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The Conditionality of Life in the Buddhist Teachings

An outline of the Twenty four Conditions as taught in the

Abhidhamma

By Nina van Gorkom

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Decisive Support-Condition (Upanissaya-Paccaya)

Part I

Upanissaya-paccaya, which can be translated as decisive support-condition

or strong dependence-condition, occurs when a phenomenon

assists another phenomenon by being a powerful inducement

70

. There

are three kinds of upanissaya-paccaya:

1. decisive support of object, årammaùúpanissaya-paccaya

2. decisive support of proximity, anantarúpanissaya-paccaya

3. decisive support of natural condition, pakatúpanissaya-

paccaya

As to strong dependence or decisive support-condition of object, the

object is the paccaya, condition, for the citta which experiences it, the

paccayupanna dhamma, conditioned dhamma, and that object

conditions the citta by way of strong dependence. We see in the

"Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation Chapter, Strong

Dependence, § 423), that the objects which are the conditioning factors

are the same as in the case of object predominance-condition,

årammaùådhipati paccaya (see Ch 3), thus, they have to be desirable

objects. The cittas which are conditioned by way of decisive support of

object are also the same types as in the case of object predominance-condition.

Thus, the realities involved in these two kinds of conditions

are the same, but there is a difference in the conditioning force of object

predominance-condition and of decisive support-condition of object. In

the case of object predominance-condition the desirable object is highly

esteemed by the citta and cetasikas concerned so that they give

preponderance to it. In the case of decisive support-condition of object

the desirable object is a powerful inducement, a cogent reason, for the

arising of the citta and cetasikas concerned, which are strongly

dependent on that object. Desirable objects which are object

predominance-condition can also, at the same time, be decisive support-condition

of object, a powerful inducement for the arising of the cittas

concerned. Phenomena can be conditioned by several types of

70 The Påli term upa means strong or powerful, and nissaya means dependence or

support.

conditions at the same time..61

Certain objects cannot be object predominance-condition nor decisive

support-condition of object, because they are undesirable. Among them

is the type of body-consciousness which is akusala vipåka, accompanied

by painful feeling. The two types of dosa-múla-citta (one unprompted

and one prompted) and the two types of moha-múla-citta (one

accompanied by doubt and one accompanied by restlessness) are not

desirable objects and thus they cannot be decisive support-condition of

object. The akusala cetasikas which accompany dosa-múla-citta, such as

regret, jealousy and stinginess, and those which accompany moha-múla-citta

are not desirable either, thus, they cannot be decisive support-condition

of object.

Kusala such as dåna or síla which one performed can be object

predominance-condition for kusala citta which esteems and gives

preponderance to the wholesome deed one performed. The wholesome

deed can at the same time also be decisive support-condition of object,

it can be a powerful inducement, a cogent reason, for the arising again

and again of kusala citta which sees the benefit of kusala.

Kusala which one performed can condition attachment or wrong view,

as we have seen, by way of object predominance-condition, and it can

also condition attachment and wrong view by way of decisive support-condition

of object. It is then a powerful inducement for the arising of

attachment and wrong view.

Attachment can be object predominance-condition and also decisive

support-condition of object, a powerful inducement for the arising of

attachment again and again in the case of all those who have not

eradicated attachment.

Akusala cannot be object predominance-condition nor decisive support-condition

of object for kusala citta, since kusala citta cannot consider

akusala with esteem and high regard.

Desirable rúpas which are object predominance-condition can also be

decisive support-condition of object for lobha-múla-citta. Beautiful

colours or delicious flavours are a powerful inducement for the arising

of lobha-múla-citta which wants such objects again and again. As soon

as delicious food is on the tongue its flavour is irresistable for

attachment. Someone may highly regard the sound of music which is

then object predominance-condition for lobha-múla-citta. The sound of

music can also be a decisive support-condition of object, a powerful

inducement for the arising again and again of lobha-múla-citta, for

example, when someone dedicates his whole life to music.

The rúpas which are the five sense-bases, the heart-base and the sense.62

objects can be decisive support-condition of object for lobha-múla-citta

but, just as in the case of object predominance-condition, they cannot

be decisive support-condition of object for kusala citta

71

.

Only the rúpas which are "concrete matter", rúpas produced by one of

the four factors of kamma, citta, temperature or nutrition, can be, just

as in the case of object predominance-condition, decisive support-condition

of object for lobha-múla-citta

72

.

The objects which are decisive support-condition are a powerful

inducement, a cogent reason for the arising of the cittas concerned.

However, we should remember that there are also other conditions. It

depends on someone’s accumulated inclinations whether he has "wise

attention" or "unwise attention" to an object. Which objects are

powerful inducements for the arising of kusala citta and which objects

for the arising of lobha-múla-citta in our life? Most of the time we are

intent on acquiring pleasant objects for ourselves, objects which can be

a decisive support-condition for clinging. There can be awareness of the

realities which appear, also of clinging. We should not ignore clinging

or despise it as an object of awareness. It arises naturally in our daily

life because there are still conditions for its arising. If we do not know

its true nature we will take it for self and then it cannot be eradicated.

Nibbåna and the eight types of lokuttara citta which experience it

73

cannot be object predominance-condition for lobha-múla citta, nor can

they be decisive support-condition of object for lobha-múla-citta. We

read in the "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation Chapter,

Conditions, Positive, Classification Chapter, Strong Dependence, § 423),

that nibbåna is related to the eight lokuttara cittas which experience it

and also to mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå and mahå-kiriyacitta

(of the arahat) accompanied by paññå, by way of decisive

support-condition of object.

71 See Ch 3. Kusala citta does not give preponderance, for example, to a pleasant sense

object, it is inclined to give it away. Thus, it is not strongly dependent on that rúpa as

object.

72 "Concrete matter" are rúpas which are produced by one of the four factors with

characteristics which can be directly experienced, such as the four great Elements, the

sense objects and the sense organs. There are also rúpas which are not "concrete matter",

anipphanna rúpas, non-produced rúpas. These are for example the special characteristics

of rúpa which are lightness, pliancy and wieldiness. Or the four characteristics of rúpa

which are integration, continuation, decay and impermanence of rúpa.

73 There is one type of lokuttara kusala citta and one type of lokuttara vipåkacitta arising

in the case of each of the four stages of enlightenment, thus there are eight types of

lokuttara citta.

The second condition classified under decisive support-condition is.63

proximate decisive support-condition, anantarúpanissaya-paccaya. This

condition is similar to proximity-condition (anantara-paccaya, see Ch

4). Both conditions pertain to each preceding citta which conditions the

succeeding citta without any interval. However, a distinction between

these two conditions has to be made. The teaching of proximate

decisive support-condition, anantarúpanissaya paccaya, stresses the

aspect of powerful inducement of the conditioning force in the

relationship between the conditioning reality, the preceding citta, and

the conditioned reality, the succeeding citta. We read in the

"Visuddhimagga"( XVII, 82) about the difference between the two

conditional relations:

... Nevertheless proximity may be understood as the ability to cause the

occurrence of an appropriate consciousness arising proximate (next) to

itself, and decisive support as the preceding consciousness’s cogency in

the arousing of the succeeding consciousnesses....

We then read that there can be the arising of citta without root-condition

and other conditions, but that citta cannot arise without being

conditioned by the preceding citta. Thus, the preceding citta as

conditioning factor is a powerful inducement or cogent reason for the

arising of the succeeding citta.

The paìisandhi-citta, for example, is a cogent reason for the succeeding

bhavanga-citta, so that life can continue. If the preceding citta would

not be a powerful inducement for the arising of the succeeding citta,

there could not be a continuous succession of cittas, even at this

moment. In the case of birth as an animal, the paìisandhi-citta is

akusala vipåkacitta, and this citta conditions the succeeding bhavanga-citta

by way of proximity decisive-support-condition. The bhavanga-citta

is the same type of citta as the paìisandhi-citta, it could not change into

kusala vipåkacitta. Birth as an animal is different from birth as a human

being, and the bhavanga-citta which succeeds the paìisandhi-citta in the

case of these different kinds of births is in conformity with the

paìisandhi-citta. We can notice that the lives of animals and of human

beings are completely different. Beings are born with different

potentialities, different capabilities, and these are carried on to the

succeeding bhavanga-citta and then to the following cittas which arise

in succession throughout life. In between the processes of cittas there

are bhavanga-cittas, and they are of the same type as the paìisandhi-citta..64

There is the arising of seeing and thinking at this moment. They are

conditioned by proximate decisive support-condition. Each citta which

arises falls away immediately, but it has a conditioning force which is a

powerful inducement for the arising of the succeeding citta without any

interval. Thus, good and bad qualities can be carried on from moment

to moment, they can be accumulated. Attachment has been

accumulated from life to life. We think time and again with attachment

about honour and all the pleasant things we want to obtain for

ourselves. We have an interest in the Dhamma because this has been

accumulated. We may have listened to the Dhamma in past lives, but

we do not remember this anymore. Interest in the Dhamma and also the

inclination to develop right understanding can be carried on from life to

life because of proximity decisive support-condition.

In the development of vipassanå, insight, there is awareness of whatever

reality appears at the present moment. Because of proximity-condition

and proximate decisive support-condition citta arises and falls away and

is then succeeded by the next citta. At one moment there is seeing, at

another moment attachment to visible object, hearing or attachment to

sound. Nobody can choose the object of awareness, because realities

appear already because of their own conditions. Cittas which arise in a

process of cittas do so according to a fixed order which cannot be

changed. Each preceding citta is a powerful inducement for the arising

of the next citta.

So long as we are in the cycle of birth and death there are conditions for

each citta to be succeeded by the next citta. The development of right

understanding of the different characteristics of realities as they appear

one at a time will eventually lead to the end of the cycle. We confuse

the different doorways of sense-doors and mind-door, we do not clearly

distinguish between different cittas which experience one object at a

time through one doorway. Through the development of right

understanding one learns that the doorways and the realities which are

dependent on them are different. Seeing is completely different from

hearing, it arises because of different conditions, experiences an object

different from the object which hearing experiences. The aim of

learning about the conditions for the realities which arise is the

understanding of the truth of non-self.

We read in the "Kindred Sayings"(IV, Saîåyatana Vagga, Second Fifty, 5,

The Chapter of the Six, § 94, Including the sixfold sense-sphere) that

the Buddha said that when the six spheres of contact (the five senses

and the mind) are untamed, unguarded, unwatched, unrestrained there

will be dukkha, whereas when they are well tamed, well watched, well.65

restrained

74

, there will be happiness. We read in the verse:

He meets with dukkha, monks, who has not tamed

The sixfold impact of the sphere of sense.

They who have learned the mastery of these,

With faith for comrade,- they dwell free from lust.

Beholding with the eye delightful things

Or things unlovely, let him restrain his bent

To lust for loveliness, and let him not

Corrupt his heart with thoughts of "O, it is dear."

And when, again, sounds sweet or harsh he hears,

Not led astray by sweetness, let him check

The error of his senses. Let him not

Corrupt his heart with thoughts of "O, it is sweet."

If some delightful fragrance meet the nose,

And then again some foul malodorous stench,

Let him restrain repugnance for that stench,

Nor yet be led by lust for what is sweet.

Should he taste savours that are sweet and choice,

And then again what is bitter to the tongue,

He should not greedily devour the sweet,

Nor yet show loathing for the bitter taste.

By pleasures’ impact not inebriate,

Nor yet distracted by the touch of pain,

To pain and pleasure both indifferent

Let him be free from likings and dislikes.

74 We also read in other parts of the teachings that the six doors are "guarded" through

satipaììhåna. Only right understanding of the reality which appears can eventually

eradicate defilements..66

Obsessed (by lusts) are others: so obsessed

They know and so they fare. But he dispels

All the world’s vulgar fashionings of mind.

And treads the path renunciation-bound.

By contact of these six, if mind be trained,

The heart is never shaken any more.

Overcome these two, O monks,- lust and hate.

Do you pass beyond the bounds of birth and death.

*********.67

Chapter 8

Decisive Support- Condition (Upanissaya -Paccaya)

Part II

As we have seen, there are three kinds of decisive support-condition:

decisive support of object, årammaùúpanissaya-paccaya, decisive

support of proximity, anantarúpanissaya-paccaya, and natural decisive

support-condition, pakatúpanissaya-paccaya. With regard to the third

decisive support-condition, pakatúpanissaya-paccaya, the commentary

to the "Paììhåna" (the Pañcappakaraùatthakathå) explains the term

"pakata" in pakatúpanissaya. Pakata means done properly, done

thoroughly. Kusala and akusala which were "done thoroughly", often

performed, can become firmly accumulated, they can become habitual.

In this way they are a cogent reason, a powerful inducement for the

arising of kusala and akusala later on, which are the dhammas

conditioned by them, the paccayupanna dhammas. Also external

conditions, such as temperature, food, dwelling place and friends one

associates with can be cogent reasons for the dhammas which they

cause to arise.

The commentary defines in addition the term pakatúpanissaya, by

explaining the word "pakati" which is connected with

"pakatúpanissaya", as naturally, by nature. The conditioning factor

conditions the arising of other dhammas naturally, and it can condition

them without the assistance of decisive support-condition of object or

proximate decisive support-condition. For example, when there is

strong confidence (saddhå) in kusala, this can be a cogent reason for

the arising of kusala citta without the need to be dependent on decisive

support-condition of object or proximity decisive support-condition.

We read in the "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation Chapter,

Conditions Positive, § 423,c, Natural strong dependence):

By the strong dependence of confidence... of precept (síla)... of

learning... generosity... By the strong dependence of wisdom, (one)

offers the offering, undertakes the precept, fulfils the duty of

observance, develops jhåna, develops insight, develops Path, develops

superknowledge, develops attainment. Confidence, precept, learning,

generosity, wisdom is related to confidence, precept, learning,.68

generosity, wisdom, by strong dependence condition.

Good and bad qualities accumulated in the past become our nature,

they condition the different cittas in the present life by way of natural

decisive support-condition. We read in the "Mahå-Sutasoma Jåtaka"

(Jåtaka Stories V, no. 537) that the Buddha said that not only in his

present life he had tamed the robber Aògulimåla who had slain many

people but later on attained arahatship, but also in a former life when

the Buddha was King Sutasoma and Aògulimåla was the King of

Båråùasí. Once the King’s cook could not obtain meat and gave him,

without telling him, human flesh. We read (458):

... No sooner was a bit of the meat placed on the tip of the King’s tongue

than it sent a thrill through the seven thousand nerves of taste and

continued to create a disturbance throughout his whole body. Why was

this? From his having previously resorted to this food....

His longing for human flesh became exceedingly strong, it determined

his whole life. He was unable to give up his craving, so he abandoned

his kingdom and kept on murdering for the sake of human flesh. He had

accumulated greed for human flesh because in his preceding life he had

been a man-eating Yakkha. His previous accumulations were the natural

decisive support-condition for the arising of greed for human flesh and

for his killing of human beings. He could not refrain from taking human

flesh. Thus we see that deeds performed in the past are a natural

decisive support-condition for deeds at the present. Akusala kamma is

dangerous since it does not only produce unpleasant vipåka, but by

performing akusala kamma the tendency is accumulated to perform

akusala kamma again.

