas have fallen away, there are bhavanga-cittas arising and falling away, and then there are processes of cittas reviewing the enlightenment which was attained (paccavekkhaùa víthi). There are five different processes of reviewing, and during one process at a time the cittas review the magga-citta, the phala-citta, nibbåna, the defilements which have been eradicated and the defilements which have not yet been eradicated.
When the magga-víthi-cittas of the different stages of enlightenment have fallen away, they must be followed by processes of reviewing. Thus, the ariyan does not have wrong understanding with regard to his stage of enlightenment. The sotåpanna does not erroneously believe that he is a sakadågåmí (once-returner, who has attained the second stage of enlightenment), and it is the same for the sakadågåmí, the anågåmí (non-returner, who has attained the third stage of enlightenment) and the arahat.
At the higher stages of enlightenment, following upon the stage of the sotåpanna, there is in the process of enlightenment instead of change-of-lineage, gotrabhú, “purification”, vodåna. The reason is that the person who attains a higher stage of enlightenment is no longer an ordinary person.

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Chapter 2.

The Stages of Vipassanå

Before enlightenment can be attained, mahå-kusala citta which is ñåùa-sampayutta, accompanied by paññå, has to consider and investigate the characteristics of all kinds of nåma and rúpa over and over again, life after life. In this way understanding of realities can grow. When paññå has become keener and more accomplished, mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå which is vipassanå ñåùa, insight wisdom, can arise. The kind of paññå which is vipassanå ñåùa can clearly realize through the mind-door the characteristics of nåma and rúpa, in accordance with the stages of insight which are successively reached. There are several stages of insight which have to be reached before enlightenment can be attained.
The first stage of insight is knowledge of the difference between nåma and rúpa, nåma-rúpa-pariccheda-ñåùa
17.
Mahå-kusala citta ñåùa-sampayutta arises and clearly distinguishes the difference between the characteristic of nåma and the characteristic of rúpa as they appear one at a time. The objects constituting “the world” appear as devoid of self. At that moment there is no attå-saññå, wrong remembrance of self, which used to remember or perceive realities as a “whole”, conceived as “the world”. There begins to be right remembrance of the realities which appear as anattå. Satipaììhåna should continue to be aware of all kinds of nåma and rúpa, in addition to those realized at the moment of vipassanå ñåùa. When there is awareness of realities, paññå should consider again and again anattå-saññå penetrated at the moment of vipassanå ñåùa. Otherwise attå-saññå which has been accumulated for a long time in the cycle of birth and death cannot be eradicated.
The second stage of vipassanå ñåùa is discerning conditions for nåma and rúpa, paccaya-pariggaha-ñåùa
18.
When the moments of vipassanå ñåùa have fallen away, the world appears as it used to appear, as a whole. The person who develops satipaììhåna clearly knows the difference between the moment of vipassanå ñåùa and the moment which is not vipassanå ñåùa. When vipassanå ñåùa has fallen away, ignorance and doubt about realities can arise again, since these defilements have not been eradicated. When the first stage of insight has been reached there is full comprehension of what has been known, ñåta pariññå
19. Paññå realizes as they are the characteristics of realities which appear at the moments of vipassanå ñåùa. Then there is no ignorance and doubt about those realities. The first stage of insight is only a beginning stage that can lead to the following stages of insight which penetrates more and more the characteristics of nåma and rúpa.
When satipaììhåna continues to be mindful of the realities which appear and investigates their characteristics, there can be more understanding of their conditions. When one object appears at a time, paññå can realize that nåma, the element which experiences, arises because of conditions, that it is conditioned by that object. If there were no object appearing, nåma could not arise. Thus, whenever there is nåma, there must be an object experienced by nåma. When one object at a time appears, paññå can understand that the dhammas which arise are dependent on conditions. In this way paññå can see more clearly the nature of anattå of all dhammas and thus there will gradually be more detachment from the inclination to take objects for self. When the the factors of the eightfold Path, cetasikas included in saòkhårakkhandha, have been developed to a higher degree, they can condition the arising of the second vipassanå ñåùa. This is paccaya-pariggaha-ñåùa which directly understands the dependency on conditions of nåma and rúpa at the moment they arise. Thus, there is awareness and direct understanding of the arising of realities such as hearing, sound, pleasant feeling, unpleasant feeling or thinking. All these dhammas, arising each because of their own conditions, are realized one at a time, as clearly distinct from each other. They are realized as devoid of self.
Vipassanå ñåùa clearly knows the characteristics of the realities which naturally appear and it knows them through the mind-door. Vipassanå ñåùa discerns the characteristics of the different objects as clearly distinct from each other and it realizes them as non-self. When vipassanå ñåùa has fallen away the world appears as it used to appear, as a whole.
The third vipassanå ñåùa is comprehension by groups, sammasana ñåùa
20. This is the paññå which clearly realizes the rapid succession of nåmas and rúpas as they arise and fall away. When this stage of insight has not yet arisen, one knows that nåma and rúpa arise and fall away very rapidly, but the rapid succession of nåmas and rúpas as they arise and fall away does not appear. At the first stage and at the second stage of insight, paññå penetrates the characteristics of nåma and of rúpa, one at a time, as distinct from each other, but it does not yet realize their rapid succession as they arise and fall away.
The first, the second and the third stage of insight are only beginning stages, they are called “tender insight”, taruùa vipassanå. They are not “insight as power”, balava
21 vipassanå, that is, insight which has become more powerful at the higher stages. At the stages of tender insight, when there is direct understanding of the nåmas and rúpas which appear, there is still thinking arising in between. However, although there is thinking, different dhammas are not joined together into a whole, into “the whole world”, such as one used to do.
Since there is at the three beginning stages of vipassanå still thinking of the nåma and rúpa which are realized, paññå is called “cintå ñåùa”, “cintå” meaning thinking or consideration. Some people may have misunderstandings about the stages of insight where there is still thinking. They may believe that there is already “tender insight” when one considers and notices characteristics of nåma and rúpa and has more understanding of them. However, so long as vipassanå ñåùa has not arisen yet one cannot penetrate the nature of anattå of vipassanå ñåùa. One cannot understand that vipassanå ñåùa, which clearly realizes through the mind-door the characteristics of nåma and rúpa, can arise at any place and can take as object whatever reality appears. It arises because of its own conditions and it cannot be directed or controlled.
Someone may erroneously believe, when he is aware, considers and notices characteristics of nåma and rúpa, that he has clear understanding of them and that he has reached already the first stage of insight, knowledge of the difference between nåma and rúpa, nåma-rúpa-pariccheda-ñåùa. A person can have such misunderstanding because he does not know yet that vipassanå ñåùa must appear as anattå, as not self, just as the other types of nåma which appear. When vipassanå ñåùa arises characteristics of nåma and rúpa appear through the mind-door
22. The rúpas which are sense-objects are experienced through the corresponding sense-doors and after each sense-door process the object is experienced through the mind-door. However, when there is no vipassanå ñåùa the mind-door process does not appear, it is as it were hidden by the sense objects experienced in the sense-door processes. At the moments of vipassanå ñåùa, rúpas appear very clearly through the mind-door, and at that moment the mind-door hides as it were the sense-doors. Then the situation is opposite to the moments when there is no vipassanå ñåùa.
