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Chapter 20

Associated Dhammas

Cittas can be classified by way of different associated dhammas, sampayutta dhammas, and these are the accompanying cetasikas which cause them to be variegated. Cittas can be classified as sampayutta, associated with particular cetasikas, and vippayutta, dissociated from them. When cittas are differentiated by this way of classification, five particular cetasikas are referred to, namely wrong view, diììhi, aversion, dosa, doubt, vicikicchå, restlessness, uddhacca, and wisdom, paññå. Four of these cetasikas are akusala and one is sobhana.
As regards the akusala cetasikas citta can be associated with, there is the following classification:

diììigata-sampayutta: cittas associated with diììhi cetasika, wrong
view
paìigha-sampayutta: cittas associated with dosa cetasika
vicikicchå-sampayutta: citta associated with vicikicchå cetasika,
doubt about realities
uddhacca-sampayutta: citta associated with uddhacca cetasika,
restlessness

As regards the sobhana cetasika cittas can be associated with, there is the following classification:
ñåna-sampayutta, cittas associated with paññå cetasika.

The twelve types of akusala cittas which will be dealt with hereafter can be classified as associated, sampayutta, and dissociated, vippayutta, in the following way:
of the eight types of lobha-múla-citta four types are associated with wrong view, diììhigata-sampayutta, and four types are dissociated from wrong view, diììhigata-vippayutta.
The two types of dosa-múla-citta are associated with paìigha, which is dosa cetasika, the reality which is coarse and harsh.
One type of moha-múla-citta is associated with doubt, vicikicchå-sampayutta, and one type is associated with restlessness, uddhacca-sampayutta.
Thus, of the twelve types of akusala citta, eight types are sampayutta and four types are vippayutta.
The lobha-múla-cittas which are associated with and dissociated from wrong view can be differentiated because of the accompanying feelings. Two of the four types which are associated with wrong view are accompanied by pleasant feeling and two types by indifferent feeling. Evenso, two of the four types which are dissociated from wrong view are accompanied by pleasant feeling and two types by indifferent feeling.
Moreover, there is still another differentiation to be made. Lobha-múla-cittas can arise without being prompted, asaùkhårika, and they can arise because they are prompted, sasaùkhårika
1. Four types are unprompted and four types are prompted.
The eight lobha-múla-cittas are classified as follows:

1. accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wrong view, unprompted
(somanassa-sahagataÿ, diììhigata-sampayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam
ekaÿ)
2. accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wrong view, prompted

(somanassa-sahagataÿ, diììhigata-sampayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam
ekaÿ)
3. accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wrong view,
unprompted
(somanassa-sahagataÿ, diììhigata-vippayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam
ekaÿ)
4. accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wrong view,
prompted
(somanassa-sahagataÿ, diììhigata-vippayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam
ekaÿ)
5. accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wrong view,
unprompted
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, diììhigata-sampayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam ekaÿ
6. accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wrong view,
prompted
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, diììhigata-sampayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam
ekaÿ)
7. accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wrong view,
unprompted
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, diììhigata-vippayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam ekaÿ)
8. accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wrong view,
prompted
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, diììhigata-vippayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam
ekaÿ)

The two types of dosa-múla-citta are associated with paìigha, repulsion or anger, which is actually dosa cetasika, and thus they are both paìigha-sampayutta. When there is unpleasant feeling it is each time accompanied by dosa cetasika, the dhamma which is coarse, harsh and vexatious. The characteristic of unpleasant feeling is quite different from pleasant feeling and indifferent feeling. The two types of dosa-múla-citta which are both paìigha-sampayutta are accompanied by unpleasant feeling. The two types of dosa-múla-citta are different in as far as one type is asaòkhårika, unprompted, without instigation, and one type is sasaòkhårika, prompted. They are classified as follows:
1. accompanied by unpleasant feeling, with anger, unprompted
(domanassa-sahagataÿ, paìigha-sampayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam
ekaÿ)
2. accompanied by unpleasant feeling, with anger, prompted
(domanassa-sahagataÿ, paìigha-sampayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam
ekaÿ)

There are two types of moha-múla-citta. One of them is vicikicchå-sampayutta, accompanied by doubt, vicikicchå cetasika, which doubts about the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the khandhas, the dhåtus (elements), the past, the present, the future and other matters. The second type of moha-múla-citta is called uddhacca-sampayutta, accompanied by restlessness.
Moha cetasika, ignorance, does not know realities as they are. Moha experiences an object, it is confronted with an object, but it is unable to know the true characteristic of the object which appears. For example, when one is seeing now one may not know that what appears through the eyes is just a rúpa, a kind of reality. There may also be doubt about realities. One may doubt whether it is true that one does not see people or things, as one always believed, but only a rúpa, appearing through the eyesense. Doubt does not arise all the time, but whenever there is doubt about the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha and about the characteristics of realities which appear, there is moha-múla-citta vicikicchå-sampayutta.
When we have seen, heard, smelt, tasted or experienced tangible object through the bodysense, the javana-cittas which follow, when the cittas are not kusala, are often moha-múla-cittas which are uddhacca-sampayutta, accompanied by restlessness. These types arise when the akusala citta is not accompanied by lobha cetasika, dosa cetasika or vicikicchå cetasika (doubt). Then we can know the characteristic of moha-múla-citta which is uddhacca-sampayutta, arising when we are forgetful of realities and do not know the characteristic of the object which appears
2.
The two types of moha-múla-citta are classified as follows:

1. arising with indifferent feeling, accompanied by doubt
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, vicikicchå-sampayuttaÿ)
2. arising with indifferent feeling, accompanied by restlessness
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, uddhacca-sampayuttaÿ)

As we have seen, of the twelve types of akusala cittas, eight types are sampayutta, and four types are vippayutta.
As regards sobhana (beautiful) cittas, accompanied by paññå cetasika, these are called ñåùa-sampayutta (ñåùa is paññå cetasika).