We read in the same Jåtaka that one day the King seized Sutasoma, the

Bodhisatta. Sutasoma asked permission to be temporarily released in

order to fulfill a promise he had made to a brahmin, and after he had

done so he returned to the man-eater without fear, and preached to

him. He said (491):

Of all the sweets this world can yield to me

None sweeter than the joys of Truth I see:

Brahmins and priests that in the Truth abide,

Birth, death escaping, reach the further side..69

The Bodhisatta said that he was willing to give up all his wealth, his

limbs and his life for the sake of truth. He converted and tamed the

man-eater. The perfections (påramís) he had accumulated conditioned

his heroic attitude and his preference for the truth.

The Bodhisatta developed all the perfections during countless lives in

order to attain Buddhahood. We may have accumulated an interest in

the Dhamma but the perfections have not been accumulated to the

degree that stages of insight can arise and that enlightenment can be

attained. Mindfulness of realities does not often arise, but its arising

cannot be controlled by a "self", it is dependent on the right conditions.

Not only right understanding, but also other wholesome qualities such

as generosity, síla, mettå and patience have to be developed. They are

sobhana cetasikas, beautiful mental factors, which are

saùkhårakkhandha, the khandha of "formations"

75

. The different

factors of which this khandha is composed mutually strengthen and

support one another and thus conditions are accumulated for

enlightenment. During the process of cittas when enlightenment is

attained paññå realizes the true nature of the reality which appears, it

realizes one of the three characteristics of that reality, namely

impermanence, dukkha or anattå. At that moment the accumulated

perfections including paññå are the natural decisive support-condition,

pakatúpanissaya paccaya, for the complete abandoning of all clinging to

the wrong view of self and then nibbåna can be realized.

We read in the "Paììhåna" (under Strong Dependence, § 423):

The preparation for the first Path

76

is related to the first Path by

(natural) strong dependence-condition.

The same is said with regard to the second, third and fourth Path.

Moreoever, the first Path is related to the second Path by natural strong

dependence, and it is the same with the subsequent Paths.

This reminds us that lokuttara citta cannot arise without the right

conditions. During the process when enlightenment is attained, one of

the three characteristics of reality, impermanence, dukkha or anattå, is

realized just before lokuttara citta arises. Only one of the three

75 All cetasikas other than feeling and saññå, remembrance, are included in

saòkhårakkhandha.

76 The magga-citta of the first stage of enlightenment, the stage of the "streamwinner",

sotåpanna. There are four stages of enlightenment.

characteristics is realized at that moment since citta can have only one.70

object at a time. However, before the three characteristics of reality can

be known as they are, right understanding of all nåmas and rúpas which

appear in daily life has to be gradually developed, and moreover, the

"perfections" have to be accumulated.

The natural decisive support-condition, pakatúpanissaya paccaya, is

very wide. Kusala citta can be a natural decisive support-condition for

akusala citta. We read in the "Paììhåna" ( same section, § 423, II b):

Confidence, precept, learning, generosity, wisdom is related to lust,

hate, delusion, conceit, wrong views, wish, by (natural) strong

dependence-condition.

One’s knowledge of the Dhamma may be a natural decisive support-condition

for conceit or for wrong view. One may have studied the

Dhamma but one may not consider nåma and rúpa appearing in daily

life and one may have wrong understanding of the practice of

vipassanå. Or someone may have confidence in a teacher who practises

in the wrong way and thus he may, because of confidence, follow the

wrong practice.

Kusala can lead to aversion, it can be a natural decisive support-condition

for aversion. When we make an effort to help someone else

that person may not appreciate it and then aversion may arise. If we do

not study the different conditions we may not understand how the

doing of good deeds can be a condition for the arising of akusala citta.

If we do not develop satipaììhåna with the purpose of eradicating

akusala, the kusala we perform can, without our noticing it, be a

natural decisive support-condition for akusala citta.

Kusala citta can lead to bodily discomfort, which is akusala vipåkacitta.

One may, for example, pay respect at the Buddhist holy places in India,

and this is a wholesome deed. However, the hotel where one stays may

be dilapidated, without facilities, and this causes one to suffer from

heat, mosquitos and other discomforts. Thus, there is body-consciousness

which is akusala vipåka. This is produced by akusala

kamma, but it is also conditioned by kusala kamma by way of natural

decisive support-condition. Phenomena which arise are not merely

conditioned by one type of condition but by several types.

Accumulated unwholesome inclinations are a natural decisive support-condition

for the arising of akusala citta at the present time.

Accumulated dosa can lead to the killing of living beings. Also

accumulated lobha can lead to killing, for example, when one kills.71

because one wishes to have someone’s property. At the moment of

killing there is dosa-múla-citta, but lobha can motivate the deed, it can

be natural decisive support-condition.

When one commits one kind of akusala it can easily lead to the

committing of other types of akusala. We read in the "Paììhåna"( same

section, § 423, IV, c):

Killing is related to killing... stealing... unlawful intercourse with the

other sex... lying... slander... rude speech... foolish babble... avarice...

ill-will... wrong views by strong dependence-condition.

It is then explained that stealing and the other kinds of evil are related

to all kinds of akusala by way of decisive support-condition. We may

think that it is not very harmful to indulge in idle, useless speech.

However, this kind of speech can be a natural decisive support-condition

for lying, stealing, killing or other kinds of akusala kamma.

Akusala can also be a natural decisive support-condition for kusala.

Because of aversion towards akusala vipåka or attachment to kusala

vipåka one may perform good deeds. One may regret the akusala one

performed in the past and then, in order to counteract it, one performs

kusala. We read in the "Paììhåna" (same section, § 423, V):

After having killed, (one) offers the offering, undertakes the precept,

fulfils the duty of observance, develops jhåna, develops insight,

develops Path, develops superknowledge, develops attainment, to

counteract it.

The same is said with regard to other kinds of evil deeds, they can be a

natural decisive support-condition for kusala.

Kamma is also a natural decisive support-condition for the vipåka it

produces. We performed many kinds of kamma also in past lives, but

we do not know which kamma will produce result at a particular

moment. When there is at this moment vipåkacitta which experiences a

pleasant or an unpleasant object through one of the senses we know

that kamma is a cogent reason, a decisive support-condition for the

result. We are born in the human plane and therefore we know that

kusala kamma has produced the paìisandhi-citta. Among the

innumerable deeds done in the past that particular kamma has been a

powerful inducement, a natural decisive support-condition for the.72

paìisandhi-citta. Kamma has by its own nature the power to cause the

arising of the appropriate result, even after countless lives, it is natural

decisive support-condition for that result. It does not have to depend on

decisive support-condition of object or on proximate decisive support-condition

to produce its result. As we have seen, kusala kamma and

akusala kamma performed in the past are also a natural decisive

support-condition for kusala kamma and akusala kamma at the present

time. Evenso by the performing of good or evil deeds now we

accumulate the tendency to doing similar deeds later on, thus, such

actions are natural decisive support-condition for future deeds. The

natural decisive support-condition is very wide, it comprises also vipåka

which conditions akusala citta or kusala citta, or vipåka which

conditions vipåka. Vipåka conditions kusala citta when one, for

example, suffers bodily pain and is reminded by it that life is short and

that one therefore should not delay the development of right

understanding. Vipåka conditions akusala citta when one has aversion

towards pain. Body-consciousness which is kusala vipåka can condition

body-consciousness which is akusala vipåka by natural decisive support-condition.

When it is hot outside one may use air-conditioning and this

may cause bodily well-being. But then the temperature inside may

become too cold and one suffers bodily discomfort or catches a cold.

Akusala vipåka can condition kusala vipåka by natural decisive support-condition.

When we are sick we may have to follow a painful therapy in

order to get cured and then there is akusala vipåka through the

bodysense, but as a result there will be bodily well-being again.

Not only realities but also concepts can be a natural decisive support-condition

for phenomena which arise. We should know when the object

of thinking is a concept. When the object which citta experiences is not

a nåma or a rúpa it is a concept. Most of the time we think of events

and circumstances with regard to a particular person. The concept of

person can then be a natural decisive support-condition for attachment

or for loving kindness. If someone has acquired knowledge in the field

of science or art and he knows how to apply what he has learnt, there

are concepts which can then condition kusala citta, akusala citta and

different types of vipåkacitta by way of natural decisive support-condition.

We need to think of concepts in order to take care of

ourselves or in order to understand the Dhamma, and thus, time and

again in our daily life concepts condition different types of citta by way

of natural decisive support-condition.

Natural decisive support-condition also comprises factors such as

climate, food, dwelling-place, family and friends. We can notice that.73

good and bad friends condition our spiritual progress or decline.

Someone may be in the company of bad friends who induce him to take

drugs or alcoholic drinks, but the same person may be at another time

with a good friend in the Dhamma who explains the teachings to him. It

depends on his accumulated inclinations whether he will continue to be

with the wrong friends or with the right friends. It is beneficial to know

our different accumulations and the different conditions which play

their part in our life.

We can experience that bodily health or sickness conditions our cittas.

Food, taken in the right amount, can be the condition for our ability to

develop right understanding. The Buddha, before his enlightenment,

fasted to the extent of becoming completed emaciated. He then

understood that he was not practising the Middle Way and he took

rice-gruel offered to him by Sujatå. On that day food was a natural

decisive support-condition for the development of the right Path leading

to his enlightenment. The right dwelling-place can also be a natural

decisive support-condition for one’s spiritual progress. The Buddha

explained into the minutest details how dwelling-places should be kept

and cleaned, out of compassion. He thought of the well-being of the

monks. We read for example in the "Vinaya" (Book of the Discipline V,

Culla-vagga, Ch VIII, On Observances, 208) that a monk should clear

out an unoccupied dwelling-place and then clean it:

... If there are cobwebs in the dwelling-place, he should first remove

them from the (floor-) covering. He should wipe the corners of the

window-holes. If a wall that was coloured red becomes stained, he

should wipe it having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If ground

that was blackened becomes stained, he should wipe it having

moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If the ground has not been

treated, he should sweep it having sprinkled it all over with water,

thinking: "Take care lest the dwelling-place is sullied with dust". Having

looked for (any) rubbish, he should remove it to one side....

We may believe that thinking of concepts which, for example, pertain to

the cleaning of our house may hinder the practice of satipaììhåna. We

may be inclined to separate awareness of nåma and rúpa from thinking

of the chores we have to do in our home. Both monks and laypeople

have to think of concepts, but there can be awareness and

understanding of thinking as a conditioned nåma and there can also be

awareness of other realities which appear. Seeing and visible object.74

appear time and again and by awareness of their characteristics they

can be known as they are. The Buddha had explained to the monks very

often to be aware during all their activities and thus he did not have to

repeat this again, it was understood. When we read about the monk‘s

chores we can be reminded to be aware, also while we are doing such

chores, just as the monks.

A suitable climate is a natural decisive support-condition for the

development of paññå. We read in the Commentary to the

"Satipaììhåna Sutta", the "Papañcasúdaní"

77

, in the Introduction, about

the reason why the Buddha preached this sutta to the people of the

Kurus:

The inhabitants of the Kuru country- bhikkhus, bhikkhunís, upåsakas,

upåsikås (layfollowers)- by reason of their country being blessed with a

perfect climate and through their enjoyment of other comfortable

conditions were always healthy in body and in mind. They, happy with

healthy minds and bodies, and having the power of knowledge, were

capable of receiving deep teachings....

The climate was not the only condition for them to receive the

teachings, they also had accumulated paññå.

Oppressive weather and bad food can lead to dosa which may be so

strong that one kills or performs other evil deeds. Habits such as going

to sleep and waking up at a particular time are according to our nature,

they are conditioned by way of natural decisive support. If one is not

negligent there can be sati before going to sleep and also as soon as one

wakes up. Someone who is indolent is bound to have attachment before

he goes to sleep and when he wakes up. We may regret it that there is

not often sati before going to sleep and when we wake up, but when

there is more understanding of conditions we see that sati is anattå.

The place where someone is born and where he lives can be a natural

decisive support-condition for paññå. Birth in the human plane and in a

place where we can hear the Dhamma is rare. By the following sutta we

can be reminded not to waste any opportunity to develop right

understanding. We read in the "Gradual Sayings" (I, Book of the Ones,

Ch XIX, Trifling):

77 Middle Length Sayings I, no. 10. The Sutta and Commentary are translated by Ven.

Soma, in "The Way of Mindfulness", B.P.S. Kandy..75

Even as, monks, in this Rose-apple Land trifling in number are the

pleasant parks, the pleasant groves, the pleasant grounds and lakes,

while more numerous are the steep precipitous places, unfordable

rivers, dense thickets of stakes and thorns, and inaccessible mountains,-just

so few in number are those beings that are born on land: more

numerous are the beings that are born in water.

Just so few in number are the beings that are reborn among men: more

numerous are the beings that are born among others than men.

Just so few in number are those beings that are reborn in the middle

districts: more numerous are those reborn in the outlying districts,

among the undiscerning barbarians.

Just so few in number are those beings that are wise, quick-witted, not

deaf or dumb, competent to judge the meaning of what is spoken well

or ill: more numerous are those beings that are foolish, slow-witted,

deaf or dumb, incompetent to judge the meaning of what is spoken well

or ill.

Just so few in number are those beings that are possessed of the ariyan

eye of wisdom

78

: more numerous are those sunk in ignorance and

bewilderment.

Just so few in number are those beings that get the chance of seeing a

Tathågata

79

: more numerous are they that do not.

Just so few in number are those beings that welcome, when they hear it,

the Dhamma and Discipline set forth by a Tathågata: more numerous

are they that do not.

Just so few in number are those beings, that, on hearing Dhamma, learn

it by heart: more numerous are they that do not.

Just so few in number are those beings that examine the meaning of the

doctrines they have learnt by heart... that, understanding the meaning

and understanding the doctrine, live in accordance with it... that are

stirred by stirring topics... that, being stirred, strive systematically...

that, making resolution their object, win concentration, win one-pointedness

of mind... that gain the best of food and condiments: more

numerous are they that do not, but just exist on gathered scraps and

food collected in a bowl.

Just so few in number are those beings that are winners of the essence

of the meaning, the essence of Dhamma, the essence of release: more

78 The path, with insight.

79 The "Thus gone", epithet of the Buddha.

numerous are those that do not..76

Wherefore I say to you, monks, thus must you train yourselves: We will

become winners of the essence of the meaning, of the essence of

Dhamma, of the essence of release. That is how you must train

yourselves.

**********.77

Chapter 9

Prenascence-Condition (Purejåta-Paccaya) and

Postnascence-Condition (Pacchajåta-Paccaya)

Phenomena can condition other phenomena by way of conascence

(sahajåta-paccaya), by way of prenascence (purejåta-paccaya) or by

way of postnascence (pacchajåta-paccaya). In the case of conascence-condition,

a conditioning phenomenon (paccaya dhamma) arises

together with the phenomenon it conditions (paccayupanna dhamma).