Some people believe, when they consider nåma and rúpa and know that this nåma is conditioned by that rúpa and this rúpa is conditioned by that nåma, that the second stage of insight has already arisen, namely the direct understanding of conditionality, paccaya-pariggaha-ñåùa. However, when the first stage of insight, nåma-rúpa-pariccheda-ñåùa, has not arisen yet, the following stages of insight cannot arise either. When the first stage of insight has arisen, one will not erroneously believe that there is vipassanå ñåùa when there is no vipassanå ñåùa. When vipassanå ñåùa has arisen one understands its nature of anattå. One realizes that it has arisen because of the right conditions; one knows that the factors of the eightfold Path were developed to such degree that that stage of insight could arise. Vipassanå ñåùa can only arise when the right conditions have been cultivated, that is, satipaììhåna which studies, investigates and notices the characteristics of nåma and rúpa as they naturally appear in daily life over and over again, so that paññå can become keener.
Someone who does not even know the difference between the characteristics of nama and rúpa may mistakenly believe that he has reached the third stage of insight, the stage of comprehension by groups, sammasana ñåùa. He may think that he can experience the arising and falling away of nåmas, one after the other, and that that is the third stage of insight. However, if someone has not developed satipaììhåna and has not been aware of the characteristics of different kinds of nåma which appear, he does not realize nåma as the element which experiences. He may believe that he experiences the arising and falling away of nåma, but he does not clearly know what nåma is. He confuses nåma and rúpa, he does not know that nåma is entirely different from rúpa. A person who is impatient wishes that vipassanå ñåùa arises soon. He will try to do something other than being aware of the characteristics of nåma and rúpa which naturally appear and have arisen because of the appropriate conditions. It is impossible to hasten the development of paññå. Paññå can only grow gradually and there is no other condition for its growth but the development of satipaììhåna in our ordinary daily life. If someone tries to do something else he goes the wrong way and the wrong cause cannot bring the right result. If someone hopes for a quick result of his practice, it is the wrong path, he does not understand what the right Path is. Lobha-múla-citta accompanied by wrong view motivates the development of the wrong path and this will lead to the wrong release
23, not the right release which is freedom from defilements.
The fourth vipassanå ñåùa is knowledge of the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa, udayabbaya ñåùa
24 .
Vipassanå ñåùa of the third stage realizes the rapid succession of nåmas and rúpas as they arise and fall. However, at this stage paññå is not yet keen enough to see the danger and disdavantages of the arising and falling away, so that there can be detachment from them. The immediate arising of a new dhamma after the falling away of the former dhamma covers up the danger of the arising and falling away. Paññå should become keener so that the following stage of insight can be reached. At the fourth stage paññå can penetrate more clearly the arising and falling away of each kind of nåma and each kind of rúpa separately. One should not try to do something else but continue to consider the characteristics of nåma and rúpa, one should be steadfast in the development of paññå. All kinds of nåma and rúpa can be object of understanding, no matter whether they are kusala dhammas or akusala dhammas, no matter of what degree of kusala or akusala they are or through which doorway they appear. The fourth stage of vipassanå ñåùa, udayabbaya ñåùa, knows more precisely the arising and falling away of each kind of nåma and of rúpa as it appears one at a time. This stage of insight can arise when “full understanding of investigation”, tíraùa pariññå, has become more accomplished
25. Full understanding of investigation is the kind of paññå which considers and clearly understands the characteristics of all kinds of nåma and rúpa as they appear through the six doors. So long as this is not the case, there are no conditions for the arising of udayabbaya ñåùa.
The person who develops the right Path knows that nibbåna, the reality which eradicates defilements, cannot be realized if understanding of conditioned realities has not been fully developed. First the paññå should be developed which clearly understands the characteristics of nåma and rúpa as they naturally appear in daily life. It is impossible to realize nibbåna if paññå does not penetrate thoroughly and precisely the characteristics of all kinds of nåma and rúpa which appear through the six doors.
The characteristics of nåma and rúpa which appear through each of the six doorways are different from each other. If paññå does not precisely understand the difference between the characteristics of nåma and rúpa as they appear through the six doorways, the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa cannot be realized. Then, ignorance, doubt and wrong view about realities cannot be eradicated.
The fifth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is knowledge of dissolution, bhaòga ñåùa
26.
Even though the fourth stage of vipassanå ñåùa clearly realizes the arising and falling away of one characteristic of nåma and of rúpa at a time, clinging to them is still very persistent. Clinging to all realities has been accumulated for an endlessly long time in the cycle of birth and death. Ignorance and clinging to the concept of self are like firmly implanted roots which are hard to pull up. Paññå has to be developed more thoroughly through satipaììhåna. There must be awareness and investigation again and again of the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa which was already realized at the fourth stage of insight. Paññå should investigate more thoroughly the falling away of the nåmas and rúpas which appear. Then it can be seen that dhammas which fall away cannot be any refuge. Through the development of satipaììhåna paññå becomes keener and more accomplished so that there are the right conditions for the fifth stage of vipassanå ñåùa, knowledge of dissolution, bhanga ñåùa. This stage of vipassanå clearly realizes that nåma and rúpa which arise and fall away cannot be any refuge, that they cannot give any security. Then there is the beginning of the third pariññå, “full understanding of abandoning”, pahåna pariññå. This pariññå can lead to higher stages of paññå, to paññå which begins to detach from clinging to the idea of self, being or person.
The sixth stage of insight is knowledge of terror, bhaya ñåùa.
When the knowledge of dissolution, banga ñåùa has fallen away, the person who develops vipassanå realizes that defilements are still strong, that there are conditions for their arising to the extent they have been accumulated. He carefully considers the characteristic of dissolution of nåma and rúpa, but the clinging to the concept of self is still firmly accumulated. This kind of clinging can be eliminated by seeing the danger and unsatisfactoriness of the dissolution of nåma and rúpa. Paññå should continue to consider the characteristics of nåma and rúpa and thereby realize more and more the danger and disadvantage of the dissolution of realities. When paññå has become more accomplished there can be the right conditions for the arising of the sixth stage of insight, knowledge of terror. This knowledge sees the danger of nåma and rúpa while it clearly realizes at that moment the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa.
The seventh stage of insight is knowledge of danger, ådínava ñåùa.
Knowledge of terror, bhaya ñåùa, sees the disadvantage of the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa, but when this knowledge has fallen away, clinging to the concept of self can still arise; it has not been eradicated. The person who develops satipaììhåna understands that the danger and disadvantage of nåma and rúpa which arise and fall away should be realized more deeply and under various aspects. In that way the inclination to take nåma and rúpa for self will decrease. When sati is aware of the characteristics of the realities which arise and fall away paññå becomes keener and sees more clearly the disadvantage of the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa. Paññå becomes accomplished to the degree that it conditions the arising of knowledge of danger, ådínava ñåùa. When this knowledge arises, it clearly realizes the danger and disadvantage of nåma and rúpa which arise and fall away.
The eighth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is knowledge of dispassion, nibbidå ñåùa.