Cittas can be differentiated as unprompted, asaòkhårika, or prompted, sasaòkhårika. The term “saòkhåra” which is used in the Tipiìaka has several meanings. It is used in the following composite words: saòkhåra dhammas, saòkhårakkhandha, abhisaòkhåra, and in addition there is asaòkhårika and sasaòkhårika. In each of these cases saòkhåra has a different meaning.
Saòkhåra dhammas are dhammas which arise because of their appropriate conditions. When they have arisen they fall away again. All saòkhåra dhammas are impermanent. There are four paramattha dhammas: citta, cetasika, rúpa and nibbåna. The three paramattha dhammas which are citta, cetasika and rúpa are saòkhåra dhammas; they arise because of conditions, they are present for an extremely short moment and then they fall away completely. Nibbåna is not dependent on conditions, it is the dhamma which does not arise and fall away. Nibbåna is the unconditioned dhamma (visaòkhåra dhamma).
The three saòkhåra dhammas which are citta, cetasika and rúpa can be classified as five khandhas:
all rúpas are rúpakkhandha
feeling, vedanå cetasika, is vedanåkkhandha
remembrance or perception, saññå cetasika, is saññåkhandha
the other fifty cetasikas, formations, are saòkhårakkhandha
all cittas are viññåùakkhandha

As regards saòkhårakkhandha, this comprises the cetasikas other than vedanå and saññå, thus, fifty cetasikas. As regards saòkhåra dhammas, these are all cittas, thus, eightynine cittas, all cetasikas, thus, fiftytwo cetasikas, and all rúpas, thus, twentyeight rúpas.
Saòkhåra dhamma includes more realities than saòkhårakkhandha: all cittas, cetasikas and rúpas are saòkhåra dhammas, whereas only fifty cetasikas are saòkhårakkhandha.
Among the fifty cetasikas which are saòkhårakkhandha, volition or cetanå cetasika is preponderant, it is foremost as kamma-condition. It is “abhisaòkhåra”; abhi is sometimes used in the sense of preponderance. In the “Dependent Origination”, the “Paticca- samuppåda”, ignorance, avijjå, conditions saòkhåra and saòkhåra conditions viññåùa. Saòkhåra as factor of the “Dependent Origination” refers to cetanå cetasika which is abhisaòkhåra, the dhamma which is foremost in conditioning, as “kamma formation”. It is actually kusala kamma or akusala kamma which conditions the arising of result in the form of vipåkacitta and cetasikas, referred to as viññåùa in the “Dependent Origination”. It is true that also the other cetasikas are conditions for the arising of citta. Phassa cetasika, contact, is for example an important condition. If there would not be phassa cetasika which contacts the object there could not be cittas which see, hear, smell, taste, experience tangible object or think about different matters. However, phassa is not abhisaòkhåra. It only contacts the object and then it falls away completely.
Thus, among the fifty cetasikas which are saòkhårakkhandha only cetanå cetasika is abhisaòkhåra: cetanå which is kusala kamma or akusala kamma is a foremost condition, it is kamma-condition for the arising of vipåkacitta.
Saòkhåra as factor of the “Dependent Origination” is threefold:
meritorious kamma formation, puññ’åbhisaòkhåra (puññå is merit,
kusala)
demeritorious kamma formation, apuññ’åbhisaòkhåra
imperturbable kamma formation, aneñj’åbhisaòkhåra

Meritorious kamma formation is cetanå cetasika arising with kåmåvacara kusala citta and rúpåvacara kusala citta.
Demeritorious kamma formation is cetanå cetasika arising with akusala citta.
Imperturbable kamma formation is cetanå cetasika arising with arúpåvacara kusala citta, and this is kusala citta which is firm and unshakable.
Kåmåvacara kusala citta (of the sense sphere) arises only for a very short moment and this kind of kusala is not unshakable. It arises merely seven times in one process
3. It is only occasionally that there is dåna, abstention from akusala or the development of other kinds of kusala. When there is not such an opportunity, akusala citta arises very often, during many processes. Rúpåvacara kusala citta is kusala citta which is ñåùa-sampayutta, accompanied by paññå cetasika. It is the citta which has reached calm to the stage of appanå samådhi, attainment concentration or jhåna. Rúpåvacara citta is “mahaggata kusala”, kusala which “has reached greatness”, which is sublime. However, it is still close to kåmåvacara kusala, since it has an object connected with rúpa.
Imperturbable kamma formation is cetanå arising with arúpa-jhånacitta. This citta is of the same type as the fifth rúpa-jhånacitta
4 , but it has an object which is immaterial, not connected with rúpa, and therefore it is more refined; it is unshakable. It produces abundant result, it conditions the arising of arúpa-jhåna vipåkacitta in the arúpa-brahma planes. In these planes the duration of a lifespan is extremely long, and this is in conformity with the power of the arúpa-jhåna kusala citta. Birth in a heavenly plane is a happy birth, because there is in such planes no disease, pain, bodily ailments or other discomforts such as occur in the human plane and in the unhappy planes. However, the duration of the lifespan in heavenly planes is not as long as in the rúpa-brahma planes, and the lifespan in the rúpa-brahma planes is not as long as in the arúpa-brahma planes. As we have seen, birth in the latter planes is the result of cetanå arising with arúpa-jhåna kusala citta. This type of cetanå or kamma is abhisaùkhåra which is imperturbable or unshakable, åneñj’ åbhisaòkhåra.
Summarizing the meanings of saòkhåra in different composite words, they are the following:
saòkhåra dhammas, which are citta, cetasika and rúpa
saòkhårakkhandha, including fifty cetasikas (vedanå and saññå
are each a separate khandha)
abhisaòkhåra, which is cetanå cetasika, one among the fifty
cetasikas included in saòkhårakkhandha

In addition, the terms asaòkhårika and sasaòkhårika are used for the differentiation of cittas. Kusala citta, akusala citta, vipåkacitta and kiriyacitta can be without instigation, asaòkhårika, or with instigation, sasaòkhårika.
We read in the “Atthasåliní” (I, Part IV, Ch V, 1156) that sasaòkhårika means with effort or with instigation. The instigation can come from oneself or from someone else. Someone else may urge one or order one to do something. It is the nature of citta as it naturally arises in daily life to be asaòkhårika or sasaòkhårika. No matter whether the citta is kusala or akusala, sometimes it arises of its own accord, because of accumulations which have been formed in the past and are thus a strong condition for its arising. Then it has the strength to arise spontaneously, independent of any instigation. The nature of such a citta is asaòkhårika. Sometimes kusala citta or akusala citta which arises is weak, it can only arise when there is instigation by oneself or by someone else. Then the citta is sasaòkhårika. Thus we see that kusala citta and akusala citta have different strength as they are asaòkhårika and sasaòkhårika.
Sometimes akusala citta is strong, it arises immediately because of accumulated like or dislike of the object which is experienced at that moment. Sometimes this is not the case. For example, someone may have no inclination at all to go to the cinema or theatre. However, when members of his family or friends urge him to go, he will go. Does the citta at such a moment really like to go? Someone may be indifferent as to going or not going, but if people urge him, he will go. If he would be on his own, he would not go. Sometimes one may think that a particular film is worth seeing and enjoyable, but one still does not go because one does not have the energy, one does not feel the urgency to go immediately. This is reality in daily life. We can find out when there is citta with strength and when there is citta which is weak, no matter whether it concerns akusala, such as lobha and dosa, or kusala. Some people, when they have heard that there is a “Kaìhina” ceremony, the offering of robes to the monks after the rainy season, want to attend immediatly and they also urge others to attend. Some people, when they hear that this or that particular person will not attend the ceremony, may decide not to go, even though they have been urged to go. Thus, kusala citta as well as akusala citta have different degrees of strength and this depends on the conditions for their arising.
The Buddha explained that particular cittas can be asaòkhårika or sasaòkhårika in order to show us how intricate citta is. Cittas which arise may be accompanied by the same cetasikas, but the nature of these cittas can be different in as far as they are asaòkhårika or sasaòkhårika, depending on the strength of the accompanying cetasikas. The Buddha taught the Dhamma in detail and this shows his great compassion.
We read in the “Atthasåliní” (Book I, Part IV, Ch VIII, 160, 161) about four “Infinites”: space, world-systems, groups of sentient beings and the knowledge of a Buddha:

There is, indeed, no limit to space reckoned as so many hundreds, thousands, or hundred thousands of yojanas (one yojana being 16 kilometres) to east, west, north or south. If an iron peak of the size of Mount Meru were to be thrown downwards, dividing the earth in two, it would go on falling and would not get a footing. thus infinite is space.
There is no limit to the world-systems reckoning by hundreds or thousands of yojanas. If the four great Brahmås, born in the Akaniììha mansion (the highest rúpa-brahma plane), endowed with speed, and capable of traversing a hundred thousand world-systems during the time that a light arrow shot by a strong archer would take to travel across the shadow of a palmyra tree, were with such speed to run in order to see the limit of the world-systems, they would pass away without accomplishing their purpose. Thus the world-systems are infinite.
In so many world-systems there is no limit to beings, belonging to land and water. Thus infinite are the groups of beings.
More infinite than these is a Buddha’s knowledge....

Space is infinite. Nobody can measure how many hundreds, thousands or hundreds of thousands yojanas space is. Neither can one count the world-systems. When one would count the stars and the world-systems one would never be able to finish, the world-systems are infinite. One cannot determine the number of living beings of all the different groups which live in the world-systems: the human beings, devas, brahmas, animals living on land or in the water, all beings in the unhappy planes. The wisdom of the Buddha is called infinite, there are no limits to it, and it is more infinite than the other three infinites.
When we think of all beings which live in the countless worldsystems, the diversity of the cittas of all those beings must be endless. With regard to one individual there is a great variety of cittas, even of one class of citta, such as kåmåvacara kusala citta. Every citta arises only once, it is unique. The same type arises again but it is then a different citta. When we take into consideration the cittas of the innumerable beings we cannot imagine the variety of even one type of citta arising for living beings in the different planes.
The “Atthasåliní” states as to the type of kåmåvacara kusala citta, accompanied by pleasant feeling, associated with paññå, which is asaòkhårika, thus, which is powerful, that it is classified as one type among the eight types of kåmåvacara kusala cittas. This is classified as just one type, although there is an endless variety even of this type of kåmåvacara kusala citta for one being and even more so for countless other beings.
Further on we read in the “Atthasåliní” with regard to the classification of the kåmåvacara kusala cittas as eight types:

... Now, all these classes of kåmåvacara kusala citta arising in the countless beings in the countless worldsystems, the Supreme Buddha, as though weighing them in a great balance, or measuring them by putting them in a measure, has classified by means of his omniscience, and has shown them to be eight, making them into eight similar groups...

This classification as eight types of mahå-kusala
5 cittas is in accordance with the truth. They are classified as eight types: they can be accompanied by pleasant feeling, somanassa vedanå, or by indifferent feeling, upekkhå vedanå, accompanied by paññå or without paññå, asaòkhårika or sasaòkhårika. Summarizing them, they are:

1. accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wisdom, unprompted
(somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñåùa-sampayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam ekaÿ)
2. accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wisdom, prompted

(somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñåùa-sampayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam ekaÿ)
3. accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, unprompted
(somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñåùa-vippayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam ekaÿ)
4. accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, prompted
(somanassa-sahagataÿ, ñåùa-vippayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam ekaÿ)
5. accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, unprompted
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, ñåùa-sampayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam ekaÿ)
6. accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, prompted
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, ñåùa-sampayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam ekaÿ)
7. accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom,
unprompted
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, ñåùa-vippayuttaÿ, asaòkhårikam ekaÿ)
8. accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, prompted
(upekkhå-sahagataÿ, ñåùa-vippayuttaÿ, sasaòkhårikam ekaÿ)

Do we at times feel tired and bored, without energy? Sometimes the citta thinks of performing a particular kind of kusala, but then it is too weak, and fatigue and boredom arise. Can sati at such moments be aware of the characteristic of citta which is weak and without energy for kusala? If there is no awareness there is a concept of self who feels that way. Fatigue, weakness, boredom, a feeling of being downcast, in low spirits and without energy, all such moments are real. If sati is not aware of the characteristic of such realities as they naturally appear, it will not be known that they are not a living being, not a person, not a self. They are only characteristics of citta which arises because of conditions and then falls away again.
The Buddha explained citta under many different aspects. One of these aspects is the classification of citta as asaòkhårika and sasaòkhårika. Lobha-múla-citta can be asaòkhårika or sasaòkhårika. Also dosa-múla-citta and kusala citta can be asaòkhårika or sasaòkhårika. When sati can be aware of the characteristics of these realities they can be known as nåma, different from rúpa. A feeling of being downcast or disheartened, of being in low spirits, without energy for kusala, is not rúpa. It is the nature of citta which is sasaòkhårika, there is at such moments a citta which is weak.
Cittas which can be differentiated as asaòkhårika and sasaòkhårika can only be kåmåvacara cittas. Kåmåvacara cittas are of the lowest grade of citta. These are cittas which usually arise in daily life, when there is seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, experiencing tangible object or thinking about the sense objects. The kusala cittas or akusala cittas which arise on account of the sense objects sometimes have strength and thus arise spontaneously, and sometimes they are weak and arise with instigation. It all depends on conditions.
The cittas which are of a higher grade, namely, rúpåvacara cittas, arúpåvacara cittas and lokuttara cittas, are not classified by way of asaòkhårika and sasaòkhårika. All of them are prompted, sasaòkhårika. The reason for this is that they are dependent on the appropriate development as a necessary condition for their arising. In this context being sasaòkhårika does not mean that they are weak such as in the case of kåmåvacara cittas which are prompted, sasaòkharika. Before rúpåvacara citta, arúpåvacara citta and lokuttara kusala citta arise, there must each time be kåmåvacara kusala citta accompanied by paññå. This is a necessary factor which induces or prompts their arising. Therefore, the cittas of the higher planes, rúpåvacara cittas, arúpåvacara cittas and lokuttara cittas are each time sasaòkhårika and ñåùa-sampayutta, accompanied by paññå.
We can come to know whether cittas in different circumstances of our daily life are asaòkhårika or sasaòkhårika. When we, for example, come to listen to the Dhamma, do we need to be urged by someone else? At first we may not want to come of our own accord, we need to be urged. However, later on we come of our own accord, without being urged. In each of these cases the nature of citta is different, being sasaòkhårika or asaòkhårika. The citta is not all the time sasaòkhårika nor all the time asaòkhårika. One may, for example, go to the cinema after having been urged, and thus the cittas are weak. However, afterwards, when one sits comfortably, one may enjoy oneself, one may be hilarious and laugh, and then the cittas are not weak, because one does not need any instigation to laugh or to have fun. While one enjoys oneself and laughs the cittas with pleasant feeling are strong, arising of their own accord; they are asaòkhårika.This shows us that citta is each time anattå, that it arises because of its own conditions. The citta which arises at this moment may be this way, the next moment it is different again, depending on conditions.