In the case of prenascence-condition, a phenomenon has arisen prior to

the phenomenon it conditions. In the case of postnascence-condition, a

phenomenon conditions another phenomenon which has arisen prior to

itself and has not fallen away yet.

As to prenascence-condition, purejåta-paccaya, this is twofold: base-prenascence-

condition and object-prenascence-condition.

The rúpas which are bases (vatthus) condition the cittas which are

dependent on them by way of prenascence, purejåta-paccaya. As we

have seen (in Ch 6), the rúpas which are the sense-bases condition the

cittas which are dependent on those bases by way of dependence-condition,

nissaya-paccaya. These realities, the rúpas which are bases

and the cittas which are dependent on them, are the same as the

realities involved in base-prenascence-dependence-condition. However,

they are treated separately under prenascence-condition with the

purpose of showing that the conditioning realities have arisen prior to

the conditioned realities.

Seeing arises at the eye-base (cakkhu-vatthu). This rúpa which is the

eye-sense (cakkhu pasåda-rúpa) and which has the capacity to receive

visible object, is produced by kamma. Rúpa cannot function as base at

its arising moment, since it is then too weak. It can only function as

base after its arising moment, thus at the time when it is present. It

cannot be base either at its dissolution moment. Rúpa lasts longer than

citta. When we compare its duration with the duration of citta, rúpa

80 See Appendix 1 where it is explained that a sense object which is rúpa and which is

experienced by several cittas arising in a sense-door process lasts as long as seventeen

moments of citta.

When we are more precise, we can divide one moment of citta into three extremely short

periods: its arising moment (uppåda khaùa), the moment of its presence (titthi khaùa)

and its dissolution moment (bhaùga khaùa). When we take these three periods of citta

into consideration, the duration of rúpa is, compared to the duration of citta, three times

lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta

80

. Thus, the rúpa which can.78

function as eye-base has to arise before seeing-consciousness, and when

seeing-consciousness arises it is still present. Kamma keeps on

producing this rúpa throughout our life, also when there is no seeing. It

produces all the rúpas which can function as base throughout life, there

never is any lack of them.

The eye-base (cakkhu-vatthu) is base only for seeing-consciousness, it is

not base for the other cittas arising in the eye-door process; these have

the heart-base (hadaya-vatthu) as their base. The ear-base conditions

hearing-consciousness after having previously arisen, thus, it conditions

it by way of prenascence-condition. The other sense-bases also

condition the cittas which are dependent on them after having

previously arisen, thus by way of prenascence-condition. We read in the

"Paììhåna" (II, Analytical Exposition of the Conditions, 10, Prenascence-Condition):

Eye-base is related to eye-consciousness element and its associated

states

81

by prenascence-condition.

Ear-base is related to ear-consciousness element and its associated states

by prenascence-condition.

Nose-base is related to nose-consciousness element and its associated

states by prenascence-condition.

Tongue-base is related to tongue-consciousness element and its

associated states by prenascence-condition.

Body-base is related to body-consciousness element and its associated

states by prenascence-condition.

It seems that seeing, hearing or thinking occur all at the same time, but

they arise at different moments, they are dependent on different bases

and they experience different objects. When we study the manifold

conditions for the realities which arise it will be clearer that there is no

self who coordinates all the different experiences. The above quoted

text reminds us that seeing, hearing and the other sense-cognitions are

only elements, not self. If there can be mindfulness of one reality at a

time we will see that visible object, sound and the other sense objects

are different from each other. It will be clearer that eye-sense is

different from ear-sense and the other senses. As right understanding

seventeen, thus, fiftyone moments. Rúpa has after its arising moment fortynine moments

of presence and then there is its dissolution moment.

81 The associated dhammas are the accompanying cetasikas.

develops we will be less inclined to confuse the different realities and to.79

take them for a "whole", for a person.

The heart-base is the base for all the cittas other than the five pairs of

sense-cognitions (seeing, hearing, etc., which are either kusala vipåka or

akusala vipåka), and it conditions them by way of prenascence-condition.

It is only at the moment of rebirth that the heart-base

conditions the paìisandhi-citta by way of conascence-condition, sahajåta

paccaya. At that moment kamma produces the paìisandhi-citta and the

heart-base simultaneously (see Ch 5). We read in the "Paììhåna (same

section as the above quoted text, XII) where the heart-base is referred to

as "this matter" :

Depending on this matter, mind-element and mind-consciousness-element

arise; that matter is related to mind-element and its associated

states by prenascence-condition; is sometimes related to mind-consciousness-

element and its associated states by prenascence-condition,

and is sometimes not related by prenascence-condition.

Mind-element, mano-dhåtu, includes the pañca-dvåråvajjana-citta,

five-door adverting-consciousness, and the two types of sampaìicchana-citta,

receiving-consciousness, which are kusala vipåka and akusala

vipåka. Mind-consciousness-element, mano-viññåùa-dhåtu, includes the

cittas other than the dvi-pañca-viññåùas (two pairs of sense-cognitions)

and the cittas classified as mind-element. Thus, the mind-consciousness

element which is not conditioned by heart-base by way of prenascence,

as referred to in the text, is the paìisandhi-citta. This citta is conditioned

by heart-base by way of conascence.

It is of no use to speculate where the heart-base is, but we should know

that cittas do not arise outside the body. In the planes of existence

where there are five khandhas, namely nåma and rúpa, each citta needs

a physical base or place of origin, and these are the five sense-bases and

the heart-base. This reminds us of the interdependence of nåma and

rúpa from birth to death.

As regards object-prenascence-condition, årammaùa-purejåta-paccaya,

this refers to rúpa which can be object of citta. Since rúpa is weak at its

arising moment, it can only be experienced by citta during the moments

of its presence. Thus, rúpa which is object of citta has arisen previously

to that citta; it conditions that citta by way of prenascence. Visible

object which impinges on the eyesense is not experienced immediately;

82 Life-continuum. The bhavanga-cittas experience the same object as the paìisandhi-

there are first bhavanga-cittas

82

, and then the eye-door adverting-.80

consciousness arises which is the first citta of the eye-door process

which experiences visible object. This citta arises at the heart-base

which has previously arisen and which conditions the citta by way of

base-prenascence-condition. It is succeeded by seeing-consciousness

which arises at the eye-base and then by other cittas of the eye-door

process which arise at the heart-base. Both base and sense object

condition the cittas by way of prenascence. It is the same for the cittas

which experience sense-objects through the other sense-doors

83

. We

read in the "Paììhåna" (Analytical Exposition, same section as quoted

above) about the object-prenascence-condition. Visible object is here

referred to as "visible object-base", and the same for the other sense

objects. The text states:

Visible object-base is related to eye-consciousness element and its

associated states by prenascence-condition.

Sound-base is related to ear-consciousness element and its associated

states by prenascence-condiiton.

Odour-base is related to nose-consciousness element and its associated

states by prenascence-condition.

Taste-base is related to tongue-consciousness element and its associated

states by prenascence-condition.

Tangible object-base is related to body-consciousness element and its

associaed states by prenascence-condition.

Visible object-base, sound-base, odour-base, taste-base, tangible object-base

is related to mind-element and its associated states by

prenascence-condition.

By the development of satipaììhåna we can prove that our life consists

of nåma and rúpa arising because of conditions. Nåma experiences an

object and rúpa does not know anything. When seeing appears there

can be awareness of its characteristic so that it can be understood as a

reality, an element which experiences visible object through the eye-citta.

They do not experience the objects which impinge time and again on the six doors.

83 Rúpa does not condition nåma by way of prenascence-condition in the four arúpa-brahma

planes since there is no rúpa in those planes. Birth in the arúpa-brahma planes is

the result of arúpa-jhåna. Those who see the disadvantage of rúpa cultivate arúpa-jhåna.

Neither does prenascence-condition occur in the asaññå-satta plane, the plane of

non-percipient beings, where there is no nåma. Birth in that plane is the result of

rúpa-jhåna.

door. When there is awareness of the reality which appears through the.81

eyedoor, it can be understood as an element which does not know

anything, which does not see, feel or remember. There are realities

appearing through the six doors time and again and when right

understanding develops nåma can be known as nåma and rúpa as rúpa,

and in this way their different characteristics will be distinguished.

When we are eating there is flavour and tasting, when we touch

something there is tangible object and body-consciousness. When these

realities appear and there is awareness of them there is no need to think

of sense-bases, sense objects or any other terms we have learnt from the

texts. When there is awareness of the characteristic of one reality at a

time we will be able to verify the truth that all phenomena which

appear are dhammas devoid of self.

We read in the "Kindred Sayings" (IV, Saîåyatana-vagga, Part I, First

Fifty, § 1):

Thus have I heard: - The Exalted One was once staying near Såvatthí, at

Jeta Grove, in Anåthapiùèika’s Park. Then the Exalted One addressed

the monks, saying: - "Monks."

"Lord," responded those monks to the Exalted One.

The Exalted One spoke thus: - "The eye, monks, is impermanent. What

is impermanent, that is dukkha. What is dukkha, that is void of the self.

What is void of the self, that is not mine; I am not it; it is not my self.

That is how it is to be regarded with perfect insight of what it really is.

The ear... the nose... the tongue... the body... the mind is impermanent.

What is impermanent, that is dukkha. What is dukkha, that is void of

the self. What is void of the self, that is not mine; I am not it; it is not

my self. That is how it is to be regarded with perfect insight of what it

really is. So seeing, monks, the well-taught ariyan disciple is repelled by

eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. Being repelled by them, he lusts

not for them. Not lusting, he is set free. In this freedom comes insight of

being free. Thus he realizes: - "Rebirth is destroyed, lived is the

righteous life, done is the task, for life in these conditions there is no

hereafter."

We read in the same section (§ 4):

Visible objects, sounds, scents, savours, things tangible... mind-states

(dhammas) are impermanent... what is impermanent, that is dukkha.

What is dukkha, that is void of the self. What is void of the self, that is.82

not mine; I am not it; it is not my self. That is how it is to be regarded

with perfect insight of what it really is.

So seeing, monks, the well-taught ariyan disciple is repelled by visible

objects, by sounds, scents, savours, things tangible. He is repelled by

mind-states. Being repelled by them, he lusts not for them. Not lusting,

he is set free. In this freedom comes insight of being free. Thus he

realizes: "Rebirth is destroyed. Lived is the righteous life, done is the

task, for life in these conditions there is no hereafter."

Clinging to the belief that persons and things exist and that we can own

them causes a great deal of suffering. The "worldly conditions" of gain

and loss, honour and dishonour, praise and blame, wellbeing and

misery change all the time. Loss, sickness and death can occur quite

suddenly; they are beyond control, but we tend to forget the truth. We

cannot expect immediately to have less clinging to people and things.

Even the sotåpanna, the person who has attained the first stage of

enlightenment and who has no more wrong view of self, still has

attachment and sadness. Only the arahat has eradicated all kinds of

clinging. However, when we read the Tipiìaka we can appreciate the

numerous reminders of the fact that there is no person, only different

elements which are devoid of self. These texts remind us of the truth

and they can give us confidence to begin to develop the Path in order to

see the realities of our life as elements which arise because of their

appropriate conditions and are beyond control.

As to postnascence-condition, pacchajåta-paccaya, citta and its

accompanying cetasikas support the rúpas of the body which have

arisen previously and have not fallen away yet. Thus, in this way citta

conditions these rúpas by way of postnascence-condition. Citta does not

cause the arising of the rúpas it conditions by way of postnascence,

these rúpas have arisen already prior to the citta; it supports and

consolidates these rúpas which are still present, since rúpa lasts as long

as seventeen moments of citta.

Citta is postnascence-condition for the previously arisen rúpas of the

body which have been produced by the four factors of kamma, citta,

temperature and nutrition and which have not fallen away yet. Citta

supports and consolidates these rúpas. The paìisandhi-citta cannot be

postnascence-condition, since there is no previously arisen rúpa at the

first moment of life. At the first moment of life kamma produces rúpas

simultaneously with the paìisandhi-citta, but after that, throughout our

life, citta is postnascence-condition for the previously arisen rúpas of the.83

body. The five pairs of sense-cognitions do not produce rúpa, but they

condition the previously arisen rúpas of the body by way of

postnascence, they consolidate these

84

. The arúpåvara vipåkacittas

85

which arise in the arúpa-brahma planes cannot be postnascence-condition,

since there is no rúpa in those planes.

In the case of base and object which are prenascence-condition, rúpa

conditions nåma, whereas in the case of postnascence-condition nåma

conditions rúpa. The teaching of prenascence-condition, purejåta-paccaya,

conascence-condition, sahajåta-paccaya, and postnascence-condition,

pacchajåta-paccaya, reminds us of the intricacy of the

relationship between different phenomena. Seeing, for example, is the

result of kamma and it is dependent on the previously arisen eye-base

which is also produced by kamma. Seeing experiences visible object

which has previously arisen but which does not last longer than

seventeen moments of citta. There is no self who could arrange for

seeing to find its proper base; the eye-base has previously arisen and is

already there when seeing arises. There is no self who could fetch

visible object at the right moment so that seeing can see it and the other

cittas of the eye-door process can also experience it, before it falls away.

Visible object arises together in a group of rúpas including the four

Great Elements and these condition it by way of dependence-condition,

nissaya-paccaya, and by conascence-condition, sahajåta-paccaya, but

seeing does not experience the other rúpas which arise together with

visible object; it only sees visible object, that is, what appears through

eyesense. Several conditions coincide and this makes it possible for

seeing to arise at the eye-base and to see visible object. We take the

experiences which occur time and again in our daily life for granted, but

they all are dependent on several conditions, they are interrelated in

different ways. Cittas and the rúpas of the body are interrelated, they

need one another. Seeing and the other cittas support and consolidate

the rúpas of the body which have already arisen, they condition them by

way of post-nascence. The different conditions for the phenomena of

our life are operating right at this moment.

Shortly before death kamma does not produce the heart-base anymore.

The cittas arising shortly before death are depending on one last heart-84

The cittas which produce rúpa condition their arising by way of conascence-condition

and dependence-condition, see Ch 5 and 6. As explained, the five sense-cognitions of

seeing, hearing, etc., do not produce rúpas, but they consolidate the rúpas which have

been produced before by one of the four factors.

85 These cittas are the results of arúpa-jhåna and they perform the function of rebirth and

of bhavanga.

base and this ceases with the ceasing of the dying-consciousness. When.84

there is the simultaneous arising of the heart-base and citta there is

birth and when there is the simultaneous ceasing of the heart-base and

citta there is death. The dying-consciousness produces rúpa (except in

the case of the arahat) and this lasts only seventeen moments of citta.

At death, also nutrition ceases to produce rúpa and only temperature,

which produces rúpas both in the body and in dead matter, keeps on

producing rúpas of the corpse that is left. All this reminds us of the

frailty of life which consists of only nåma and rúpa depending on

conditions.