When the danger of all conditioned realities is realized they seem to be like a building which has caught fire. The clinging to life becomes less when one clearly sees the futility of the nåma and rúpa which appear. Then there is knowledge of dispassion, nibbidå ñåùa.
The ninth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is knowledge of desire for deliverance, muccitukamyatå ñåùa
27.
When paññå realizes more and more clearly the futility of the nåma and rúpa which appear, and it becomes more detached from them, paññå wants to become liberated from nåma and rúpa which arise and fall away. The paññå which wants to be liberated is knowledge of desire for deliverance, mucitukamyatå ñåùa.
The tenth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is knowledge of reflexion, paìisaòkhå ñåùa
28.
When paññå arises which wants to be liberated from nåma and rúpa and this wish has become stronger, pañña will be inclined to consider over and over again the three general characteristics of conditioned dhammas: impermanence, dukkha and anattå. When paññå clearly realizes the characteristic of impermanence of all conditioned dhammas which arise and fall away, it sees them as completely devoid of any security, as fleeting, unenduring, changeable, unstable and as no refuge. When paññå clearly realizes the characteristic of dukkha of all conditioned ralities which arise and fall away, it sees them as continually oppressive, as something threatening from which there is no escape, as something incurable, as danger, as something unattractive, not worth clinging to. When paññå clearly realizes the characteristic of anattå of all conditioned realities which arise and fall away, it sees them as empty, void, as something that cannot be owned, as beyond control. The paññå which clearly realizes the three characteristics of all conditioned dhammas, saòkhåra dhammas, is knowledge of reflexion, paìisankhå ñåùa.
The eleventh stage of vipassanå ñåùa is knowledge of equanimity about conditioned dhammas, saòkhårupekkhå ñaùa.
When the paññå which clearly realizes the three general characterisitics of all conditioned dhammas has become more accomplished, there will be less inclination to take conditioned dhammas for permanent, for happiness or for self. Thus, there can be more equanimity towards conditioned dhammas. The person who develops vipassanå knows that so long as nibbåna does not appear and paññå can therefore not penetrate its characteristic, he should continue to investigate whichever of the three general characteristics of conditioned realities appears as object. The paññå which leads to equanimity towards the conditioned dhammas which arise and fall away is knowledge of equanimity about conditioned dhammas, saòkhårupekkhå ñåùa. This knowledge is the insight which leads to attainment of what is supreme, it leads to emergence
29. It is the paññå which conditions someone to leave the state of an ordinary person, and this occurs when the magga-citta, path-consciousness, arises.
The twelfth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is adaptation knowledge, anuloma ñåùa.
Adaptation knowledge, or conformity knowledge, is the vipassanå ñåùa which arises in the process during which enlightenment is attained, the magga-víthi. This kind of knowledge conforms to the clear understanding of the noble Truths
30. Adaptation knowledge are the three moments of mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå arising in the magga-víthi. They are: parikamma or preparatory consciousness, upacåra or access and anuloma or adaptation. These three cittas have as their object one of the three general characteristics 31. They realize the conditioned dhamma appearing at that moment either as impermanent, or as dukkha or as anattå. Adaptation knowledge adapts or conforms to detachment from the objects which are conditioned dhammas.
For the person who is keen (tikkha puggala), that is, who has keen paññå and can realize the noble Truths rapidly, there are two moments of adaptation knowledge, because he does not need preparatory consciousness, parikamma.
The thirteenth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is change-of-lineage knowledge, gotrabhú ñåùa.
This knowledge succeeds the anuloma ñåùa which includes three moments of citta for the person who realizes the noble Truths more slowly than a person with keen paññå, and two moments for a person with keen paññå
32. Change-of-lineage knowledge is mahå-kusala citta ñåùa-sampayutta and this citta has nibbåna as object. It is repetition-condition, asevana-paccaya 33 for the succeeding magga-citta of the stage of the sotåpanna which is lokuttara kusala citta. The magga-citta has nibbåna as object and eradicates defilements.
In the process of cittas all seven javana-cittas usually have the same object, but it is different in the case of the magga-víthi. The cittas which are parikamma, preparatory consciousness, upacåra, access, and anuloma, adaptation, have as object one of the three general characteristics of conditioned realities. The following cittas in that process, the gotrabhú, change-of-lineage, the magga-citta and the moments of phala-citta (two or three moments), have nibbåna as object. Gotrabhú is mahå-kusala citta which has for the first time nibbåna as object. It is as it were “adverting” to the magga-citta of the stage of the sotåpanna which succeeds the gotrabhú and has nibbåna as object. The “Visuddhimagga” (XXII, 11) states that this citta, since it can only realize nibbåna but not dispel defilements, is called “adverting to the Path”. We read: ”For although it is not adverting (åvajjana
34), it occupies the position of adverting; and then, after as it were giving a sign to the path to come into being, it ceases.” The path-consciousness which succeeds it can then, while it experiences nibbana, eradicate defilements.
The “Atthasåliní” (II, Book I, Part VII, Ch I, the first Path, 232, 233) and the “Visuddhimagga” (XXII, 8-10)) use a simile for anuloma ñåùa and gotrabhú ñåùa. A man went out at night in order to look at the moon. The moon did not appear because it was concealed by clouds. Then a wind blew away the thick clouds, another wind blew away the medium clouds and another wind blew away the fine clouds. Then that man could see the moon free from clouds. Nibbåna is like the moon. The three moments of anuloma ñåna, adaptation knowledge, are like the three winds. Gotrabhú ñåùa is like the man who sees the clear moon in the sky, free from clouds.
As the three winds are able only to disperse the clouds covering the moon and do not see the moon, evenso the three moments of anuloma ñåùa are able only to dispel the murk that conceals the noble Truths but they cannot experience nibbåna. Just as the man can only see the moon but cannot blow away the clouds, so gotrabhú ñåùa can only experience nibbåna but cannot dispel defilements.
The fourteenth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is path knowledge, magga ñåùa.
When gotrabhú has fallen away it is succeeded by the path-consciousness of the sotåpanna and this citta transcends the state of the ordinary person and reaches the state of the noble person, the ariyan. This citta eradicates defilements in accordance with the stage of enlightenment which has been reached.
The fifteenth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is fruition knowledge, phala ñåùa.
When the magga-citta of the sotåpanna has fallen away it conditions the arising of the succeeding citta, the phala-citta. The phala-citta which is lokuttara vipåkacitta immediately succeeds the magga-citta without any interval. Lokuttara kusala citta is kamma-condition for the vipåkacitta which follows without delay, without there being other cittas in between, and therefore it is called “without delay”, akåliko
35. Thus, lokuttara vipåkacitta is different from other kinds of vipåkacitta. The lokuttara vipåkacittas, which are two or three moments of citta arising in the magga-víthi and succeeding the magga-citta, perform the function of javana. Thus, they perform a function different from the functions performed by other types of vipåkacitta.
The sixteenth stage of vipassanå ñåùa is reviewing knowledge, paccavekkhaùa ñåùa.
When the magga-víthi-cittas have fallen away they are succeeded by bhavanga-cittas and then mind-door process cittas arise. These cittas review the enlightenment which was attained. In one process cittas review the magga-citta, in one process the phala-citta, in one process the defilements which have been eradicated, in another process the defilements which are still remaining and in another process again nibbåna.
The person for whom the magga-citta and the phala-citta of the stage of the arahat have arisen, does not have to review remaining defilements since the magga-citta of the arahat has completely eradicated all defilements.