******

Questions.

1. With how many types of citta does wrong view, diììhi, arise?
2. With which types of feeling can diììhi cetasika arise?
3. With which type of feeling does dosa cetasika arise?
4. With which types of akusala citta does pleasant feeling, somanassa vedanå, arise?
5. With which types of akusala citta does indifferent feeling, upekkhå vedanå, arise?
6. What is the meaning of the terms saòkhåra dhammas, saòkhårakkhandha, abhisaòkhåra, asaòkhårika and sasaòkhårika?
7. When we take into account the eight lobha-múla-cittas and the eight mahå-kusala cittas, in which ways are these two classes similar and in which ways are they different?


********






Chapter 21

Roots

Cittas are variegated on account of the associated dhammas, sampayutta dhammas, which are roots, hetus.
The realities which are saòkhåra dhammas, conditioned dhammas, cannot arise just by themselves, without being dependent on conditions for their arising. There are three kinds of paramattha dhammas which are saòkhåra dhamma: citta, cetasika and rúpa. Citta is dependent on cetasika as condition for its arising and cetasika is dependent on citta for its arising. Some cittas are dependent on both cetasika and rúpa as conditions for their arising. Rúpas are dependent on other rúpas as condition for their arising. Some rúpas are dependent on citta, cetasika and other rúpas as conditions for their arising.
Cittas are variegated on account of the different roots, hetus, which accompany them. Some cittas arise together with cetasikas which are hetus, whereas other cittas arise without hetus. Only six cetasikas are hetus:

lobha cetasika is the hetu which is lobha }
dosa cetasika is the hetu which is dosa } three akusala hetus
moha cetasika is the hetu which is moha }

alobha cetasika is the hetu which is alobha }
adosa cetasika is the hetu which is adosa } three sobhana hetus
paññå cetasika is the hetu which is amoha
6}

Dhammas other than these six cetasikas cannot be root- condition, hetu-paccaya. The cetasikas which are not hetus condition citta while they arise together with it, but they are not a condition by way of hetu-paccaya, by being roots. Hetu-paccaya is only one condition among the twentyfour principal conditions for phenomena.
The six cetasikas which are roots, hetus, can be compared to the roots of a tree which make it thrive and become fully grown, so that it flowers and bears many fruits. When the six kinds of hetus arise they evenso make the dhammas they accompany thrive and develop so that they can produce many fruits, evermore, again and again. Those who are not arahats still have both akusala hetus and kusala hetus. For the arahat there are no akusala hetus nor are there kusala hetus. The cetasikas alobha, adosa and paññå (amoha) which accompany the kiriyacitta which performs the function of javana in the case of the arahat are indeterminate roots, avyåkata hetus, roots which are neither kusala nor akusala
7.
Indeterminate dhammas, avyåkata dhammas, are realities which are neither kusala nor akusala, namely: vipåkacitta, kiriyacitta, vipåka cetasikas, kiriya cetasikas, rúpa and nibbåna.
As we have seen, the six hetus can be classified as twofold: as the three akusala hetus of lobha, dosa and moha, and as the three sobhana hetus of alobha, adosa and paññå. In this classification the term sobhana, beautiful, is used and not kusala. The hetus which are kusala arise only with kusala citta and this conditions kusala vipåka, the result, which arises later on. Whereas sobhana hetus arise with kusala citta, they can arise with kusala vipåkacitta
8 and they arise with sobhana kiriyacitta. Thus, sobhana hetus do not merely arise with kusala citta.
The four paramattha dhammas can be classified as twofold by way of not hetu, in Påli: na-hetu, and hetu:
citta: not-hetu, na-hetu
cetasika: only six of the fiftytwo cetasikas are hetu,
the other fortysix cetasikas are not-hetu, na-hetu
rúpa: not-hhetu, na-hetu
nibbåna: not-hetu, na-hetu

Citta and fortysix cetasikas are na-hetu. Some cittas and cetasikas are accompanied by cetasikas which are hetus, they are sahetuka citta and cetasika
9. Some cittas and cetasikas are not accompanied by hetus, they are ahetuka citta and cetasika.
Seeing-consciousness which sees visible object which appears is accompanied by only seven cetasikas: by contact, feeling, remembrance, volition, life faculty, one-pointedness and attention. Contact, phassa cetasika, performs the function of contacting the visible object which impinges on the eyesense. Feeling, vedanå cetasika, performs the function of feeling; in this case it is upekkhå vedanå, which feels indifferent about visible object. Remembrance or perception, saññå cetasika, performs the function of remembering visible object which appears through the eyesense. Volition, cetanå cetasika, which performs in this case, since it is neither kusala nor akusala, the function of coordinating and inciting citta and the accompanying cetasikas to accomplish their own tasks. Life faculty, jívitindriya cetasika, performs the function of watching over citta and the accompanying cetasikas, maintaining their life, but only so long as they are present. One-pointedness or concentration, ekaggatå cetasika, performs the function of focussing on the object which appears. Attention, manasikåra cetasika, performs the function of being attentive to the visible object. These seven cetasikas are not hetus, thus, seeing-consciousness is ahetuka vipåkacitta. Lobha-múla-citta which may arise after seeing is accompanied by two cetasikas which are hetus: lobha, the dhamma which enjoys what appears and clings to it, and moha, the dhamma which is ignorant of realities. Thus, lobha-múla-citta is sahetuka citta, accompanied by roots.
When we take into consideration hetu and na-hetu, and also sahetuka and ahetuka, saòkhåra dhammas can be classified as follows:

rúpa: is na-hetu and ahetuka
citta: is na-hetu; some cittas are sahetuka and some are ahetuka.
cetasika: fortysix cetasikas are na-hetu; some cetasikas are sahetuka
and some are ahetuka. Six cetasikas are hetu: lobha, dosa,
moha, alobha, adosa and paññå; the cetasikas which are
themselves hetu are sahetuka, accompanying other hetus,
except moha which accompanies moha-múla-citta. Moha is
in that case ahetuka.