********.85

Chapter 10

Repetition-Condition (Åsevana-Paccaya)

Repetition-condition, åsevana-paccaya, pertains only to nåma, namely

to the javana-cittas arising in a process of cittas. Javana-cittas are

kusala, akusala or, in the case of arahats, kiriya. With regard to cittas of

the sense-sphere, kåmåvacara cittas, there are usually seven javana-cittas

in a process of cittas and these are all of the same jåti, kusala,

akusala or kiriya

86

. The first javana-citta conditions the second javana-citta

by repetition-condition, åsevana-paccaya, thus, the first javana-citta

is the conditioning dhamma (paccaya dhamma) and the second

one is the conditioned dhamma (paccayupanna dhamma). After that

the second javana-citta which is in its turn the conditioning dhamma,

conditions the third one, and so on, until the seventh javana-citta which

does not condition the succeeding citta in this way since it is the last

javana-citta.

We read in the "Paììhåna (Analytical Exposition, Repetition-condition):

Preceding faultless states (kusala dhammas) are related to subsequent

faultless states by repetition-condition.

Preceding faulty states (akusala dhammas) are related to subsequent

faulty states by repetition-condiiton.

Preceding functional indeterminate states

87

are related to subsequent

functional indeterminate states by repetition-condition.

We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (XVII, 87) about repetition-condition:

A dhamma that assists the efficiency and power of the proximate (next)

in the sense of repetition-condition, like repeated application to books,

and so on....

Just as one, in learning by heart, through constant repetition, becomes

more proficient in reciting texts, evenso supports the preceding javana-86

Cittas can be of four jåtis, or classes, namely: kusala, akusala, vipåka and kiriya. Jåti

literally means "birth" or nature.

87 avyakata dhammas, neither kusala nor akusala, which are in this case functional,

kiriya.

citta the succeeding one by repetition-condition..86

In the sense-door process the javana-cittas follow upon the determining-consciousness

(votthapana-citta) and in the mind-door process upon the

mind-door adverting-consciousness (mano-dvåråvajjana-citta). The

javana-cittas experience the same object as the preceding cittas in the

process, they "run through" the object

88

, but, except in the case of the

arahat, they experience it in a wholesome way or in an unwholesome

way. Whether the javana-cittas are kusala cittas or akusala cittas

depends on natural decisive support-condition which includes one’s

accumulated inclinations, and also on root-condition and on several

other conditions. When we experience a pleasant object through one of

the senses, there may be wise attention or unwise attention to the

object. We have accumulated a great deal of attachment and therefore

lobha-múla-cittas tend to arise on account of a pleasant object. When

the first javana-citta is lobha-múla-citta without wrong view and

accompanied by pleasant feeling

89

, the succeeding javana-citta which is

conditioned by the preceding one by way of repetition-condition, is of

the same type and so it is with the following ones. During these

moments we accumulate more lobha. When the first javana-citta is

kusala citta with paññå, the following javana-cittas are of the same

type. During these moments pannñå is accumulated.

As we have seen (in Ch 4) , each citta conditions the succeeding citta by

way of proximity-condition, anantara-paccaya, and by way of

contiguity-condition, samanantara-paccaya. Moreover, a preceding citta

can condition a succeeding citta by way of decisive support of

proximity, anantårupanissaya-paccaya (see Ch 7). Javana-citta, besides

being a condition for the next one by way of repetition, is also a

condition for the next one by way of proximity, contiguity and decisive

support of proximity. Realities can be related to each other by way of

several conditions. Repetition-condition only pertains to javana-cittas.

The last javana-citta in a process does not condition the next one by

way of repetition-condition, because it is succeeded by a citta of a

different jåti

90

. The cittas which are repetition-condition have to be of

the same jåti. Thus, if the first javana-citta is akusala, the following ones

are also akusala, and if the first javana-citta is kusala, the following

ones are also kusala.

88 Javana literally means "running".

89 There are eight types of lobha-múla-citta, see Appendix 2.

90 It may be succeeded by tadårammaùa-citta, registering-consciousness, which is

vipåkacitta produced by kamma and which still experiences the same object. Or it may be

followed by bhavanga-citta.

91 For details see Appendix 3.

The javana-cittas which are repetition-condition are the following

91

:.87

akusala cittas, mahå-kusala cittas (of the sense-sphere), mahå-kiriyacittas

(of the arahat), the smile-producing citta of the arahat

(ahetuka kiriyacitta), the rúpåvacara kusala cittas and kiriyacittas

(rúpa-jhånacittas) and the arúpåvacara kusala cittas and kiriyacittas

(arúpa-jhånacittas).

The performing of akusala kamma or kusala kamma occurs during the

moments of javana and these can produce results later on. Moreover,

during the moments of javana unwholesome or wholesome tendencies

are being accumulated. Thus, the moments of javana condition our life

in the future. When we are not intent on kusala, the javana-cittas are

akusala. When we are daydreaming or walking around there are bound

to be akusala cittas but we may not notice this. When we speak, we may

not lie or use harsh words, but we may not notice how often we are

engaged in idle, useless speech. When we, for example, talk about the

weather or about what we are going to do tomorrow, we may not notice

the many akusala cittas which motivate our speech. Because of natural

decisive support-condition one kind of akusala can lead to another kind,

and therefore, each kind of akusala is dangerous. So long as we are not

an arahat we still have conditions for useless speech, but the study of

the Dhamma can remind us to be aware while we speak. By right

understanding it can be known whether akusala citta or kusala citta

motivates our speech.

When we perform good deeds or evil deeds there are many processes

with javana-cittas, and each one of these cittas conditions the next one

by way of repetition-condition, except the seventh javana-citta. The

teaching of repetition-condition reminds us of the danger of akusala

citta. When akusala citta arises, there is not only one type but seven

types succeeding one another, and during these moments we

accumulate the tendency to akusala so that akusala citta will arise again

in the future. When we see the disadvantage of akusala there are

conditions for the arising of kusala citta. When kusala citta arises there

are seven types of kusala citta succeeding one another. When we apply

ourselves to kusala, kusala is being accumulated. This should encourage

us to perform all kinds of kusala so that there will be kusala citta again

in the future. Even when we speak a word of kindness or help someone

just for a moment, for example getting something he needs and handing

it to him, there are opportunities for kusala cittas. We should not

neglect such opportunities or find them insignificant. Each moment of

kusala is valuable because at such a moment we do not think of

ourselves, there is no lobha, dosa or moha. A wholesome deed is never

lost, even if it seems to be of no importance, because kusala is.88

accumulated and it can be a natural decisive support-condition for

kusala in the future.

We read in the "Atthasåliní" (Expositor I, Part IV, Ch VIII, 159, in the

section on the bases of meritorious action) that, when one performs

dåna, there can be kusala cittas before, during and after the wholesome

deed:

Now, as to these bases, when we think, "I will give in charity", the citta

works by one or other of those eight classes of kusala citta of the sense-sphere

92

; in making the gift, we give by one of them; in reflecting, "I

have given in charity", we reflect by one of them....

The same is said about the other ways of kusala. It is beneficial to know

that there are opportunities for kusala citta, not only at the moments we

perform a deed of generosity, but also before and afterwards, while we

consider our wholesome deed. However, it depends on conditions at

which moment kusala citta arises, nobody can have control over this. It

may happen that after having given a gift we have regret and then there

are akusala cittas. We should not have aversion towards akusala citta

which arises, because then we accumulate more akusala. Akusala citta

arises because of conditions. There can be awareness of akusala so that

it can be seen as non-self. At the moment of awareness there is kusala

citta.

Kusala javana-cittas of the sense sphere are classified as eight types:

they can be accompanied by pleasant feeling or by indifferent feeling,

they can be accompanied or unaccompanied by paññå, they can be

prompted or unprompted (by external aid or by oneself). However,

because of different conditioning factors the variety is much greater. If

we have more knowledge of these conditioning factors we shall

understand more clearly the great diversity of citta. Cittas are

variegated because they are conditioned by different roots which have

different intensities. The paññå which may accompany citta can be of

many degrees and intensities. It can be intellectual understanding which

stems from reading and considering, or it can be direct understanding

of the characteristics of realities. Citta can be conditioned by the four

predominant factors of chanda (desire-to-do), viriya (energy), (firmness

of) citta or vimaÿsa (investigation of Dhamma, paññå cetasika)

93

and

92 See Appendix 2 for the eight classes of mahå-kusala cittas.

93 See Ch 3.

these can be of many degrees. Citta experiences objects and these can.89

condition citta in different ways: by way of object-condition, of object-predominance-

condition or of decisive support of object

94

. Kusala citta

is accompanied by different sobhana cetasikas which condition the citta.

We all have different accumulations and thus the type of kusala citta

and its intensity varies for different people. There is a great diversity of

kusala cittas but the Buddha classified them as eight types.

The "Atthasåliní" (in the same section as quoted above, 160, 161)

mentions the eight types of kusala citta and states that the Buddha’s

knowledge is more infinite than space, the worldsystems, and the

beings in the worldsystems. We read:

... Now, all these classes of kusala cittas experienced in the realm of

sense, arising in the countless beings in the countless world-systems, the

Supreme Buddha, as though weighing them in a great balance, or

measuring them by putting them in a measure, has classified by means

of his omniscience, and has shown them to be eight, making them into

eight similar groups....

The javana-cittas arising in one process of citta are of the same jåti, but

the plane of consciousness is not always the same. This happens in the

process when someone develops samatha and attains jhåna, and also in

the process when someone develops vipassanå and attains

enlightenment. As regards the attainment of jhåna, jhånacittas do not

have sense objects, they are not kåmåvacara cittas, cittas of the sense

sphere. But in the process when jhåna is attained there are first

kåmåvacara cittas which are, in the case of non-arahats, mahå-kusala

cittas which experience the meditation subject through the mind- door

95

. Each one of the mahå-kusala cittas is repetition-condition for the

next one and the last mahå-kusala citta in that process conditions the

jhåna-citta, which is of a different plane of citta, rúpåvacara citta, by

way of repetition-condition. When someone is not yet skilled, only one

moment of jhåna-citta arises, but when he has become proficient there

can be many moments of jhånacitta (Visuddhimagga IV, 78, and IV,

125). Each one of these jhånacittas conditions the next one by way of

repetition-condition, except the last one in that process.

In the process during which enlightenment is attained, there are first

94 See Ch 2, Ch 3 and Ch 7.

95 See Appendix 3 for details.

96 See Appendix 3 for details.

mahå-kusala cittas

96

accompanied by paññå which clearly sees the.90

reality appearing at that moment as impermanent, dukkha or anattå.

One of these three characteristics of reality is at that moment

penetrated by pañnnå. Each of these mahå-kusala cittas is repetition-condition

for the next one. The last mahå-kusala-citta, the "change-of

lineage", arising before the magga-citta, the lokuttara kusala citta,

experiences an object different from the preceding ones, namely

nibbåna. The "change-of lineage", which is kamåvacara citta, conditions

the magga-citta by way of repetition-condition but the magga-citta itself

is not repetition-condition for the phala-citta. The phala-citta is of a

different jåti, the jåti which is vipåka. The phala-citta which is the result

of the magga-citta and immediately succeeds it, performs the function

of javana, but it is not repetition-condition. When we develop

vipassanå, awareness of nåma and rúpa occurs during the moments of

javana. Just as one by applying oneself again and again to study

becomes more proficient in understanding texts, evenso can there be

more proficiency in understanding realities when there is repeated

application of understanding during the moments of javana-cittas. Each

one of these conditions the next one by repetition-condition and in this

way understanding can be accumulated.

When there is no mindfulness, there is bound to be clinging during the

moments of javana. When we, for example, use a soft cushion, there is

likely to be clinging but we may not notice it. When sati arises, there

can be understanding of softness as only a rúpa, not a cushion, or, when

the experience of softness is the object of sati, it can be realized as only

a nåma, an experience. We may think that we can possess things and

this can lead to covetousness, avarice, jealousy and many other kinds of

defilements. In reality there is no possessor, only seeing which

experiences visible object, or touching which experiences tangible

object, and other moments of experiencing one object at a time. All

these realities fall way, they do not stay. Gradually we may know the

difference between moments without sati, when we cling to concepts

we are thinking of, and moments with sati, when only one reality at a

time appears through one of the six doors. Not theoretical

understanding, but only direct understanding of realities can lead to

eradication of defilements. Enlightenment can be attained only if there

have been many processes with javana-cittas accompanied by right

understanding of realities, even in the course of countless lives.

The following sutta from the "Kindred Sayings"(V, Mahå-vagga, Book II,

XLVI, Kindred Sayings on the Limbs of Wisdom, Ch IV, § 8, Restraint

and hindrance) reminds us of the importance of listening to the.91

Dhamma and considering it as condition for the development of the

factors leading to enlightenment. We read that the Buddha said:

Monks, there are these five checks, hindrances and corruptions of the

heart, which weaken insight. What five?

Sensual desire, monks, is a check and hindrance, a corruption of the

heart, that weakens insight. Malevolence... sloth and torpor...

excitement and flurry... doubt and wavering... These five... weaken

insight.

The seven limbs of wisdom

97

, monks, if unrestrained, unhindered, if

cultivated and made much of with uncorrupted heart, conduce to

realizing the fruits of liberation by knowledge. What seven?

Herein a monk cultivates the limb of wisdom that is mindfulness... the

limb of wisdom that is investigation of the Dhamma... the limb of

wisdom that is energy... the limb of wisdom that is rapture (píti), the

limb of wisdom that is tranquillity... the limb of wisdom that is

concentration... the limb of wisdom that is equanimity, that is based on

seclusion, on dispassion, on cessation, that ends in self-surrender.

Now, monks, at the time when the ariyan disciple makes the Dhamma

his object, gives attention to it, with all his mind considers it, with ready

ear listens to the Dhamma, - at such time these five hindrances exist not

in him: at such time the seven limbs of wisdom by cultivation go to

fulfilment....

97 Bojjhanga or factors of enlightenment..92

Chapter 11

Kamma-Condition (Kamma-Paccaya) and Vipåka-Condition

(Vipåka-Paccaya)

Kamma is actually cetanå cetasika, volition. Cetanå arises with each

citta and it can therefore be kusala, akusala, vipåka or kiriya. Cetanå

directs the associated dhammas and coordinates their tasks (Atthasåliní,

Book I, Part IV, Ch I, 111). Cetanå which accompanies kusala citta and

akusala citta has a double function: it directs the tasks of the associated

dhammas and it has the function of "willing" or activity in good and bad

deeds. In this last function it is capable to produce the results of good

and bad deeds later on.

There are two kinds of kamma-condition: conascent kamma-condition

and asynchronous kamma-condition. Cetanå which arises with each

citta directs the tasks of the associated dhammas and conditions these

dhammas by way of conascent kamma-condition, sahajåta kamma-paccaya

98

. The cetanå which is kusala or akusala and which can

produce the appropriate results of good deeds or bad deeds later on

conditions that result by way of asynchronous kamma-condition,

nåùakkhaùika kamma-paccaya.