Summarizing the vipassanå ñåùas, they are:

knowledge of the difference between nåma and rúpa, nåma-rúpa-
pariccheda-ñåùa
discerning conditions for nåma and rúpa, paccaya-pariggaha-ñåùa
comprehension by groups, sammasana ñåùa
knowledge of arising and falling away, udayabbaya ñåùa
knowledge of dissolution, bhanga ñåùa
knowledge of terror, bhaya ñåùa
knowledge of danger, ådínava ñåùa
knowledge of dispassion, nibbidå ñåùa
knowledge of desire for deliverance, mucitukamyatå ñåùa
knowledge of reflexion, paìisankhå ñaùa
knowledge of equanimity about condiitoned dhammas,
saòkhårupekkhå ñåùa
adaptation or conformity knowledge, anuloma ñåùa
change-of-lineage knowledge, gotrabhú ñåùa
path knowledge, magga ñåùa
fruition knowledge, phala ñåùa
reviewing knowledge, paccavekkhana ñåùa

Vipassanå ñåùas have been classified here as sixteen. However, in some texts they are classified as nine, that is, when the classification begins with the first principal insight, mahå-vipassanå, knowledge of the arising and falling away, uddayabbaya ñåùa, and ends with adaptation knowledge, anuloma ñåùa. These nine stages of vipassanå ñåùa which do not include the three beginning stages of “tender insight” are “vipassanå as power”, balava vipassanå.
Sometimes vipassanå ñåùas are classified as ten, when the classification begins with the third stage of tender insight, comprehension by groups, sammasana ñåùa and ends with adaptation knowledge.
The exposition of all the different stages of insight, from the first stage up to adaptation knowledge, arising before the attainment of enlightenment, shows that the development of insight is a long process. Very gradually insight can become keener and more accomplished, so that adaptation knowledge can arise and conform to the realization of nibbåna.

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Chapter 3.

Different Kinds of Purity.