Lobha cetasika is sahetuka because each time it is accompanied by another hetu, by moha. If moha cetasika does not arise lobha cetasika cannot arise either. Dosa cetasika is also sahetuka, since it has to be accompanied each time by moha. Moha which accompanies lobha-múla-citta is sahetuka, because it arises in that case together with the hetu which is lobha. Moha which accompanies dosa-múla-citta is sahetuka, because it arises in that case together with the hetu which is dosa. Moha which accompanies moha-múla-citta is ahetuka, because moha is in that case the only root, it does not arise together with lobha or dosa.
Contact, phassa cetasika, which accompanies each citta, is not-hetu, na-hetu. Whenever citta arises together with a cetasika which is hetu, the accompanying phassa is sahetuka. Whenever ahetuka citta arises, the accompanying phassa is also ahetuka. Thus phassa, which is na-hetu, is sometimes sahetuka and sometimes ahetuka.
Our daily life consists of sahetuka cittas as well as ahetuka cittas. When one has not listened to the Dhamma and studied it, one does not know when there is sahetuka citta and when ahetuka citta. The Buddha explained in detail which cittas are ahetuka and which cittas are sahetuka. He explained by which types of hetus and by which types of other cetasikas sahetuka cittas are accompanied, and he indicated the number of accompanying dhammas.
Moha-múla-citta is accompanied by one hetu, by moha; it is eka-hetuka (eka means one).
Lobha-múla-citta is accompanied by two hetus, by moha and lobha; it is dvi-hetuka (dvi is two).
Dosa-múla-citta is accompanied by the hetus of moha and dosa; it is also dvi-hetuka.
As regards kusala citta, this must be accompanied by sobhana hetus, otherwise it would not be kusala. Kusala cittas can be differentiated as unaccompanied by paññå cetasika and as accompanied by paññå cetasika. Kusala citta which is unaccompanied by paññå arises with two hetus, with alobha, non-attachment, and adosa, non-aversion, thus, it is dvi-hetuka. Kusala citta which is accompanied by paññå arises with three hetus: alobha, adosa and amoha, thus, it is ti-hetuka (ti means three). Kusala citta cannot be accompanied by one hetu, it needs to be accompanied each time by at least the two hetus of alobha and adosa.
Root-condition, hetu-paccaya, is one condition among the twentyfour conditions. A conditioning factor is a dhamma which assists other dhammas and conditions their arising or maintains them, depending on the type of condition. Phassa cetasika, for example, is different from lobha cetasika, but both phassa and lobha are conditioning factors which assist other dhammas, citta, cetasika and rúpa, in conditioning their arising. However, since the characteristic and function of phassa are different from those of lobha, these two cetasikas are each different kinds of conditions.
Phassa cetasika is nutrition-condition, åhåra-paccaya. This type of condition brings its own fruit or result, in this case feeling
10. This type of condition is different from root-condition, hetu-paccaya; a root is a firm foundation for the dhammas it conditions. As we have seen, the hetus have been compared to the roots of a tree which make the tree thrive and develop. However, a tree does not solely depend on the roots for its growth and development. It also needs earth and water, it needs nutrition so that it is able to bear fruits. If, on the other hand, the roots are lacking, earth and water alone will not be able to make it grow and prosper. Thus, a tree needs different conditions for its growth. Evenso, there are six hetus which are root-condition but besides these there are also other types of conditions. Phenomena condition other phenomena in different ways.
In the seventh Book of the Abhidhamma, the “Conditional Relations”, the “Paììhåna”, all the different ways of conditionality have been expounded. The first condition which is mentioned is root-condition, hetu-paccaya. Thus we can see the importance of the dhammas which are hetus. When during a cremation ceremony the monks chant texts from the Abhidhamma, they start with “hetu-paccaya”, comprising the six hetus of lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa and amoha. Thus it is emphasized that the dhammas which are these hetus bring results, that they condition rebirth, and that in this way the cycle of birth and death goes on.
There are many kinds of conditions and all of them are important. The Buddha did not teach solely root-condition, hetu-paccaya. Nor did he teach solely object-condition, årammaùa-paccaya. In the case of object-condition the object is a condition for citta to arise and to know that object. The Buddha taught all the different conditions in detail. He taught twentyfour principal conditions and also other conditions which are derived from some of the principal conditions.
The rúpa which is eyesense, cakkhupasåda rúpa, does not arise from hetu-paccaya, but from other conditions. In its turn it is a condition for other dhammas as faculty-condition, indriya-paccaya. It is leader in its own function: it is the faculty which conditions seeing-consciousness to arise and to see the visible object which appears. Thus, it conditions seeing-consciousness by way of faculty-condition, indriya-paccaya. If there would not be the rúpas of eyesense, earsense, smellingsense, tastingsense and bodysense, the body would be like a log of wood. One would not be able to see, to hear or to experience the other sense objects. The five pasåda rúpas, the senses, are faculty-condition, they are leaders in performing their function, each in their own field. Eyesense is the leader as to its own function of receiving visible object, it is the condition for seeing-consciousness to arise and to see visible object. The other rúpas could not perform this function. It depends on the keenness of the eyesense whether what appears through it is clear or vague. This has nothing to do with someone’s will or wish, it depends on the eyesense which is faculty-condition for seeing.
Each kind of dhamma is a condition for the arising of other dhammas and there are different ways of conditionality. Lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa and paññå condition other dhammas by being their roots. Many times a day akusala hetus arise, they arise more often than kusala hetus. At times there are kusala hetus and when these gradually develop and become more powerful, akusala hetus will dwindle. Paññå should be developed so that the characteristics of realities can be known as they are. It is paññå, the hetu of amoha, which understands realities as they are. So long as paññå does not clearly know the characteristics of realities, the akusala hetus of lobha, dosa and moha are bound to thrive and develop. There is no reality other than paññå, amoha, which can eradicate the akusala hetus. When one studies the Dhamma, understands the characteristics of the realities appearing through the six doors, and develops satipaììhåna, the kusala cetasika amoha or paññå will gradually grow. When one realizes the four noble Truths at the attainment of the first stage of enlightenment, the stage of the sotåpanna, different kinds of defilements are eradicated in conformity with that stage. It is at the attainment of arahatship that all defilements are eradicated.
The noble persons of the stages of the sotåpanna, the sakadågåmí and the anågåmí are called “learners”, sekha puggala. They have to continue to develop paññå until, at the attainment of arahatship, akusala hetus as well as kusala hetus do not arise anymore. The arahat who has eradicated all defilements and has reached the end of rebirth, has also no more kusala hetus, because these would be a condition for the arising of kusala vipåka in the future, endlessly. The arahat has cittas accompanied by alobha, adosa and amoha, but these are indeterminate roots, avyåkata hetus, which do not condition vipåka in the future. One may wonder whether one will ever reach that stage. We shall reach that stage one day if we are patient and persevere with the development of right understanding, day in day out. There were many people in the past who attained arahatship and if it would be impossible to attain this result there would not have been anybody who attained it. However, it cannot be attained as quickly as one would hope, the result is in conformity with the cause. If paññå does not arise yet, if it does not develop, defilements cannot be eradicated. Paññå can be gradually developed, stage by stage, and then it will be able to penetrate the true characteristics of realities. In this way defilements can be eradicated.
We should never forget the aim of the study of citta, cetasika and rúpa. The aim is the development of satipaììhåna, thus, the understanding of the true characteristics of citta, cetasika and rúpa, just as they naturally appear, one at a time. This is the truth the Buddha realized through his enlightenment and taught to others. It may happen that one has studied the Dhamma but does not practise in conformity with what one has learnt. That is an inconsistency. When one has studied the realities from the texts but one does not learn to directly know them as they are when they appear, it is impossible to eradicate defilements.
The akusala hetus of lobha, dosa and moha which arise are of the jåti which is akusala, they cannot be of another jåti. The akusala hetus condition the arising of akusala citta and they are accumulated evermore and carried on to the future. The three sobhana hetus of alobha, adosa and paññå can be of the jåtis which are kusala, vipåka and kiriya, as they accompany kusala citta, kusala vipåkacitta or kiriyacitta. As we have seen, sobhana comprises more dhammas than kusala. Sobhana dhammas comprise realities which are kusala, kusala vipåka and sobhana kiriya.
When all dhammas are classified as three groups, namely as kusala dhammas, akusala dhammas and indeterminate dhammas, avyåkata dhammas, the six cetasikas which are hetus are classified as nine in the following way:
three akusala hetus, namely, lobha, dosa and moha
three kusala hetus, namely, alobha, adosa and paññå
three avyåkata hetus, namely, alobha, adosa and paññå