As regards conascent kamma-condition, sahajåta kamma-paccaya, the

cetanås accompanying all 89 types of citta

99

are conascent kamma-condition

for the citta and the other cetasikas they accompany as well

as for the rúpa produced by them. The cetanå which accompanies

kusala citta and akusala citta conditions citta, the other cetasikas and

the rúpa produced by them by way of conascent kamma-condition,

sahajåta-kamma-paccaya. Vipåkacitta and kiriyacitta can also produce

rúpa

100

, and the accompanying cetanå conditions citta, the other

98 The term kamma is used for good and bad deeds, but we should remember that when

we are more precise, kamma is cetanå cetasika. Then we can understand that there is

conascent kamma, namely, kamma or cetanå accompanying each citta.

99 Cittas which are kusala citta, akusala citta, vipåkacitta and kiriyacitta. For the

classification of the different cittas see my "Abhidhamma in Daily Life", Ch 23.

100 Citta, being one of the four factors which produces groups of rúpas of the body, can

produce groups of rúpas consisting of at least the eight "inseparable rúpas" (the four

great Elements, colour, odour, flavour and nutritive essense) and in addition there can be

other rúpas as well in such a group.

cetasikas and rúpa by way of conascent- kamma-condition, sahajåta.93

kamma-paccaya. Seeing, hearing and the other sense-cognitions are

vipåkacittas which do not produce rúpa, but the accompanying cetanå

conditions citta and the other cetasikas by way of conascent kamma-condition.

When the paìisandhi-citta arises the accompanying cetanå

conditions that citta, the other cetasikas and also the kamma-produced

rúpa which arises at the same time by way of conascent kamma-condition

(Paììhåna, Faultless Triplet, Investigation Chapter, Kamma, §

427, vii b).

Asynchronous kamma-condition, nåùakkhaùika kamma- paccaya

101

,

pertains to kusala cetanå or akusala cetanå which is able to produce

later on results of good or evil deeds committed through body, speech

and mind. The cetanå, volition or intention, which motivates a good or

bad deed falls away, but since each citta conditions the next one in the

cycle of birth and death, the force of cetanå is accumulated from

moment to moment so that it can produce result later on. It conditions

the result in the form of vipåkacitta and specific rúpas of the body

102

by

way of asynchronous kamma-condition. When one, for example,

slanders, there is akusala kamma through speech and this can produce

akusala vipåka later on. The akusala cetanå or kamma conditions the

vipåkacitta which arises later on by way of asynchronous kamma-condition.

At the same time, the akusala cetanå is related to the citta

and cetasikas it accompanies and to speech intimation (vacíviññatti), a

rúpa produced by citta, by way of conascent kamma-condition. Thus,

cetanå is in different ways a condition for other phenomena.

There are kusala kamma and akusala kamma through body, speech and

mind, and they are of different degrees. Kamma is not always a

"completed action", kamma patha. There are certain constituent factors

which make kamma a completed action. For example, in the case of

killing there have to be: a living being, consciousness of there being a

living being, intention of killing, effort and consequent death

(Atthasåliní, I, Book I, Part III, Ch V, 97). If one of these factors is

lacking there is not a completed action. Akusala kamma which is a

completed action is capable of producing an unhappy rebirth. Not only

birth is the result of kamma, but also the experiences of pleasant or

unpleasant objects through the senses, which are seeing, hearing,

smelling tasting or experiencing tangible objects through the bodysense

101 Nåùakkhaùika literally means: working from a different time and this pertains to the

fact that it produces result later on.

102 Kamma is one of the four factors which produces rúpas of the body. It produces rúpas

such as the sense-bases, the heart-base and femininity or masculinity.

throughout life. Some kammas produce their results in the same life.94

they were committed, some in the next life, some in later lives. There is

also kamma which has no opportunity to produce result, "lapsed

kamma", in Påli: ahosi kamma.

We read in the "Visuddhimagga"( XIX, 14-17) about different ways of

classifying kamma. Kamma can be classified as weighty, habitual,

death-threshold and reserve or cumulative by being performed

103

(Visuddhimagga XIX, 15,16). Weighty (garuka) kamma is very

unprofitable kamma, such as the killing of a parent, or very profitable

kamma, such as jhånacitta. Habitual (åciùùa) kamma is what one

usually and repeatedly does. Death-threshold (åsanna) kamma is what

is vividly remembered just before death. Reserve or cumulative kamma

(kamma kaìattå) is kamma which is not included in the other three

kinds, but which has been performed in the past. The latter produces

rebirth if there is no opportunity for one of the other three kinds to do

so.

Do we know which type of kamma we usually and repeatedly perform?

Is it akusala kamma through body, speech or mind, or is it kusala

kamma? When we perform kusala kamma such as generosity do we

know whether the kusala citta is accompanied by paññå or

unaccompanied by paññå ?

104

The development of satipaììhåna, right

understanding of nåma and rúpa, is kusala kamma. When we see the

benefit of considering nåma and rúpa over and over again, in one’s

daily life, it can become habitual kamma, often performed. Then paññå

can be developed which leads to the end of rebirth-producing kamma.

Kamma can also be classified as: reproductive, consolidating,

obstructive and destructive. Reproductive kamma (janaka kamma)

produces nåma and rúpa at birth and in the course of life. Consolidating

or supportive kamma (upatthambaka kamma) consolidates the result

which has been produced by reproductive kamma. Supportive kusala

kamma can prolong the arising of pleasant results in the form of health

or wealth and supportive akusala kamma can prolong the arising of

painful feeling and the experience of other unpleasant objects in the

course of life. Obstructive or counteractive kamma (upapíîaka kamma)

weakens, interrupts or retards the result of kusala kamma or akusala

103 Kamma kaìattå, literally: kamma which has been done. Sometimes it is translated as

"stored up kamma", but this is misleading, since it may suggest something which is

permanent. Kamma falls away immediately, but its force is accumulated in the citta.

Since our life is an unbroken series of cittas arising and falling away, and each citta

conditions the next citta, kamma can produce result later on.

104 See Appendix 2 for the different types of kusala citta.

kamma. Someone who has a happy rebirth may suffer ill health so that.95

he cannot enjoy pleasant objects. An animal who has an unhappy

rebirth may still have a comfortable life because of obstructive kamma.

Destructive kamma (upaghåtaka kamma) counteracts other weaker

kamma to produce its result; instead it produces its own result

105

.

A deed can produce result when it is the right time. Some deeds

produce result in this life, some in the next life and some after aeons.

The lokuttara kusala citta, the magga-citta, produces immediate result

in the form of the phalacitta, fruition-consciousness (lokuttara

vipåkacitta), without any interval. The magga-citta is anantara kamma-paccaya

for the phala-citta (anantara means: without interval).

We have accumulated many different kammas and we do not know

which of these will produce result at a particular moment, it depends

also on the force of natural decisive support-condition, pakatúpanissaya

paccaya (see Ch 8).

Only a Buddha has full knowledge of the true nature of kamma and

vipåka and this knowledge is not shared by his disciples

("Visuddhimagga" XIX, 17).

We do not know which of our deeds will produce rebirth. We read in

the "Greater Analysis of Deeds" (Middle Length Sayings III, 136) that

the Buddha, while staying near Rajagaha, in the Bamboo Grove, spoke

to Ånanda about deeds and their results. We read about someone who

does evil deeds and is of wrong view, and who has an unhappy rebirth.

However, for such a person there is also a possibility of a happy rebirth.

We read:

105 We read in the Commentary to the "Book of Analysis", the "Dispeller of Delusion" (Ch

16, Tathågata Powers 2, 439-443) about four factors which condition kamma to produce

result: destiny, or the place where one is born (gati), substratum, including beauty or

ugliness in body (upadhi), the time when one is born (kåla) and the "means", including

one’s behaviour (payoga). These four factors can be favorable (sampatti) or unfavorable

(vipatti). If they are favorable akusala kamma has less opportunity and kusala kamma

has more opportunity to produce result and if they are unfavorable akusala kamma has

more opportunity and kusala kamma has less opportunity to produce result. For example,

if someone is born in a happy plane, if he has beauty of body, if he is born in a favorabe

time (kåla), when there is a good king and the country is prosperous, if he has the right

means (payoga), that is, he refrains from bad deeds and performs good deeds, the

ripening of akusala kamma is inhibited and there is opportunity for kusala kamma to give

results. If these four factors are unfavorable (vipatti), the opposite is the case: akusala

kamma has the opportunity to ripen and the results of kusala kamma are inhibited. For

example, if someone is ugly in body, he may have to do the work of a slave and then

there is opportunity for the experience of unpleasant objects. If someone steals or kills,

thus, when his "means" are unfavorable, he may be caught and then tortured or

executed.

... As to this, Ånanda, whatever individual there is who makes onslaught.96

on creatures, takes what has not been given... is of false view and who,

at the breaking up of the body after dying arises in a good bourn, a

heaven world-- either a lovely deed to be experienced as happiness was

done by him earlier, or a lovely deed to be experienced as happiness

was done by him later, or at the time of dying a right view was adopted

and firmly held by him; because of this, at the breaking up of the body

after dying he arises in a good bourn, a heaven world. If he made

onslaught on creatures here, took what had not been given... and was of

false view, he undergoes its fruition which arises here and now or in

another mode.

We then read about someone who is restrained from evil and is of right

view, and who has a happy rebirth. However, even for such a person

there may be an unhappy rebirth. We read:

... As to this, Ånanda, whatever individual there is who is restrained

from making onslaught on creatures, is restrained from taking what has

not been given... is of right view and who, at the breaking up of the

body after dying, arises in the sorrowful ways, a bad bourn, the

Downfall, Niraya Hell-- either an evil deed to be experienced as anguish

was done by him earlier, or an evil deed to be experienced as anguish

was done by him later, or at the time of dying a false view was adopted

and firmly held by him; because if this... he arises in the sorrowful

ways... Niraya Hell. And he who was restrained from making onslaught

on creatures... and was of right view undergoes its fruition which arises

either here and now or in another mode....

So long as we perform kamma there are conditions for rebirth and there

will be dukkha. Kamma is one of the links in the "Dependent

Origination" (Paticca Samuppåda), the chain of conditionally arisen

phenomena which cause the continuation of the cycle of birth and

death. When defilements have been eradicated there will be no more

rebirth. We read in the "Gradual Sayings" (Book of the Tens, Ch XVII,

Jåùussoùi, § 8, Due to lust, malice and delusion):

Monks, the taking of life is threefold, I declare. It is due to lust, malice

and delusion. Taking what is not given... wrong conduct in sexual

desires... falsehood... spiteful speech... bitter speech... idle babble...

coveting... harmfulness... wrong view, is threefold, I declare. It is due to

lust, malice and delusion..97

Thus, monks, lust is the coming-to-be of a chain of causal action; so is

malice. Delusion, monks, is the coming-to-be of a chain of causal action.

By destroying lust, by destroying malice, by destroying delusion comes

the breaking up of the chain of causal action.

The arahat can still have vipåka which is conditioned by asynchronous

kamma-condition, but from the time he attained arahatship he could

not perform new kamma. The mahå-kiriyacittas (inoperative cittas of

the sense sphere which are sobhana, beautiful) of the arahat do not

produce vipåka.

As to vipåka-condition, citta and its accompanying cetasikas which are

vipåka condition one another by being vipåka. The realities involved in

vipåka-condition are phenomena which are conascent, arising at the

same time. We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (XVII,88) that they assist

one another "by effortless quiet". They are merely vipåka, they have no

other activity. The nature of vipåkacitta is altogether different from the

nature of kusala citta and akusala citta which are active in the

wholesome way or in the unwholesome way. Vipåkacitta and its

accompanying cetasikas also condition one another by way of

conascence-condition and by way of mutuality-condition (see Ch 5).

In the planes where there are five khandhas (nåma and rúpa),

vipåkacittas, except the five sense-cognitions, can produce rúpa which

arises at the same time and which, according to the "Paììhåna"

(Faultless Triplet, Investigation Chapter, § 428), is also conditioned by

the citta and cetasikas by way of vipåka-condition

106

. In the planes

where there are five khandhas kamma produces at the first moment of

life the paìisandhi-citta which is vipåkacitta as well as rúpa. According

to the "Paììhåna" (same section) citta and cetasikas condition at that

moment kamma-produced rúpa by way of vipåka-condition.

The paìisandhi-citta is the first vipåkacitta arising in life. When it is the

result of kusala kamma there is birth in a happy plane and when it is

the result of akusala kamma there is birth in an unhappy plane. There

are many different degrees of kusala kamma and of akusala kamma and

thus the vipåka they produce is also of different degrees. When the

paìisandhi-citta is the result of kusala kamma which is weak, it is

ahetuka kusala vipåkacitta (unaccompanied by sobhana hetus) and in

106 Bhavanga-citta, receiving-consciousness (saÿpaìicchana-citta) or investigation-consciousness

(santíraùa-citta) are for example vipåkacittas which produce rúpas. See

Appendix 1 for these cittas.

that case, although one has a happy rebirth, one is handicapped from.98

the first moment of life. The paìisandhi-citta can also be mahå-vipåka,

accompanied by two or three sobhana hetus

107

. The mahå-vipåkacitta is

also conditioned by way of hetu-paccaya, root-condition. When the

paìisandhi-citta is the result of akusala kamma it is ahetuka akusala

vipåkacitta, and in that case one has an unhappy rebirth in one of the

woeful planes.

Human birth is the result of kusala kamma. Although there can be in the

case of a human being nine types of paìisandhi-citta

108

, the paìisandhi-cittas

are much more variegated and this can be noticed later on in the

course of life from the kamma-produced rúpas of different people and

from people’s different capacities. We see great differences in features:

some people are beautiful, some are not beautiful. We notice differences

in the sense-faculties such as eyesense and earsense. There are

differences in bodily strength, some people are apt to have many

illnesses and they are weak, some have only few illnesses and they are

strong. People are born with different degrees of paññå or without it;

thus, there are different possibilities for people to develop paññå. If the

paìisandi-cittas of people were not so different, there would not be such

a variety in the characteristics of different people.

The vipåkacitta which is paìisandhi-citta is succeeded by the vipåkacitta

which is bhavanga-citta because of proximate-condition, contiguity-condition

and proximate decisive support-condition. The bhavanga-citta

is the same type of citta as the paìisandhi-citta. There are countless

bhavanga-cittas arising throughout life in between the processes of

cittas and all of them are of the same type as the paìisandhi-citta. They

keep the continuity in the life of a person who is born with a particular

character and particular capacities.