Paññå developed in satipaììhåna becomes keener and purer as successive stages of vipassanå are reached. In the development of satipaììhåna there are different kinds of purity, visuddhi, and these can be classified as ninefold.
The first purity is purity of síla, síla visuddhi. Síla arising together with satipaììhåna which is aware of the characteristics of nåma and rúpa, is síla visuddhi. At that moment there is purification from ignorance about the characteristics of paramattha dhammas which are non-self. When satipaììhåna does not arise, one is bound to take síla for self, and thus, síla is not síla visuddhi.
The second purity is purity of citta, citta visuddhi. This is actually different degrees of samådhi, concentration, arising while sati is aware of the characteristics of nåma and rúpa. Or, when jhånacitta is the object of satipaììhåna, jhånacitta is citta visuddhi. At that moment one does not take jhånacitta for self.
The third purity is purity of view, ditthi visuddhi. This is the stage of insight which is nåma-rúpa-pariccheda-ñåùa, the paññå which clearly discerns the difference between the characteristics of nåma and rúpa. At that moment one does not take any reality, including the insight knowledge, for self. There is purity of view, diììhi visuddhi, because there was never before such clear realization of the different characteristics of nåma and rúpa as non-self.
The fourth purity is purity by overcoming doubt, kaòkhåvitaraùa visuddhi
36.
When purity of view has arisen, paññå developed through satipaììhåna sees the characteristics of dhammas as they really are
37. Paññå sees realities as they are while sati is aware of the characteristics of realities as they appear through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the bodysense and the mind-door. In that way paññå becomes accomplished to the degree that the second stage of insight can arise: knowledge of discerning conditions of nåma and rúpa, paccaya-pariggaha-ñåùa. When one directly understands that realities arise because of their appropriate conditions, doubt about their conditional arising is eliminated. Then there is the purity by overcoming doubt.
The fifth purity is purity by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path, maggåmagga-ñåùadassana visuddhi
38.
When purity by overcoming doubt has arisen, paññå becomes more accomplished through satipaììhåna which is aware of the characteristics of nåma and rúpa. Paññå becomes more familiar with their characteristics and comes to know them more clearly. Paññå realizes that realities are equal in the sense that all of them are only conditioned dhammas, and thus there is more equanimity with regard to them. This means that there is more detachment, less inclination to cling to any particular nåma or rúpa. Paññå is more inclined to investigate the arising and falling away of the nåma and rúpa which appear, their characteristics of impermanence, dukkha and anattå. Thus, paññå can realize the arising and falling away of dhammas in succession, at the stage of insight which is comprehension by groups, sammasana ñåùa. After that stage there can be the fourth stage of insight which is knowledge of the arising and falling away of realities, udayabbaya ñåùa. This is a more precise knowledge of the arising and falling away of one kind of nåma and one kind of rúpa at a time.
A person who is a beginner in insight can have “imperfections of insight”. After the fourth stage of insight has fallen away, defilements can arise. Since they have not been eradicated they can condition the arising of one or more “imperfections of insight”, vipassanúpakkilesas (Visuddhimagga Ch XX, 105-129). There are ten imperfections of insight, arising on account of the following factors:

illumination, obhåsa
insight knowledge, vipassanå ñåùa
rapture, píti
tranquillity, passaddhi
happiness, sukha
resolution, adhimokkha
exertion, paggåha
assurance, upaììhåna
equanimity, upekkhå
delight, nikanti

As to the first imperfection arising on account of illumination, this can occur when the fourth stage of insight, knowledge of the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa, has fallen away. The citta may have reached such degree of calm that it conditions the arising of illumination
39. When attachment to this arises it is an imperfection of insight. This imperfection causes the interruption of the development of insight. One does not investigate any more the arising and falling away of realities and does not attend to their characteristics of impermanence, dukkha and anattå.
The second imperfection is attachment to paññå which clearly realizes the characteristices of nåma and rúpa as they arise and fall away very rapidly. One is attached to the knowledge which is keen and arises in himself like a lightning flash. Due to this imperfection one does not continue to investigate the arising and falling away of realities and to develop understanding of the three general characteristics.
The third imperfection is attachment to rapture and satisfaction about the direct understanding of the arising and falling away of dhammas.
The fourth imperfection is attachment to tranquillity, to freedom from restlessness, heaviness, rigidity, crookedness or unwieldiness.
The fifth imperfection is attachment to the happy feeling which is very intense and which arises due to insight.
The sixth imperfection is clinging to the resolution, steadfastness and strong confidence which arise due to insight.
The seventh imperfection is clinging to well-exerted energy which is neither too strained nor too lax, and which arises due to insight.
The eighth imperfection is clinging to well established mindfulness and assurance which arises in association with insight.
The ninth imperfection is clinging to equanimity and impartiality towards all conditioned dhammas, which occurs in association with insight. One may cling when paññå is as keen and fast as a flash of lightning while it realizes the arising and falling away of the objects which appear.
The tenth imperfection of insight occurs when someone delights in insight which clearly realizes as they are the characteristics of nåma and rúpa.
When paññå has become keener it realizes the intricacy and subtlety of the imperfections of vipassanå and it knows that these must be eliminated. Paññå realizes that so long as they arise the right Path is not developed which leads to elimination of even the more subtle attachment to realities. That is purity by knowledge and vision of what is the path and what is not the path, maggåmagga-ñåùadassana-visuddhi. Then there can be insight knowledge of the fourth stage, knowledge of the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa, while the person who develops insight is now free from the imperfections of insight
40.
The sixth purity is purity by knowledge and vision of the path, paìipadå-ñåùadassana-visuddhi
41.
When the imperfections of insight have been overcome, paññå becomes more accomplished as the development of satipaììhåna continues, and then there is purity by knowledge and vision of the path. While the person who develops insight is now free from the imperfections of insight, there is this purity from the fourth stage of insight on, which is knowledge of the arising and falling away of realities, and it continues up to adaptation knowledge, anuloma ñåùa. Adaptation knowledge are the three moments of citta arising in the magga-víthi: parikamma or preparatory citta, upacåra or access and anuloma or adaptation.
The seventh purity is purity by knowledge and vision, ñåùadassana-visuddhi
42.
When the three moments of adaptation knowledge have fallen away, change-of-lineage knowledge, gotrabhú ñåùa, arises. It has the characteristic of adverting to lokuttara citta, and thus it neither belongs to the sixth purity, purity by knowledge and vision of the path, nor to the seventh purity, purity by knowledge and vision; it is intermediate between these two kinds of purities. Still, it is reckoned as insight knowledge, because it follows the course of insight (Vis. XXII, 1). When change-of-lineage has fallen away, magga-citta arises and then there is purity by knowledge and vision. Thus, there are seven purities in all.


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Chapter 5.