********

Questions

1. What is root-condition, hetu-paccaya, and which paramattha dhammas are root-condition?
2. What is indeterminate root, avyåkata hetu, and which are the indeterminate roots?
3. What is avyåkata dhamma and which realities are avyåkata dhammas?
4. What is the difference between kusala hetus and sobhana hetus?
5. Which realities are na-hetu, not-root?
6. What is sahetuka and which realities are sahetuka?
7. Which of the hetu cetasikas are ahetuka and which are sahetuka?
8. Which akusala cittas are accompanied by one root, eka-hetuka, and which are accompanied by two roots, dvi-hetuka?
9. Can kusala citta be eka-hetuka? Explain this.
10. Is contact, phassa cetasika, hetu or na-hetu? Can it be ahetuka or sahetuka? Can it be eka-hetuka, dvi-hetuka or ti-hetuka, thus, accompanied by one root, two roots or three roots?
11. When hetus are classified as nine, which are they?

*****
Chapter 22

Sobhana and Asobhana

Cittas can be classified as sobhana and asobhana. Sobhana dhammas are realities which are “beautiful”. Sobhana dhammas do not only comprise kusala dhammas, but also dhammas which are kusala vipåka, the result of kusala kamma, and sobhana kiriya dhammas, the cittas of the arahat who has neither kusala nor akusala.
Asobhana dhamma is the opposite of sobhana dhamma. Asobhana dhammas are dhammas which are not sobhana, not beautiful. Asobhana dhammas do not only comprise akusala citta and cetasika, but also all cittas and cetasikas which are not accompanied by sobhana cetasikas. Thus, when cittas are classified by way of associated dhammas, sampayutta dhammas, which condition citta to be varied, cittas can be differentiated as sobhana and asobhana. This means that cittas are classified as accompanied or unaccompanied by the cetasikas which are the sobhana hetus of alobha, adosa and paññå. The sobhana hetus are sobhana cetasikas which condition citta to be sobhana. Therefore, the classification of citta as sobhana and asobhana should follow upon the classification of citta by way of hetus. All cittas which are accompanied by sobhana hetus are sobhana cittas and all cittas which are not accompanied by sobhana hetus are asobhana cittas.
When we study paramattha dhammas we should carefully investigate cause and result. If we clearly understand cause and result we shall not have any misunderstanding as to sobhana dhammas and asobhana dhammas.
Akusala citta arises together with the akusala cetasikas of lobha, dosa and moha and thus it is clear that it is not sobhana citta.
Seeing-consciousness cannot arise together with lobha, dosa or moha, nor with any of the sobhana cetasikas. Seeing-consciousness is accompanied only by seven cetasikas: contact (phassa), feeling (vedanå), remembrance (saññå), volition (cetanå), one-pointedness or concentration (ekaggatå), life-faculty (jívitindriya) and attention (manasikåra). These seven cetasikas are the “universals” (sabbacitta-sådhåraùå), they have to accompany each and every citta. Citta cannot arise without these seven cetasikas, no matter whether it is akusala citta, kusala citta, vipåkacitta, kiriyacitta, lokuttara citta or any other type of citta. The seven “universals” and six other cetasikas, the “particulars” (pakiùùakå) which do not arise with every citta, can be of four jåtis according to the type of citta they accompany
11. The “universals” and the “particulars” are together the “aññåsamåna cetasikas” 12 . When the aññasamåna cetasikas arise with akusala citta, they are akusala, and when they arise with kusala citta, they are kusala. Whereas akusala cetasikas accompany only akusala citta and sobhana cetasikas accompany only sobhana citta.
Seeing-consciousness is vipåkacitta which is accompanied only by the seven universals, not by sobhana cetasikas nor by akusala cetasikas. Thus, seeing-consciousness is asobhana citta, but it is not akusala citta.
When one studies the Dhamma one should understand precisely the difference between akusala dhammas and asobhana dhammas. Akusala dhammas are realities which are mean, inferior, dangerous. They are causes which produce unpleasant and sorrowful results. Asobhana dhammas are citta and cetasika which are not accompanied by sobhana cetasikas. The Buddha taught the Dhamma by various methods and under different aspects, according to the true characteristics of realities. When we study the Dhamma we should investigate the characteristics of realities in detail, so that we can understand them as they are. As we have seen, dhammas can be classified as threefold, as kusala dhamma, akusala dhamma and avyåkata (indeterminate) dhamma. We should remember that kusala dhammas are realities which are cause, producing kusala vipåka. Akusala dhammas are realities which are cause producing akusala vipåka. Avyåkata dhammas are realities which are neither kusala nor akusala. They are vipåkacitta and cetasika, kiriyacitta and cetasika, rúpa and nibbåna. Thus, avyåkata dhamma comprises not only citta and cetasika which are vipåka and kiriya, but also the paramattha dhammas which are rúpa and nibbåna. Rúpa and nibbåna cannot be kusala nor akusala because they are not citta or cetasika. Thus, all four paramattha dhammas can be classified as these three groups of dhammas. When dhammas are classified as four jåtis this classification refers only to citta and cetasika.
The cittas and cetasikas of the four jåtis can be classified as sobhana and asobhana in the following way:

akusala citta and accompanying cetasikas which are: asobhana
kusala citta and accompanying cetasikas which are: sobhana
vipåkacitta and kiriyacitta unaccompanied by sobhana
cetasikas such as alobha and adosa which are: asobhana
vipåkacitta and kiriyacitta accompanied by sobhana
cetasikas which are: sobhana