Throughout life kamma produces vipåkacittas arising in processes of

cittas which experience pleasant or unpleasant objects. Seeing, for

example, is vipåkacitta which experiences a pleasant or unpleasant

visible object through the eyesense. It merely sees, it does not know

whether the object is pleasant or unpleasant. Citta and the

accompanying cetasikas condition one another by way of vipåka-condition,

they assist one another in "effortless quiet". The succeeding

receiving-consciousness, sampaìicchana-citta

109

, is also vipåkacitta, and

this is succeeded by another vipåkacitta, the investigating-consciouness,

107 By alobha, non-attachment or generosity, adosa, non-aversion or kindness, or paññå.

108 One type is ahetuka kusala vipåka, and eight types are mahå-vipåkacittas. See my

Abhidhamma in Daily Life Ch 11.

109 See Appendix I for the cittas arising in a process.

santíraùa-citta. This is succeeded by the determining-consciousness, the.99

votthapana-citta, which is a kiriyacitta. After that the javana-cittas arise

which are, in the case of non-arahats, kusala cittas or akusala cittas.

When the object is pleasant, lobha-múla-cittas are likely to arise and

when the object is unpleasant, dosa-múla-cittas are likely to arise. There

are seven javana-cittas arising, succeeding one another. Cittas arise and

fall away succeeding one another very rapidly and when paññå has not

been developed we do not realize when there is vipåkacitta and when

there is kusala citta or akusala citta. When we have an unpleasant

experience such as an accident we keep on thinking of the concept of a

situation or of an event we consider as "our vipåka" and we may

wonder why this had to happen to us. We tend to forget that vipåkacitta

is only one moment which falls away immediately. Instead of thinking

of concepts with aversion we should develop understanding of

paramattha dhammas, realities which each have their own

characteristic and which appear one at a time.

When we see visible object and we like the object it seems that seeing

and liking occur at the same time. We do not realize that there is

proximity-condition, anantara-paccaya, because of which each citta is

succeeded by the next one, without any interval. Or we do not even

realize that there is attachment to the object. We may think that there is

seeing while there is in reality already clinging. Without knowing it we

accumulate ever more akusala.

It is important to have right understanding of cause and effect in our

life. We like to experience pleasant objects and we may think that we

can choose ourselves which objects we wish to experience. We buy

beautiful things in order to look at them, we prepare delicious food in

order to enjoy pleasant flavours. However, something can happen so

that our expectations do not come true. It depends on kamma whether

we experience a pleasant object or an unpleasant object at a particular

moment. Kamma produces its appropriate result and when it is time for

akusala vipåka it is unavoidable. We never know what will happen at

the next moment, but when there is more understanding of cause and

effect in our life we can be prepared to face whatever may happen.

When there is right understanding of kamma and vipåka, the citta is at

that moment kusala citta and there is no opportunity for aversion

towards unpleasant experiences. When there is awareness of the

characteristics of seeing, hearing, thinking and other realities which

appear there will be less ignorance. We will gradually learn to

distinguish between the moments of vipåka and the moments of kusala

citta and akusala citta..100

*********.101

Chapter 12

Nutriment-Condition (Åhåra-Paccaya)

There are four kinds of nutriment which are nutriment-condition,

åhåra-paccaya. One kind is physical nutriment and three are mental

nutriment. They are:

physical nutriment

contact (phassa cetasika)

volition (manosañcetanå which is cetanå cetasika)

consciousness (viññåùa)

In the case of åhåra-paccaya, a conditioning dhamma maintains and

supports the growth and development of the conditioned dhammas

110

.

As regards physical nutriment, this sustains the rúpas of the body.

Nutritive essence (ojå) present in food that has been taken suffuses the

body and then new rúpas can be produced. As we have seen, nutrition

is one of the four factors which produces rúpas of the body, the other

three being kamma, citta and temperature. Nutritive essence is present

in all groups of rúpas; it is one of the eight "inseparable rúpas" present

in all materiality, no matter it is the body or materiality outside.

Nutritive essence arises together with the four Great Elements of

solidity, cohesion, temperature and motion, and with visible object,

flavour and odour. Nutritive essence present in the groups of rúpas of

the body cannot produce new rúpas without the support of nutritive

essence which is in food, external nutritive essence. For the new being

in the mother’s womb it is necessary that the mother takes food so that

nutritive essence present in food can suffuse its body. Then nutritive

essence can produce new rúpas and thus it goes on throughout life. The

nutritive essence which, because of the support of external nutritive

essence, produces new rúpas of the body also supports and maintains

the groups of rúpas produced by kamma, citta and temperature.

When nutriment has been taken the nutritive essence present in the

body can produce new groups of rúpas, and nutritive essence present in

such a group can in its turn produce another group of eight "inseparable

110 The Commmentary to the "Discourse on Right Understanding" (Middle Length Sayings

I, 9), the Papañcasúdaní, gives an explanation of the word åhåra. The condition fetches

(åharati) its own fruit, therefore it is called åhåra.

rúpas" (an octad), and so on, and thus there can be several occurrences.102

of octads. In this way nutriment which has been taken can be sufficient

for some time afterwards (Visuddhimagga XX, 37).

There is nutritive essence with nutriment, but one cannot eat nutritive

essence alone. We need also sufficient substance or solidity, so that we

do not go hungry. Edible food, after making it into portions

111

can be

swallowed; it has the function of nourishing.

We cannot live without food, but it is dangerous to cling to it. In order

to obtain it, people may commit akusala kamma which is capable of

producing akusala vipåka. Someone who is greedy may be reborn as a

"peta" (ghost). So long as we cling to food there will be rebirth and this

is dukkha. We may recollect the disadvantages of searching for food,

the foulness of nutriment and its digestion, with the purpose of having

less clinging to food.

We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (I, 89) that the monk should

remember that food is not for intoxication, smartening, embellishment

or amusement. It should be taken for the sake of the endurance and

continuance of the body, for the ending of discomfort and for the

assisting of the life of purity (Visuddhimagga I, 91,92). Just as a sick

man uses medicine he should use almsfood, so that he can stop feelings

of hunger, and he should avoid immoderate eating. Thus he will be

healthy and blameless and live in comfort (Visuddhimagga I, 94).

We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (Ch XI, 11, and following), in the

section on the "Perception of Repulsiveness in Nutriment", about the

disadvantages of having to search for food. The monk has to go in dirty

places while he walks with his almsbowl. He does not always receive

food, or he receives unappetizing food. Also when he takes food and

swallows it, it is unappetizing, not to speak of the secretion while it is

being digested and of its flowing out again. In the Commentary to the

"Satipaììhåna Sutta" ( I, 10), the "Papañcasúdaní"

112

, we read in the

section on Mindfulness of the Body, Clear Comprehension in the

Partaking of Food and Drink, that there are only elements performing

their functions in the process of eating and digesting the food. There is

no self, no person who eats. We read:

It is oscillation (våyodhåtu, the element of wind or motion) that does

the taking onward, the moving away from side to side; and it is

oscillation that bears, turns around, pulverizes, causes the removal of

111 The Påli word kabalinkåro åhåro means "morsel food", food that can be swallowed.

112 Translated by Ven. Soma in "The Way of Mindfulness", B.P.S. Kandy, Sri Lanka.

liquidity, and expels..103

Extension (paìhavídhåtu, the element of earth or solidity) also does

bearing up, turning around, pulverizing and the removal of liquidity.

Cohesion ( åpodhåtu, the element of water) moistens and preserves

wetness.

Caloricity ( tejodhåtu, the element of heat) ripens or digests the food

that goes in.

Space (Åkåsadhåtu) becomes the way for the entering of the food.

Consciousness (viññåùadhåtu) as a consequence of right kind of action

knows in any particular situation

113

.

According to reflection of this sort, should clear comprehension of

non-delusion

114

be understood here.

We read in the "Kindred Sayings" (II, Kindred Sayings on Cause, Ch VII,

the Great Chapter, § 63, Child’s Flesh) about parents who were with

their child in the jungle. Since there was no food and they would have

to die of hunger, they slew their child and ate its flesh, not for pleasure,

from indulgence, for personal charm or plumpness. They took it in

order not to die and to be able to cross the jungle. We then read that

the Buddah said to the monks:

Even so, monks, I declare should solid food be regarded. When such

food is well understood, the passions of the five senses are well

understood. When the passions of the five senses are well understood,

the fetters do not exist bound by which the ariyan disciple could come

again to this world.

Physical nutriment conditions the rúpas of the body by way of åhåra-paccaya,

nutriment-condition. As we have seen, there are three kinds of

mental nutriment which are: contact (phassa), volition

(manosañcetanå) and citta (viññåùa). Just as physical food supports

and maintains the body does mental nutriment support and maintain

the accompanying dhammas. In the case of mental nutriment the

conditioning dhamma is conascent with the conditioned dhammas. The

113 According to a subcommentary added to the quoted passage of the "Papañcasúdaní"

as rendered in the "Way of Mindfulness": "Consciousness knows": perceives, understands,

by way of seeking, by way of full experience of swallowing, by way of the digested, the

undigested and so forth. "In any particular situation": in any function of seeking,

swallowing or other similar act.

114 Non-delusion as to the object of mindfulness and right understanding.

mental nutriments condition the dhammas which arise together with.104

them and the rúpas produced by citta and cetasikas by way of

nutriment-condition. At the moment of rebirth the mental nutriments

condition the associated dhammas and the rúpa produced by kamma by

way of nutriment-condition (Paììhåna, Faultless Triplet, Ch VII,

Investigation Chapter, Nutriment, § 429).

As to the mental nutriment which is contact, phassa, this is a cetasika

which contacts the object so that citta and the accompanying cetasikas

can experience it

115

. Without contact citta and cetasikas could not

experience any object, thus, contact supports them, it is a mental

nutriment for them. It accompanies each citta and it conditions citta

and the accompanying cetasikas by way of åhåra-paccaya, nutriment-condition.

It also conditions rúpa produced by citta and cetasikas by

way of nutriment-condition. When there is bodily painful feeling we

know that there is contact, otherwise there could not be the experience

of an unpleasant object. This experience does not last. When hearing

arises we know that there is another kind of contact; it contacts sound

so that hearing can experience it. When there is mindfulness of realities

as they appear one at a time, we can understand that there are different

contacts all the time and that the experiences of the different objects do

not last.

As to the mental nutriment which is volition, manosañcetanå

116

, this is

cetanå cetasika which accompanies all eightynine types of citta, thus it

can be of the jåti which is kusala, akusala, vipåka or kiriya. It

coordinates the tasks of the citta and cetasikas it accompanies, and it

maintains and supports them; thus, it conditions them by way of

nutriment-condition. It also conditions the rúpa produced by citta by

way of nutriment-condition. As we have seen, cetanå conditions the

associated dhammas also by way of conascent kamma-condition,

sahajåta kamma-paccaya (see Ch 11).

As to the mental nutriment which is viññåùa or citta, this refers to each

citta. Citta is the chief in cognizing an object, it is the "leader". Without

citta cetasikas could not arise and experience an object. Thus, citta

supports and maintains the accompanying cetasikas, it conditions them

by way of nutriment-condition. When citta produces rúpa it also

conditions that rúpa by way of nutriment-condition.

Thus, at each moment the three mental nutriments of contact, volition

and citta support and maintain the dhammas arising together with

115 Phassa is nåma, it is not physical contact.

116 Mano is mind and cetanå is volition. In the context of åhåra-paccaya the word

manosañcetanå, mental volition, is used to denote cetanå cetasika.

them, and the rúpa produced by them, by way of nutriment-condition..105

The mental nutriments can be considered according to the method of

the Paììhåna and also according to the method of the "Dependent

Origination" (Paticca samuppåda), the chain of conditionally arisen

phenomena which cause the continuation of the cycle of birth and death

117

. According to the method of the Dependent Origination contact,

cetanå and viññåùa are considered as nutriments which condition the

continuation of life in the cycle of birth and death. When we see them

as links in this cycle we are reminded that life is dukkha.

Contact is a link in the Dependent Origination and as such it is the

condition for feeling, the following link. Contact contacts an object and

feeling experiences the "flavour" of that object. Contact conditions the

feeling which arises together with it. Because of contact there is feeling,

because of feeling there is craving; because of craving there is clinging

and this leads to the process of becoming, and thus there is rebirth. The

conditions which will lead to rebirth occur now. We want to live and we

have attachment to sense objects, we are never satisfied, and therefore

there are conditions for life to go on. It is not by mere chance that we

experience objects through the six doors; all these experiences can

occur because of the cooperating of the appropriate conditions.

We should see the disadvantages of contact. In the above quoted sutta

of the "Kindred Sayings", after the explanation of the disadvantages of

material food by the simile of "Child’s Flesh", the disadvantages and

dangers of the three kinds of mental nutriment are explained. We read

about a simile of a cow which stands with a sore hide leaning against

the wall. The creatures who live there bite her. The same happens when

she leans against a tree and no matter where she stands she will be

bitten. We read:

Even so do I declare that the food which is contact should be regarded.

When such food is well understood, the three feelings

118

are well

understood. When the three feelings are well understood, I declare that

there is nothing further which the ariyan disciple has to do.

We find seeing and hearing desirable, but we only get hurt by contact, it

117 Twelve factors are links in the chain of the Dependent Origination, and each one

conditions the following one. They are: ignorance, kamma-formations (sankhåra, rebirth

producing volitions), consciousness (viññåùa), nåma and rúpa, the six bases, contact,

feeling, craving, clinging, becoming, birth, old age and death. See "Visuddhimagga" XVII,

101-344.

118 Pleasant feeling, unpleasant feeling and indifferent feeling.

leads to dukkha..106

The mental nutriment which is volition, cetanå, is also a link in the

Dependent Origination. Under this aspect it is cetanå which is kusala

kamma, akusala kamma or "imperturbable" kamma (åneñja,

arúpåvacara kusala), and these kammas produce rebirth. In the above

quoted sutta we read about a simile of a glowing charcoal-pit to which

someone is dragged. He wishes to be far from it because if he falls on

that heap of charcoal he will have mortal pain and he will die. Evenso

should we see the danger of cetanå which produces rebirth. We read:

Even so, monks, I declare that the food which is manosañcetanå (will of

mind) should be regarded. When that food is well understood, the three

cravings

119

are well understood. When these are well understood, I

declare that there is nothing further that the ariyan disciple has to do.

When viññåùa (consciousness) is considered under the aspect of the

Dependent Origination, it is vipåkacitta which arises at rebirth and also

in the course of life. As a link of the Dependent Origination it is

conditioned by sankhåra, kamma-formations. Because of kamma there

will be the vipåka which is the paìisandhi-citta and also vipåka arising

throughout our life. We read in the above quoted sutta about the simile

of a robber who is punished by the King; the King lets him be smitten

with hundred spears in the morning, hundred at noon and hundred in

the evening. The nutriment which is consciousness should be regarded

as sorrowful as the pain suffered by that robber. We read:

Even so, monks, do I declare that the food called consciousness should

be regarded. When consciousness, monks, is well understood, nåma and

rúpa

120

are well understood. When nåma and rúpa are well understood,

I declare that there is nothing further that the ariyan disciple has to do.