The Three Kinds of Full Understanding

The development of satipaììhåna is the development of paññå leading to the realization of the noble Truths. In the course of the development of insight three degrees of full understanding, pariññå, can be discerned: full understanding of the known, ñåta pariññå 43, full understanding as investigation, tíraùa pariññå 44, and full understanding as abandoning, pahåna pariññå 45.
Full understanding of the known, ñåta pariññå, is paññå realizing the characteristics of nåma and rúpa which appear as non-self. Insight of the first stage which clearly discerns the difference between the characteristics of nåma and of rúpa, nåma-rúpa-pariccheda-ñåùa, is a basis for the further development of paññå. Full understanding of the known is paññå which applies the knowledge gained at the moment of this stage of insight and it begins at this stage. Paññå should continue to investigate over and over again the characteristics of other kinds of nåma and rúpa, in addition to those realized at the moment the first stage of insight knowledge arose. Only thus nåma and rúpa can be clearly understood as they are.
Full understanding as investigation, tíraùa pariññå, is paññå which thoroughly investigates nåma and rúpa, without preference for any particular nåma or rúpa, without selection of them. Paññå realizes the characteristics of realities as they appear through all six doors and thus it can see them as only dhammas. When paññå clearly realizes that all nåma and rúpa are equal, in this respect that they are only dhammas, it becomes more accomplished. Thus it can realize the fourth stage of insight, knowledge of the arising and falling away of nåma and rúpa
46 . Full understanding of investigation begins at this stage.
The third kind of full understanding is full understanding of abandoning, pahåna pariññå. When paññå investigates the dissolution of nåma and rúpa and it can clearly realize this, the stage of insight can be reached which is knowledge of dissolution, bhanga ñåùa. From then on paññå begins to become more detached from nåma and rúpa. Paññå becomes detached because it sees more clearly the disadvantage and danger of nåma and rúpa. Full understanding as abandoning begins at the stage of knowledge of dissolution and continues up to path knowledge, magga ñåùa, when enlightenment is attained.
In our daily life there are more conditions for akusala dhammas than for awareness and understanding of the characteristics of the dhammas which naturally appear. Akusala dhammas arise very often and therefore it is necessary to cultivate the thirtyseven factors leading to enlightenment, bodhipakkhiya-dhammas. These factors which lead to the realization of the four noble Truths are, as we have seen, the four satipaììhånas, the four right efforts (sammåppadhånas), the four bases of success (iddhi-pådas), the five spiritual faculties (indriyas), the five powers (balas), the seven factors of enlightenment (bojjhangas) and the eight factors of the noble eightfold Path. These factors which lead to enlightenment should be developed over and over again for a long time, they can only be gradually accumulated. Nobody can cause the arising of paññå just by a particular way of behaviour or by particular activities. Paññå can be developed naturally, in one’s daily life, by awareness of the characteristics of realities which are non-self, which arise because of their appropriate conditions and then fall away very rapidly. There can be awareness of what appears at this very moment through the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the bodysense or the mind-door. Does one know at this moment what satipaììhåna exactly is? Does one know that what appears now through the senses or the mind-door is a paramattha dhamma, non-self? If this is not known, paññå of the level of intellectual understanding should first be developed. It is necessary to listen to the Dhamma the Buddha taught so that people whould have right understanding of the characteristics of realities which appear. The Buddha taught the Dhamma so that people would have right understanding in conformity with the truth he had realized when he attained Buddhahood. One should have correct understanding of the practice, which is the development of paññå. Only the right cause can bring the right result, that is, paññå which sees realities as they are, as impermanent, dukkha and anattå. Paññå should realize that realities which arise and fall away are dukkha, unsatisfactory, not leading to happiness, and paññå should penetrate the nature of anattå of the realities appearing at this moment. There is no other way to know realities as they are but satipaììhåna which time and again is aware, studies and investigates the characteristics of the dhammas appearing right now. In this way the wholesome qualities, sobhana cetasikas, are accumulated and can thus be a condition for paññå to become more accomplished so that the different stages of insight can be reached.
The Sammå-sambuddha had accumulated the perfections for four incalculable periods and hundred thousand aeons. From the time the Buddha Dípaòkara proclaimed him to be a Sammå-sambuddha in the future, he developed all the perfections from life to life. He came to see and listened to twentyfour former Buddhas during his past lives before he attained Buddhahood. In his last life, while sitting under the Bodhi tree, he penetrated the four noble Truths and attained successively the stages of enlightenment of the sotåpanna, the sakadågåmí, the anågåmí and finally the stage of the the arahat, and thereby became the Sammå-sambuddha with incomparable wisdom. He attained Buddhahood in the last vigil of the night of the full moon, in the month of Vesåkha.
The Buddha’s chief disciples were the venerable Såriputta who was pre-eminent in wisdom and the venerable Moggallåna who was pre-eminent in supranatural powers. They had developed paññå during one incalculable period of time and hundred thousand aeons. In his last life Såriputta attained the stage of the sotåpanna after he had listened to the Dhamma which Assaji explained to him. When Såriputta explained to Moggallåna the Dhamma he had heard from Assaji, Moggallåna attained the stage of the sotåpanna. Later on they both became arahats. The disciples who were pre-eminent in different ways, such as Kassapa, Ånanda, Upåli and Ånuruddha, had cultivated paññå for hundred thousand aeons. In the Buddha’s time there were many people who had cultivated paññå to the degree that they could penetrate the four noble Truths and attain enlightenment. The time when the Buddha had not passed away yet was the most favorable time for the development of paññå. The period from his parinibbåna until the present time is not all that long, but still, the present time is less favorable for the realization of the noble Truths. For the realization of the noble Truths there have to be the right conditions which are: study and understanding of the Dhamma and the right way of practice. Only the right cause, the development of paññå, can bring the right result.
Before the Buddha’s enlightenment people could develop samatha even to the degree of realizing supranatural powers. They could perform miracles but they could not eradicate defilements. When the Buddha attained supreme enlightenment and taught the Dhamma he had penetrated, many people could realize the noble Truths. People who had formerly developed samatha to the degree of jhåna could, if they also had developed satipaììhåna, realize the noble Truths. Thus, two kinds of ariyans can be discerned: those who had developed only insight, who were “sukkha-vipassaka”
47 and those who were freed with “mind-deliverance”, who were “ceto-vimutta” 48 .
The ariyan with “mere insight”, who is sukkha vipassaka, attains enlightenment without jhånacitta as basis or proximate cause. Jhånacitta cannot serve as object of insight since he has not attained jhåna. It is true that the lokuttara citta which clearly realizes nibbåna is firmly established on it, with strong concentration, just like the citta which has reached attainment concentration, appanå samådhi, and which is firmly fixed on the object of the jhånacitta. However, the ariyan who is sukkha vipassaka does not have proficiency in jhåna. When cittas are counted as eightynine, only the lokuttara cittas of those who have mere insight, who are sukkha vipassaka, are taken into account, not lokuttara jhånacittas.
As regards the ariyan who is “mind-freed”, ceto-vimutta, he attains enlightenment with jhåna as basis or proximate cause. He must acquire “masteries”, vasís, of jhåna
49. Only in that case jhånacitta can be the basis for insight, and that means that mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå can investigate and realize the true nature of the jhånacitta which has just fallen away. When paññå has become accomplished to the degree that enlightenment can be attained, the magga-citta and the phala-citta which arise are accompanied by jhånafactors. The ariyan who has attained enlightenment with jhånafactors of the different stages of jhåna is “mind-freed”, cetovimutta. He is delivered from defilements by paññå and by calm associated with jhåna. When lokuttara jhånacittas of the ariyan who is ceto-vimutta are included, cittas can be counted as hundred and twentyeight.