Seeing-consciousness which is kusala vipåka and seeing-consciousness which is akusala vipåka are accompanied only by the seven universals. It is the same for the other four pairs of sense-cognitions, they are accompanied only by the seven universals. Thus, the five pairs of sense-cognitions, the dvipañcaviññåùa, are asobhana cittas. Moreover, there are cittas other than these ten which are asobhana, not accompanied by sobhana cetasikas.
Some kusala vipåkacittas are asobhana and some are sobhana, accompanied by sobhana cetasikas. Each citta which arises in daily life is different. The rebirth-consciousness arising in the human plane of existence is different from the rebirth-consciousness arising in an unhappy plane, they are results produced by different kammas. A being born in an unhappy plane has a rebirth-consciousness which is akusala vipåka, the result of akusala kamma. Rebirth-consciousness which is akusala vipåka can arise in a hell plane, a ghost plane (pitti visaya), in the plane of demons (asuras) or in the animal world. The rebirth-consciousness arising in the human plane or in one of the deva planes is kusala vipåkacitta; birth in these planes is a happy rebirth, the result of kusala kamma.
Rebirth-consciousness arising in the human plane is kusala vipåka, but there are different degrees of kamma producing kusala vipåka. Those who are handicapped from the first moment of life have a rebirth-consciousness which is the result of a very weak kusala kamma, unaccompanied by the sobhana cetasikas of alobha, adosa and paññå. Since the rebirth-consciousness of such a person is the result of weak kusala kamma, akusala kamma has the opportunity to cause him to be troubled by a handicap from the time of his birth.
As regards human beings who are not handicapped from the first moment of their life, they are born in different surroundings: they are born into different families, some of which are poor, some rich; they are of different ranks; there are differences in the number of their attendants or companions. All these varieties are due to a cause, namely, the difference in strength of the kusala kamma which produced as result the vipåkacitta performing the function of rebirth. If kusala kamma is accompanied by pañña of a low degree or unaccompanied by paññå, it can produce as result rebirth-consciousness which is kusala vipåka accompanied by sobhana cetasikas and the two hetus of alobha and adosa. That person is then dvi-hetuka, born with a rebirth-consciousness accompanied by two sobhana hetus but without paññå. In that life he cannot attain jhåna nor enlightenment.
When someone is born with a rebirth-consciousness accompanied by paññå, as result of kamma accompanied by paññå, he is then tihetuka, born with a rebirth-consciousness accompanied by the three sobhana hetus of alobha, adosa and amoha or paññå. When that persons listens to the Dhamma, he is able to consider the Dhamma and to understand it. He can in that life, if he develops paññå of the level of samatha, attain jhåna. Or he can develop insight and, if the right conditions have been accumulated, he can realize the four noble Truths and attain enlightenment. Nevertheless, one should not be neglectful as to the development of paññå. Someone may have been born with three sobhana hetus and he may have accumulated sati and paññå, but if he neglects developing kusala or listening to the Dhamma, he will only be skillful as to worldly knowledge. If one does not develop insight one will not realize the characteristics of realities as they are.
In former lives people may have been interested in the Dhamma, they may have studied it and they may even have been ordained as a bhikkhu or a novice. However, for the attainment of enlightenment it is necessary for everybody to develop paññå, no matter whether he is a bhikkhu or a layfollower. Nobody knows in what state of life, as a bhikkhu or a layman, he will attain enlightenment. One must know as they are the characteristics of realities which are appearing; paññå must be developed life after life, until, during one life, it has become so keen that it can penetrate the four noble Truths.
In the past someone may have been interested in the Dhamma and occupied with the study of the Dhamma and applied it in his life, but one should never forget that so long as enlightenment has not been attained, accumulated defilements can condition one to go astray. Defilements are so persistent, so powerful, they can condition people to be neglectful of kusala and to be engrossed in akusala. Someone may have been born with a rebirth-consciousness which is ti-hetuka, with alobha, adosa and paññå, but if he is neglectful and does not listen to the Dhamma, if he does not consider it carefully and if he is not aware of realities, there cannot be any development of paññå in that life. It is to be regretted that someone born as ti-hetuka wastes his life by not developing paññå. It is not sure which kamma will produce the rebirth-consciousness of the next life. It may happen that akusala vipåkacitta performs the function of rebirth in an unhappy plane, or that ahetuka kusala vipåkacitta performs the function of rebirth, in which case a person is handicapped from the first moment of life, or that dvi-hetuka vipåkacitta performs the function of rebirth in a happy plane. In that case someone is born without pañña and he is not able to develop paññå to the degree that the four noble Truths can be realized and enlightenment attained. Instead of neglecting the development of paññå one should persevere with its development so that it can grow and become keener.
When the rebirth-consciousness is sobhana citta the bhavanga-citta is also sobhana-citta. A human being who is not born with an ahetuka kusala vipåkacitta, thus, who is not handicapped from birth, has, when he is fast asleep, sobhana bhavanga-cittas. If he is born with the two hetus of alobha and adosa, the bhavanga-cittas which are of the same type as the rebirth-consciousness are also dvi-hetuka. If he is born with the three hetus of alobha, adosa and paññå, the bhavanga-cittas are ti-hetuka. When we are fast asleep defilements do not arise; we have no like or dislike, because we do not yet experience objects through the sense-doors. We do not see, hear, smell, taste, experience objects through the bodysense or think about different objects. When we wake up, happiness or unhappiness arises due to the different types of akusala cittas which arise in a day. When we are awake there are more asobhana cittas than kusala cittas. Seeing-consciousness arises and sees what appears through the eyes just for one moment and then there are usually akusala javana víthi-cittas, seven moments of them. Thus, javana citta arises seven times more than seeing-consciousness which performs the function of seeing just for one moment. A great deal of akusala dhammas have been accumulated from one moment of citta to the next moment, day in day out. Therefore, we should not be neglectful in the development of understanding while we study the Dhamma the Buddha explained in detail. The Buddha explained which cittas are sobhana , which cittas are asobhana and which of the asobhana cittas are akusala, vipåka or kiriya.
Question: Does the arahat have asobhana cittas?
Answer: Yes, he has.
Question: Does the arahat have akusala cittas?
Answer: No, he has not.
The arahat has asobhana cittas but he does not have akusala cittas. For the arahat the sense-cognitions such as seeing or hearing arise, which are asobhana cittas, but he has neither akusala cittas nor kusala cittas.
There are fiftytwo cetasikas in all: thirteen aññå-samåna cetasikas which can be of four jåtis and which are of the same jåti as the citta and cetasikas they accompany, fourteen akusala cetasikas and twentyfive sobhana cetasikas
13.
It is important to have right understanding of the realities which are sobhana or asobhana. The Påli term sobhana is often translated into English as beautiful, but this word may cause misunderstandings. One may believe that everything which is beautiful or pleasant must be sobhana. One may for example think that pleasant bodily feeling is sobhana, but this is not so. We should consider the reality of pleasant bodily feeling. As we have seen, feelings can be classified as fivefold:
pleasant feeling
unpleasant feeling
indifferent feeling
pleasant bodily feeling
painful bodily feeling