When we consider the three kinds of mental nutriment under the aspect

of the Dependent Origination it reminds us of their dangers, of the fact

that they lead to dukkha. At each moment citta experiences an object,

but so long as we cling to the experiencing of objects we cannot see the

disadvantages of the nutriments. We may not understand, for example,

the danger of seeing. Seeing merely experiences visible object and it

does not know whether the object is pleasant or unpleasant; at that

119 Craving for sense pleasures, craving for becoming and craving for non-becoming.

120 In the Dependent Origination consciousness is a link which conditions nåma and rúpa.

moment there is no like or dislike. After the seeing, however, there are.107

javana-cittas, and when we are not intent on what is wholesome the

javana-cittas are akusala cittas. Most of the time they are akusala cittas.

As soon as we have seen food lobha-múla-cittas tend to arise. The

attachment may not be accompanied by pleasant feeing but by

indifferent feeling and then we may not know that there is attachment.

We do not all the time perform deeds through the body or through

speech, but there are countless moments of thinking and these are

mostly akusala. On account of the objects which are experienced

through the senses defilements arise and they are accumulated from life

to life. When we understand the danger of defilements we can be

reminded to be aware of the realities which appear, also of defilements.

Otherwise akusala can never be eradicated.

*******.108

Chapter 13

Faculty-Condition (Indriya-Paccaya)

The Påli word "indriya" means strength, governing or controlling

principle. Indriyas are "leaders" for the associated dhammas, but they

are leaders each in their own field. In the case of indriya-paccaya,

faculty-condition, the conditioning dhamma (paccaya dhamma) has

leadership, great control, over the conditioned dhammas

(paccayupanna dhammas). Some indriyas are rúpa and some are nåma.

We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (XVI, 1) that there are twentytwo

indriyas. They are:

The five senses which are the faculties of eye, ear, nose, tongue

and bodysense

mind faculty

femininity faculty

masculinity faculty

life faculty (one is rúpa and one is nåma)

bodily pleasure faculty

pain faculty

pleasant feeling faculty

unpleasant feeling faculty

equanimity (indifferent feeling) faculty

faith faculty

energy faculty

mindfulness faculty

concentration faculty.109

understanding faculty

"I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown" faculty (an-aññåtañ-

ñassåmí’t’indriya)

higher knowledge faculty (aññindriya)

faculty of him who knows (aññåtåvindriya)

Of these twentytwo faculties, twenty are faculty-condition and two,

namely the femininity faculty and the masculinity faculty, are not

faculty-condition as we will see.

The five sense-bases control the functions of the sense-cognitions

(seeing, hearing, etc.), they condition these cittas by way of faculty-condition.

They arise previously to the sense-cognitions and are still

present while they control them, thus, they are base-prenascent

faculties. Without the eye faculty there cannot be seeing, it conditions

seeing-consciousness and its accompanying cetasikas by way of faculty-condition.

The rúpa (pasåda-rúpa) which is eyesense is the eye faculty;

it is leader in its own field, in seeing. It cannot be leader in the field of

hearing. We read in the "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation

Chapter, § 430) about the faculties which are the five senses, under the

section indeterminate dhamma (avyåkata, neither kusala nor akusala,

including vipåkacitta, kiriyacitta or rúpa) that indeterminate dhamma

which is rúpa is related to another indeterminate dhamma which is

vipåkacitta by way of faculty-condition:

Eye-faculty is related to eye-consciousness by faculty-condition; ear-faculty

to ear-consciousness... nose-faculty to nose-consciousness...

tongue-faculty to tongue-consciousness... body-faculty is related to

body-consciousness by faculty-condition.

The rúpas which are the five senses are also physical bases or places of

origin, vatthus; they condition the five pairs of sense-cognitions, the

dvi-pañca-viññåùas, also by dependence-condition, nissaya-paccaya (see

Ch 6), and by prenascence-condition, pure-jåta-paccaya (see Ch 9),

since they have to arise previously to the citta for which they are the

base. The faculties which are rúpa are produced by kamma. The quality

of these faculties is different for different people: some have keen

eyesense, others have weak eyesense, and the same for the other

faculties.

One may wonder why the rúpas which are the five senses are faculties.110

and why, for example, the four Great Elements on which the other

rúpas depend are not faculties. If there were no senses the four Great

Elements could not even appear. Objects can only be experienced

because there are faculties which condition the experience of objects by

way of faculty-condition. If satipaììhåna is not developed we cannot

really understand the functions of the faculties which are the five

senses, we will have only theoretical understanding of the faculties.

When there is no awareness of realities as they appear one at a time, we

do not know when there is seeing and when there is hearing. Different

experiences seem to occur at the same time. If there can be awareness

of visible object, the reality which appears through the eyesense, we can

begin to understand that visible object could not appear without

eyesense; and thus the function of the eye faculty, the "leader" in the

field of seeing, will be clearer.

Eyesense is different from earsense or bodysense. The senses do not

belong to a self who could coordinate the different functions of seeing,

hearing and the other experiences. We are inclined to confuse the

different realities which appear at different moments; we may not be

able to distinguish, for example, the characteristic of seeing from the

characteristic of touching.

The "Book of Analysis" (Ch 5, Analysis of the Controlling Faculties, §

220) reminds us that the faculties are non-self. We read:

Therein what is controlling faculty of eye? That eye which, derived from

the four great essentials (the four great Elements

121

), is sensitive

surface... this is an empty village. This is called controlling faculty of

eye.

The same is said of the other senses, they are all empty villages. The

"Atthasaliní" (II, Book II, Ch III, 309) explains "empty village":

"And this is an empty village", refers to its being common to many and

to the absence of a possessor.

121 The eyesense arises in a group of rúpas which includes the four great Elements of

solidity, cohesion, temperature and motion which are present in each group of rúpas. All

rúpas other than the four great Elements are "derived rúpas", upådå-rúpas and these are

dependent on the four great Elements.There cannot be eyesense without solidity,

cohesion, temperature and motion.

Just as an empty village is unoccupied, so the eye and the other senses.111

have no possessor, they are anattå, non-self.

The five faculties which are the five senses (pasåda rúpas) are sense-doors

as well as physical bases (vatthus). The heart-base (hadaya-vatthu)

is the rúpa which is the physical base for the cittas other than

the sense-cognitions. One may wonder why the heart-base is not a

faculty, indriya. Objects do not impinge on the heart-base, the heart-base

is not a doorway through which objects are experienced; it is not a

"leader", a controlling principle in the experiencing of objects. The

heart-base is different from the mind-door. The mind-door through

which objects are experienced is a citta, the last bhavanga-citta arising

before the mind-door adverting-consciousness which is the first citta of

the mind-door process

122

. As regards the five faculties which are the

senses, they control the strength or weakness of the cittas dependent on

them. The eye faculty, for example, controls seeing; keen and bad

eyesight are due to the quality of the eye faculty and it is the same with

the other four sense faculties. The heart-base does not in this way

control the cittas which are dependent on it since it is not a faculty

123

.

As regards mind faculty, manindriya, all eightynine types of citta are

mind faculty. This faculty, unlike the five sense faculties, arises together

with the realities it conditions by way of faculty-condition, indriya-paccaya.

Citta is the "leader" in cognizing an object, in this field it rules

over the associated dhammas. The accompanying cetasikas share the

same object, but they do not cognize it in the same way as citta which is

the leader. If there would be no citta, cetasikas could not arise; citta is

the basis and foundation for the cetasikas. Citta conditions the

accompanying cetasikas and also the rúpa it produces by way of

conascent faculty-condition. When we gesticulate or speak there are

rúpas conditioned by citta by way of faculty-condition; citta has

controlling power over these rúpas. However, mind faculty does not

last, it falls away immediately. We should not, while we speak or

gesticulate, take the citta which produces rúpas for self. Neither should

we take those rúpas for self; they arise because of conditions and fall

away again. The mind-faculty which is the paìisandhi-citta arising at the

moment of rebirth does not produce rúpa but it conditions the kamma

produced rúpa by way of conascent faculty-condition

124

.

122 See Appendix 1.

123 See Guide to Conditional Relations I, Ch II, 16 b, Base-Prenascence-Faculty, by U

Nårada.

124 The first citta in life, the paìisandhi-citta, is too weak to produce rúpa. At that moment

kamma which produces the paìisandhi-citta also produces rúpas at the same time.

The rúpas which are femininity faculty and masculinity faculty.112

(itthindriya and purisindriya) have been classified as faculties, since

they condition the characteristic marks, appearance and disposition of

the sexes. However, they are not faculty-condition; they do not

condition other phenomena by way of faculty-condition.

As to life faculty, jívitindriya, there are two kinds: nåma-jívitindriya and

rúpa-jívitindriya. Nåma-jívitindriya which is a cetasika, one of the seven

"universals"

125

arising with every citta, controls and maintains the life of

the associated dhammas. It conditions the associated dhammas and the

rúpa produced by them by way of faculty-condition. As to rúpa-jívitindriya,

this is classified separately in the "Paììhåna"

126

. It maintains

the life of the kamma-produced rúpas it has arisen together with in one

group. It is related to them by way of faculty-condition. In the groups of

rúpa produced by kamma there is always jívitindriya, whereas in the

groups of rúpa produced by citta, temperature and nutrition there is no

jívitindriya.

So long as there is life faculty, there will be feelings. The five kinds of

feelings which are pleasant bodily feeling, painful bodily feeling,

pleasant (mental) feeling, unpleasant (mental) feeling and indifferent

feeling are faculties. We can experience that bodily pain is a faculty, a

"leader" or controlling principle in its own field. It controls the

experiencing of the "flavour" of an unpleasant object and it can make us

suffer intensely. Even though we are in pleasant surroundings we

cannot rejoice when we suffer pain. At such a moment we cannot

experience anything else but pain. The faculties of pleasant bodily

feeling, pleasant mental feeling, unpleasant (mental) feeling or

indifferent feeling condition the dhammas arising together with them by

way of conascent faculty-condition. We read in the "Visuddhimagga"

(XVI, 10) about the functions of the faculties which are the five feelings:

125 The seven universals are the following cetasikas: contact (phassa), volition (cetanå),

vitality (jívita or jívitindriya), concentration (ekaggatå cetasika) and attention

(manasikåra).

126 This rúpa has not been classified among the prenascent faculties, the sense bases,

neither has it been classified among the conascent faculties. It does not control the

dhammas it arises together with at the moment of its arising, but after that moment, at

the "static phase". That is why it has been classified separately. When compared with

nåma, rúpa lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta, or, when we take into

consideration that there are three moments of citta: its arising moment, the moment of

its presence and the moment of its falling away, rúpa lasts as long as three times

seventeen moments, fiftyone moments of citta. At its aring moment rúpa is too weak to

condition other realities. During the moments of its presence, before it falls away,

rúpa-jívitindriya conditions the dhammas it has arisen together with by way of faculty-condition..113

... That of the faculties of pleasure, pain, joy and grief, is to govern

conascent states and impart their own particular mode of grossness to

those states. That of the equanimity faculty is to impart to them the

mode of quiet, superiority and neutrality.

According to the "Visuddhimagga" (XVI, 128) pain makes the associated

states "wither" and pleasant bodily feeling "intensifies" the associated

states. When there is awareness of feelings we will understand that they

"govern" or rule over dhammas arising together with them, that they

are controlling faculties. As to indifferent feeling, this is quiet in

comparison with the other feelings.

The three mental feelings condition the citta and other cetasikas arising

together with them and also mind produced rúpa by way of faculty-condition.

Pleasant and painful bodily feeling accompany body-consciousness

which is vipåkacitta. As we have seen, the vipåkacittas

which are the five pairs of sense-cognitions (seeing, hearing, etc.) do

not produce rúpa. At rebirth, feeling conditions the associated dhammas

and rúpa produced by kamma by way of faculty-condition.

We attach great importance to feeling, we let ourselves be carried away

by the feelings which arise on account of pleasant or unpleasant objects

we experience through the senses. If there would not be feelings on

account of what we see, hear or experience through the other senses,

there would not be so much sorrow in life. We are enslaved to our

feelings, but they are only realities which arise because of the

appropriate conditions and do not last.

As we have seen, some of the faculties are rúpa and some are nåma. The

faculties which are nåma condition other phenomena while they are

conascent with them. The faculties which are the five senses have to

arise prior to the nåmas they condition by way of faculty-condition.

Without the faculties there could not be the experience of the different

objects which impinge on the senses. Without the eye faculty visible

object could not appear and without the ear faculty sound could not

appear. The "world" appears through the six doorways because there

are the faculties performing their functions. So long as we do not

distinguish the sense faculties from each other we cling to a concept of

self who can see, hear and think, all at the same time. In reality there is

only one citta at a time which experiences one object. Each experience

arises because of its appropriate conditions and falls away immediately,

it is non-self. The following sutta stresses the importance of

understanding the faculties which are the senses and the mind. They.114

have to be understood as impermanent, dukkha and anattå. If they are

not understood as they are one cannot attain enlightenment. We read in

the "Kindred Sayings" (V, Mahå-vagga, Book IV, Kindred Sayings on the

Faculties, Ch III, § 6, Stream-winner):

Monks, there are these six sense-faculties. What are the six? The sense-faculty

of eye, that of ear, of nose, tongue, body and the sense-faculty of

mind. These are the six sense-faculties. When the ariyan disciple

understands, as they really are, the arising and the perishing of, the

satisfaction in, the misery of and the escape from these six sense-faculties,

such an ariyan disciple, monks, is called "Streamwinner

(sotåpanna), one not doomed to Purgatory

127

, one assured, one bound

for enlightenment."

Furthermore, there are five faculties which are: faith or confidence

(saddhå), energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samådhi)

and understanding (paññå). They control the accompanying dhammas

and mind produced rúpa, they condition them by way of faculty-condition.

Among these five cetasikas energy and concentration can be

akusala or sobhana, the other three are always sobhana. The five

faculties are sometimes referred to as the "spiritual faculties" but in that

case they are sobhana. They are included in the "factors of

enlightenment" (bodhipakkiya dhammas) which should be developed

for the attaining of enlightenment. The five "spiritual faculties"

condition mahå-kusala cittas, mahå-vipåkacittas and mahå-kiriyacittas

and also mind produced rúpa by way of faculty-condition.

The five spiritual faculties are developed in samatha and then they lead

to the attainment of jhåna. When someone has accumulated skill in

jhåna, different stages of rúpa-jhåna and arúpa-jhåna can be attained.

The five spiritual faculties condition the rúpåvacara cittas and

arúpåvacara cittas by way of faculty-condition. They also condition rúpa

produced by these cittas. Arúpåvacara vipåkacitta does not produce

rúpa since it arises in the arúpa-brahma planes where there is no rúpa.