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Chapter 6

The Three Attainments

There are three attainments or samåpattis 50: attainment of jhåna, jhåna-samåpatti, fruition attainment, phala-samåpatti, and attainment of extinction, nirodha-samåpatti.
An ordinary person who is not an ariyan, may attain jhåna and acquire the skills, vasís, in jhåna, such as attaining jhåna and emerging from it in the order of the successive stages of jhåna. Someone who is proficient in jhåna
51 can have jhåna-samåpatti, that is, jhånacittas arising in succession in a mind-door process without bhavanga-cittas in between, for a period lasting as long as he has determined. During that time he is free from pain and unhappiness. This is because he is free from the sense objects and experiences only the meditation subject of jhåna which conditions the happiness of true calm.
The ariyan who is “mind-freed”, ceto-vimutta, can attain fruition-attainment, phala-samåpatti. He has developed samatha to the degree of jhåna and attained enlightenment with lokuttara jhånacittas. In the process of attaining enlightenment, the magga-citta and the succeeding phala-cittas experienced nibbåna. For him there can be later on other processes where phalacittas accompanied by jhånafactors of the first, second, third, fourth or fifth stage of jhåna experience nibbåna again. When there is fruition-attainment, phala-samåpatti, phala-cittas can arise in succession without bhavanga-cittas in between, for a period lasting as long as he has determined. It depends on the stage of enlightenment a person has attained what type of phala-citta arises accompanied by jhånafactors of one of the stages of jhåna.
In the mind-door process of cittas with fruition-attainment, there are no parikamma, preparatory consciousness and upacåra, access, as is the case in the magga-víthi where the magga-citta arises and defilements are eradicated. Before fruition-attainment, phala-samåpatti, there are three moments of adaptation or conformity, anuloma, because these cittas adapt or conform to the phala-citta which is lokuttara jhånacitta and which arises again, experiencing nibbåna again for a period lasting as long as he has determined.
The anågåmí and the arahat who have attained the fourth arúpa-jhana, the stage of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
52, can attain cessation, nirodha-samåpatti. This is the attainment of the temporary cessation of citta and cetasikas. They do not arise anymore, but this stage cannot last longer than seven days. The reason is that food which has been taken cannot support the body longer than seven days. The temporary cessation of citta and cetasika is conditioned by two powers: by samatha and by vipassanå which are fully developed and which have great strength. The anågåmí and the arahat who have not attained calm to the degree of the fourth arúpa-jhåna cannot attain cessation. Neither can the sotåpanna and the sakadågåmí attain cessation, even if they have reached the fourth stage of arúpa-jhåna 53.
Those who are able to attain cessation should first attain successively all the stages of rúpa-jhåna. They should emerge from each stage and then investigate with insight saòkhåra dhammas, conditioned dhammas, as impermanent, dukkha and anattå, before they attain the following stage of jhåna. When they have emerged from the third stage of arúpa-jhana, the sphere of nothingness, however, they should first advert to a fourfold preparatory task (Visuddhimagga Ch XXIII, 34):

non-damage to others’ property
the community’s waiting
the Master’s summons
the limit of duration

As regards non-damage to others’ property, this refers to what the bhikkhu uses or keeps, and what is not his personal property but the property of others, such as bowl, robes, bed and dwelling. He should resolve that such property will not be damaged, that it will not be destroyed by fire, water, wind, thieves and so on within the period of cessation-attainment which lasts no longer than seven days. He does not have to make a specific resolution with regard to his personal property such as his inner robes and outer robes, or his seat. These are protected from damage or loss by the attainment of cessation itself.
As regards the Master’s summons, he should resolve to emerge from cessation when the Buddha requires his presence.
As regards the limit of duration, he should know whether his life will last longer than seven days or not. During the period of cessation the dying-consciousness cannot arise. Thus, when his lifespan is not due to end within seven days he can enter cessation.
When the bhikkhu has done the fourfold preparatory task he can attain the fourth stage of arúpa-jhåna. After two moments of arúpa-jhånacittas of that stage which arise in that process, he achieves cessation of citta and cetasika. They do not arise anymore and this state can last for seven days. When he emerges from cessation, one moment of phala-citta arises, to be followed by bhavanga-cittas. The attainment of cessation can occur only in the planes where there are five khandhas. It cannot occur in the arúpa-brahma planes where rúpa-jhånacitta does not arise
54.


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1 Vítikkama means transgression and kilesa means defilement.