Pleasant bodily feeling, sukha vedanå, accompanies body-consciousness which is kusala vipåka, experiencing a pleasant tangible object. Body-consciousness is not accompanied by the sobhana cetasikas of alobha, adosa or paññå. Thus, the reality of pleasant bodily feeling is asobhana, not sobhana. If we do not correctly understand the Påli terms which represent the different dhammas we shall have misunderstandings about them.
We should know precisely which dhammas can be sobhana and which dhammas cannot be sobhana. Rúpa cannot be sobhana dhamma, although it can be a beautiful, pleasant object. Rúpa is the dhamma which does not know anything, it can neither be kusala nor akusala. It cannot be accompanied by kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy or any other sobhana dhamma. Only citta and cetasika can be sobhana or asobhana. Rúpa can be an object which conditions citta to arise and to like or dislike it, but rúpa itself is indeterminate dhamma, avyåkata dhamma. Rúpa does not know that citta likes it or dislikes it. Rúpa itself has no intention or wish to be liked or disliked by citta, since rúpa is not a dhamma which can experience something. Citta experiences objects, it wants to see visible object, to hear sound, to smell odour, to experience pleasant tangible object, so that happy feeling can arise again and again. One wants pleasant feeling every day, whenever objects are experienced through the senses, or even whenever there is thinking about all these objects.
The five khandhas are objects of clinging, and this is shown in different similes. In the Commentary to the “Visuddhimagga”, the “Paramattha Mañjúsa” (See Vis. XIV, 221, footnote 83)
14 it is said that rúpakkhandha is like a dish because it bears the food which will bring happiness. Vedanåkkhandha is like the food in that dish. Saññåkkhandha is like the currysauce poured over the food which enhances its flavour, because, owing to the perception of beauty it hides the nature of the food which is feeling. Saòkhårakkhandha is like the server of the food being a cause of feeling. Viññåùakkhandha is like the eater because it is helped by feeling.
Citta is the leader in knowing an object. Citta and cetasikas, the four nåma-kkhandhas, must arise together, they know the same object and they cannot be separated from each other. All four nåma-kkhandhas must arise together, there cannot be less than four nåma-kkhandhas. In the planes where there are five khandhas, the nåma-kkhandhas are dependent on rúpa-kkhandha which conditions their arising.
We study the different types of citta so that we can understand precisely the characteristics of cittas which can be classified in different ways. They can be classified by way of the four jåtis, the four classes as to their nature of kusala, akusala, vipåka and kiriya; by way of the three groups of kusala dhamma, akusala dhamma and indeterminate dhamma, avyåkata dhamma; by way of hetus; by way of asaòkhårika and sasaòkhårika; by way of sobhana and asobhana. These classifications make it clear to us that cittas are accompanied by different cetasikas which cause them to be variegated. If we understand these classifications it can be a condition for sati to arise and to be aware of realities, so that they are known as anattå, not a self or a being. They are just nåma and rúpa, each with their own characteristic, appearing one at a time. Visible object appearing through the eyes is one characteristic of reality, sound is another characteristic of reality. Odour, flavour and tangible object are all different realities, each with their own characteristic. Kusala citta and avyåkata citta are different realities each with their own characteristic.
If there is more understanding of all these realities which each have their own characteristic, conditions are accumulated for the arising of sati which can be aware and which can investigate the characteristics of realities which appear. In this way the true nature of each dhamma can be penetrated.


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Questions

1. Can rúpa be sobhana dhamma? Explain the reason.
2. What is the difference between a person born with a rebirth-consciousness which is kusala vipåkacitta unaccompanied by sobhana cetasikas and a person born with a rebirth-consciousness which is kusala vipåkacitta accompanied by sobhana cetasikas?
3. What type of kamma produces as result rebirth-consciousness accompanied by two hetus, thus, which is dvi-hetuka?
4. What is the difference between a person who is dvi-hetuka and a person who is ti-hetuka (born with three hetus)?
5. When a person is fast asleep is the citta then sobhana or asobhana?


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1 This will be explained further on.

2 Uddhacca accompanies each akusala citta, but the second type of moha-múla-citta is called uddhacca-sampayutta and in this way it is differentiated from the first type.

3 There are seven javana-cittas in a process which are kusala cittas or akusala cittas in the case of the non-arahat.

4 The arúpa-jhånacittas are accompanied by the same jhånafactors as the fifth rúpa-jhånacitta. This will be explained further in the section on Samatha.

5 Mahå means great. Mahå-kusala cittas are kusala cittas of the sense sphere, kåmåvacara kusala cittas. Mahå-kiriyacittas and mahå-vipåkacittas are also cittas of the sense sphere, accompanied by beautiful roots, sobhana hetus.

6 alobha is non-attachment, adosa is non-hate or kindness, amoha is paññå.

7 As we have seen, the arahat does not perform kamma which can produce result, and thus kiriyacittas perform the function of javana.

8 Kusala vipåkacitta can be accompanied by sobhana hetus or it can be ahetuka, without hetus.

9 “Sa” means with.

10 Material food, contact, cetanå and viññåùa can be åhåra-paccaya. In the case of åhåra-paccaya, the conditioning dhamma maintains the existence of and supports the growth of the conditioned dhamma.

11 This will be explained further in the Appendix.

12 Aññå means other and samåna means common. When kusala citta is taken into account, akusala citta is taken as “other”, and vice versa.

13 This will be explained further in the Appendix.

14 See also “Dispeller of Delusion”, Ch I, Classification of the Aggregates, Definition, 32.