2 Pariyuììhåna is derived from pariyuììhåti, to arise, to pervade.

3 Vikkhambhana means suppression, and pahåna means giving up, elimination.

4 Anusayati means to lie dormant.

5 Samuccheda means extirpation.

6 The Sangha is the order of monks, and the ariyan Sangha are all those who have attained enlightenment, be they monks or lay followers.

7 Anupassanå means consideration, contemplation. It is derived from passati, to see, to understand.

8 Nåma and rúpa which are included in the fourth application of mindfulness are classified under different aspects, such as the “hindrances”, the five khandhas, the åyatanas.

9 Iddhi means power or success and påda is foot or step. The iddhi-pådas in vipassanå are a basis for reaching enlightenment. They are among the thirtyseven factors pertaining to enlightenment, bodhipakkhiya dhammas.

10 See the “Dispeller of Delusion”, Sammohavinodaní, Commentary to the Book of Analysis, in the section on Iddhi-pådas (II, Ch 9).

11 In the classification of these thirtyseven dhammas the same cetasikas occur several times, but they have been classified under different aspects and with different intensities. This shows how many qualities have to be developed so that there are conditions for the attainment of enlightenment.

12 The person who attains enlightenment was born with a paìisandhi-citta accompanied by paññå, and thus all bhavanga-cittas are of the same type, vipåkacitta which is ñåùa-sampayutta.

13 It transcends the sense sphere so that the plane of lokuttara citta can be reached.

14 For those who have developed samatha and vipassanå. See Appendix to Citta.

15 See the section on Samatha.

16 Thus, altogether there are seven javana-cittas.

17 See Visuddhimagga Ch XVIII. Pariccheda is derived from paricchindati, to mark out, limit or define.

18 See Visuddhimagga Ch XIX. Pariggaha is derived from parigaùhåti, to examine, take possession of or comprehend.

19 Pariññå means comprehension, or full understanding. There are three kinds of pariññå and these will be explained further on.

20 See Visuddhimagga Ch XX, 6 and following. Sammasana is derived from sammasati, to grasp, to know thoroughly.

21 Bala means power.

22 Vipassanå ñåùa arises in a mind-door process.

23 Micchå-vimutti.

24 See Visuddhimagga Ch XXI, for this stage and the following stages, which are mahå-vipassanå ñåùa, principal insight. Udaya is rise and baya is fall.

25 There are three pariññås: full understanding of the known, ñåta pariññå, full understanding of investigation, tíraùa pariññå, and full understanding of abandoning, pahåna pariññå. When a stage of insight has been reached, the knowledge gained at such moments should be applied. The three pariññås are degrees of paññå which applies insight knowledge by considering again and again nåma and rúpa. This will be explained more further on.

26 Bhaòga means dissolution or breaking up.

27 Muccati means to become free and kamyatå means wish.

28 Paìisaòkhåna means discrimination.

29 In Påli: vuììhåna gaminí paññå. Vuììhåna means rising up and gaminí means going.

30 The Visuddhimagga (XXI,130) states that anuloma ñåùa conforms to the eight preceding kinds of insight knowledge (mahå-vipassanå) and to the thirtyseven factors leading to enlightenment which follow. As Santi Phantakeong explains in his Lexicon, these factors reach fulfilment when enlightenment is attained. Thus, anuloma ñåùa is in conformity with what is lower, the preceding stages of insight, and it conforms to what is higher, enlightenment.

31 The third citta is anuloma, adaptation, but all three cittas preceding gotrabhú are adaptation knowledge.

32 A person who is slow is in Påli: manda puggala, and a person who is keen is tikkha puggala.

33 The preceding javana-citta conditions the succeeding one by way of repetition-condition.

34 It does not perform the function of adverting, åvajjana, such as is performed by the first citta arising in a sense-door process or in the mind-door process.

35 Kåla means moment, and “a” denotes a negation. See Visuddhimagga, Ch VII, 80, under Recollection of the Dhamma. The Dhamma is sandiììhiko, visible here and now, and akåliko, without delay.

36 Kaòkhå means doubt and vitaraùa means overcoming.

37 There is knowledge and vision in conformity with the truth, in Påli: yathåbhúta ñåùa dassana. Yathåbhúta means: as it really is, ñåùa means knowledge and dassana means seeing or vision.

38 See Visuddhimagga Ch XXII. Amagga means: not the path, “a” being a negation.

39 Brightness, emanating from one’s body, Vis. XXII, 107, footnote 34. The Visuddhimagga states that this imperfection usually arises in someone who has developed calm and insight.

40 The Visuddhimagga Ch XXI, 2, explains why the knowledge of arising and falling away of realities should be pursued again. The person who develops insight could not realize clearly the three general characteristics of realities so long as he was disabled by the imperfections. When the imperfections have been overcome, he should pursue the knowledge of arising and falling away of realities again in order to realize the three characteristics more clearly.

41 See Visuddhimagga Ch XXI.

42 See Visuddhimagga Ch XXII.

43 ñåta means what has been known and pariññå means full understanding.

44 Tíraùa means judgement, investigation.

45 Pahåna means abandoning.

46 The first stage of mahå-vipassanå ñåùa.

47 sukkha vipassanå , mere insight, is also translated as “dry insight”.

48 Ceto stands for citta, meaning here concentration. Vimutta means being freed, delivered.

49 See the section on Samatha.

50 Samåpajjati means to enter upon.

51 In Påli: jhåna-låbhí. Låbha means gain or acquisition, and låbhí means the person who has gain.

52 See the section on Samatha. At this stage there are still citta and cetasikas, but they are very subtle, they are present in a residual way.

53 Both the power of samatha and the power of vipassanå are necessary. The sotåpanna and the sakadågåmí, even if they have attained the highest stage of arúpa-jhåna, do not have the same degree of paññå as the anågåmí and the arahat; thus, in their case paññå is not powerful enough to be able to condition cessation.

54 As we have seen, the person who will attain cessation has to attain all stages of rúpa-jhåna and arúpa-jhåna. In the arúpa-brahma planes there are no conditions for rúpa-jhåna. Birth in those planes is the result of arúpa-jhåna.