The five spiritual faculties are also developed in vipassanå. They

overcome their opposites. Faith or confidence in wholesomeness

overcomes lack of confidence. Wholesomeness cannot be developed

when we do not see its benefit. We may believe that we see the

127 Hell, or hell planes. Existence in a hell plane is not eternal, therefore the translator

uses "purgatory".

disadvantage of anger, but in the different situations in daily life we are.115

negligent. Before we realize it we have spoken angry words and at such

moments we do not see the disadvantage of akusala, there is no

confidence in kusala. There can be training in wholesomeness little by

little, and then it can be accumulated so that there will be more

conditions for its arising. Energy which is wholesome overcomes

indolence. The "Book of Analysis"( Ch 5, 123, 124) states about the

faculty of energy:

Therein what is controlling faculty of energy? That which is the

arousing of mental energy, toiling, endeavour, aspiring, effort, zeal,

perseverance, vigour, stability, unfaltering endeavour, not relinquishing

wish, not relinquishing the task, firm hold of the task, energy,

controlling faculty of energy, power of energy. This is called controlling

faculty of energy.

There is no self who exerts energy, energy is a cetasika, a faculty,

arising because of its appropriate conditions. Energy is "not

relinquishing the task". When one develops insight energy is not

relinquishing the task of being mindful of nåma and rúpa, not shrinking

back from considering their characteristics over and over again. When

there is the faculty of energy one does not lose courage even if one does

not see much result. We cannot expect spectacular results immediately.

The faculty of sati overcomes negligence of kusala, including negligence

of developing right understanding of nåma and rúpa. Concentration

overcomes distraction. In the development of insight it conditions the

citta to focus on the reality appearing at the present moment. One

should not force oneself to concentrate on any reality, because then

there is bound to be clinging to a concept of self who concentrates.

Concentration performs its function already while it arises together with

right understanding. The faculty of paññå overcomes ignorance of the

four noble Truths. The five spiritual faculties have to be developed

together so that the four noble Truths can be realized.

These faculties will not develop merely by having faith in one’s teacher,

one has to develop them oneself. We read in the "Kindred Sayings" (V,

Book IV, Kindred Sayings on the Faculties, Ch V, § 4, Eastern

Gatehouse) that the Buddha, while he was staying at Såvatthí, in

Eastern Garehouse, asked Såriputta:

"Do you believe, Såriputta, that the controlling faculty of faith... of

energy... of mindfulness... of concentration... that the controlling faculty.116

of insight, if cultivated and made much of, plunges into the Deathless,

has the Deathless for its goal, the Deathless for its ending?"

The "Deathless" is nibbåna. We read that Såriputta answered:

"In this matter, lord, I walk not by faith in the Exalted One, to wit: that

the controlling faculty of faith... of energy... of mindfulness... of

concentration... that the controlling faculty of insight, if cultivated and

made much of, plunges into the Deathless, has the Deathless for its

goal, the Deathless for its ending.

They, lord, who have not realized, not seen, not understood, not made

sure of, not attained this fact by insight,-- such may well walk by faith in

others (in believing) that the controlling faculty of faith... that of

insight, if cultivated and made much of, may so end.

But, lord, they who have realized, seen, understood, made sure of, they

who have attained this fact by insight,-- such are free from doubt, free

from wavering, (in believing) that the controlling faculty of faith, of

energy, of mindfulness, of concentration, of insight, if cultivated and

made much of... will so end.

But I, lord, have realized it, I have seen, understood and made sure of it,

I have attained it by insight, I am free from doubt about it, that the

controlling faculty of faith, of energy, of mindfulness, of concentration,

of insight, does plunge into the Deathless, has the Deathless for its goal,

the Deathless for its ending."

We then read that the Buddha approved of Såriputta’s words.

We read in the same section of the "Kindred Sayings" (§ 10, Faith) that

the Buddha, while staying among the Angas at Market, asked Såriputta:

"Tell me, Såriputta, could an ariyan disciple who is utterly devoted to,

who has perfect faith in the Tathågata,-- could an ariyan disciple have

any doubt or wavering as to the Tathågata or the Tathågata’s teaching?"

Såriputta said that the ariyan disciple who has perfect faith in the

Tathågata could have no doubt as to the Tathågata or his teaching and

that he develops the controlling faculties of faith, energy, mindfulness,

concentration and insight. We read that he said about the controlling

faculty of insight:.117

"Again, lord, of a faithful ariyan disciple who is established in

mindfulness, whose thought is tranquillized, this may be expected: he

will fully understand ‘A world without end is the round of rebirth. No

beginning can be seen of beings hindered by ignorance, bound by

craving, who run on, who fare on through the round of rebirth. The

utter passionless ceasing of ignorance, of this body of darkness, is this

blissful state, this excellent state, to wit:- the calming down of all the

activities, the giving up of all bases (for rebirth), the destruction of

craving, dispassion, cessation, nibbåna.’ His insight, lord, is the

controlling faculty of insight.

Lord, that faithful ariyan disciple, thus striving and striving again, thus

recollecting again and again, thus again and again composing his mind,

thus clearly discerning again and again, gains utter confidence, when he

considers: ‘As to those things which formerly I had only heard tell of,

now I dwell having experienced them in my own person: now by insight

have I pierced them through and see them plain.’ Herein, lord, his

confidence is the controlling faculty of confidence."

We then read that the Buddha approved of Såriputta’s words.

When the five "spiritual faculties" are still weak we should realize that

also in the past they were weak. That is the reason why there are not

enough conditions for their arising at the present time. When we keep

on listening to the Dhamma and considering what we heard the five

"spiritual faculties" can develop. They lead to the experiencing of the

"Deathless", of nibbåna, but we do not know in which life that will

happen. It is useless to have desire for the attainment of enlightenment,

desire is counteractive to the development of understanding. We should

only be intent on our task of this moment: developing more

understanding of the reality which appears now.

There are three faculties which are lokuttara paññå. They control the

purity of understanding at the moment of enlightenment and they

condition the accompanying dhammas by way of conascent faculty-condition.

The first one is the faculty of "I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown"

and this is the lokuttara paññå which accompanies the

magga-citta (lokuttara kusala citta) of the sotåpanna. The sotåpanna

comes to know what was not known before, nibbåna. Lokuttara paññå

is conditioned by the sobhana cetasikas which have been accumulated

from life to life. These cetasikas which are included in

saòkhårakkhandha (the khandha of "formations", consisting of all.118

cetasikas except feeling and remembrance, saññå) are supporting one

another and together they constitute the conditions for attaining

enlightenment. It is encouraging to know that all good qualities such as

generosity, patience and kindness, all the "perfections"

128

developed

together with right understanding, are never lost. They have to be

developed life after life and thus they can constitute the conditions for

the realisation of the four noble Truths later on. When we think of the

accumulation of wholesome qualities we may believe that there is a

mere "heaping up" of wholesome inclinations, but there is more to it.

Conditions are formed for a completely new situation, namely, the

arising of the lokuttara magga-citta which eradicates defilements and

experiences nibbåna.

The "higher knowledge faculty" is lokuttara paññå which accompanies

the phala-citta (fruition consciousness, lokuttara vipåkacitta) of the

sotåpanna, the magga-citta and the phala-citta of the sakadågåmí

(once-returner who has realised the second stage of enlightenment),

and those of the anågåmí (non-returner, who has realised the third

stage of enlightenment), and also the magga-citta of the arahat. The

"faculty of him who knows" arises with the phala-citta of the arahat.

These three faculties which are lokuttara condition the lokuttara cittas

and cetasikas they accompany by way of faculty-condition

129

. When the

third lokuttara faculty arises there is nothing more to be realized, all

defilements have been eradicated.

When the characteristics of conditioned dhammas are not yet fully

known nibbåna cannot be realized. The "five spiritual faculties" have to

be developed during countless lives so that eventually the three faculties

which are lokuttara can arise.

*********

128 The Bodhisatta developed the "perfections" during aeons, with the purpose of

becoming a Buddha. They are the following wholesome qualities: liberality, morality,

renunciation, wisdom, energy, patience, truthfulness, determination, lovingkindness and

equanimity.

129 Realities can be considered under different aspects and they can be a condition for

other realities in different ways. As we will see, lokuttara paññå is also a condition as

Path factor. When lokuttara paññå is considered under the aspect of faculty, as faculty-condition,

there are three kinds..119

Chapter 14

Jhåna-Condition (Jhåna-Paccaya)

In the case of jhåna-condition, jhåna-paccaya, the cetasikas which are

jhåna-factors are the conditioning dhammas which cause the citta and

accompaying cetasikas, the conditioned dhammas, to fix themselves

firmly on the object which is experienced. In the "Visuddhimagga", in

the section on the development of samatha, tranquil meditation (Ch 4),

five jhåna-factors are summed up, sobhana cetasikas which should be

developed in order to reach jhåna, absorption. These factors assist the

citta to be absorbed in the meditation subject. When jhånacitta arises

there are no longer sense impressions and there is temporary freedom

from defilements. Jhånacitta is of a higher level of citta than kåmåvara

citta, citta of the sense sphere. The word jhåna has been explained as

being derived from "jhåyati", to contemplate, or to think closely of an

object. Or else "jhåyati" can mean to burn (Vis. IV, 119)

130

, since the

jhåna-factors which are developed burn the "hindrances" (akusala

cetasikas) away.

The jhåna-factors which are developed in samatha are sobhana

cetasikas, they have to be developed together with paññå which knows

the way to develop calm, so that absorption can be attained. However,

jhåna-factors can also be taken in a wider sense, they can even be

akusala. That is why the "Dhammasangaùi" mentions in the "Summary"

jhåna-factors arising not only with the mahå-kusala cittas which are

accompanied by paññå, but also with those which are unaccompanied

by paññå, ñåùa-vippayutta, as well as with each of the akusala cittas

131

.

Not only kusala citta but also akusala citta needs jhåna-factors which

assist the citta to be firmly fixed on an object. Even when someone

performs evil deeds he needs jhåna-factors which accompany the

akusala citta, so that he is concentrated on the object of aksusala; these

jhåna-factors condition the akusala citta by way of jhåna-condition. We

read in the "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation Chapter, §

431) that akusala jhåna-factors are related to their associated

aggregates ( the other nåma-kkhandhas

132

) by jhåna-condition. Without

130 Jhåyati in the sense of burning is derived from another root.

131 See § 147 a and § 397 a.

132 The citta and cetasikas arising together with them.

the assistance of the jhåna-factors good or evil deeds cannot be.120

performed.

When jhåna is taken in its widest sense, the following cetasikas are

jhåna-factors:

applied thinking (vitakka)

sustained thinking (vicåra)

rapture or interest (píti)

pleasant feeling (sukha)

unpleasant feeling (domanassa)

indifferent feeling (upekkhå)

concentration (samådhi)

Vitakka, applied thinking, "touches" the object which is experienced, it

leads citta to the object (Vis. IV, 88). When vitakka is akusala it is

wrong thinking. As to vicåra, sustained thinking, this has the

characteristic of "continued pressure" on the object, it keeps citta

"anchored" on it (Vis. IV, 88). Vitakka and vicåra accompany all cittas of

the sense sphere, except the sense-cognitions (dvi-pañcaviññåùas,

seeing, hearing, etc.) and they condition citta by way of jhåna-condition,

so that it is firmly fixed on the object it experiences. Píti,

rapture, interest or enthousiasm, takes an interest in the object, it

"refreshes" citta and cetasikas (Vis. IV, 94). In the case of cittas of the

sense sphere, kåmåvacara cittas, it arises with all cittas which are

accompanied by pleasant feeling. When it is akusala it accompanies

lobha-múla-citta. As to sukha, in this context it is the same as

somanassa, pleasant feeling. Domanassa, unpleasant feeling, can only

accompany dosa-múla-citta, citta rooted in aversion, thus, it is a jhåna-factor

which is always akusala; it asists the akusala citta to be fixed on

the object in an unwholesome way. Upekkhå, indifferent feeling, can be

kusala, akusala, or indeterminate (avyåkata); when it is indeterminate

it can be vipåka or kiriya

133

. Samådhi, concentration, is the cetasika

which is one-pointedness (ekaggatå). It has the function of focussing on

one object and it accompanies every citta; it can be kusala, akusala,

vipåka or kiriya. It causes the citta to be concentrated on the object it

experiences. Apart from domanassa which arises only with dosa-múla-133

As explained in my Introduction, all dhammas can be classified in the

Tripartite division of kusala dhammas, akusala dhammas and indeterminate

dhammas (avyåkata, neither kusala nor akusala). Indeterminate dhammas

include: citta and cetasika which are vipåka or kiriya, rúpa and nibbåna.

citta, the other jhåna-factors can arise with cittas which are kusala,.121

akusala or indeterminate (avyåkata). They each assist citta in their own

way so that citta can be firmly fixed on an object. The jhåna-factors

condition the associated dhammas and the mind produced rúpa by way

of jhåna-condition and also at the moment of rebirth they condition the

associated dhammas and kamma produced rúpa by way of jhåna-condition

(Paììhåna, Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation Chapter, § 431,

VII a , b).

The subcommentary to the "Khandha-Vibhanga" (Book of Analysis I)

explains the role of the jhåna-factors in relation to mind produced rúpa

134

. This subcommentary calls the jhåna-factors "strength-givers" (bala-dåyaka),

they are intensifying factors which assist the citta and

accompanying cetasikas to be fixed on an object. The jhåna-factors

vitakka and vicåra play a specific role when citta produces speech. Do

we know whether there is kusala vitakka or akusala vitakka while

speech sound is being produced? When our objective is not dåna

(generosity), síla (morality) or bhåvanå (mental development), we

speak with akusala citta and this happens time and again. When citta

produces a facial expression of gladness, or when we smile, the jhåna-factor

sukha plays its specific role, the jhåna-factor píti (rapture)

"refreshes" citta, in fact, all the accompanying jhåna-factors condition

citta, the associated cetasikas and the rúpa produced by citta by way of

jhåna-condition. When someone commits an unwholesome deed, such

as killing, nåma and rúpa which arise because of conditions perform

their functions. The dosa-múla-citta is accompanied by vitakka which is

in this case thought of violence, by vicåra which is occupied with the

object, by unpleasant feeling and by concentration which causes the

citta to be firmly fixed on the object. The akusala citta and the

accompanying cetasikas and also the mind-produced rúpa are

conditioned by akusala jhåna-factors,"strength-givers" or intensifying

factors, by way of jhåna-condition. When we perform a generous deed,

the kusala citta and accompanying cetasikas and also the mind

produced rúpa are conditioned by sobhana jhåna-factors by way of

jhåna-condition. These dhammas are also conditioned by root-condition,

by faculty-condition and by several other conditions. Thus, as

we have seen, jhåna-factors are not only operating while one cultivates

jhåna, they are conditions which function time and again in daily life,

no matter whether we perform wholesome or unwholesome deeds.

134 See "Abhidhamma Studies", IV, Mental Constituents, 3, Factors of

Absorption, by Ven. Nyanaponika.

The "Visuddhimagga" (Ch IV) mentions five of the seven jhåna-factors,.122

in that case sobhana cetasikas, which have to be developed in samatha

with the purpose of attaining jhåna. However, there must be paññå

which knows the characteristics of those particular jhåna-factors and

which knows the way to develop calm with a suitable meditation

subject. One will not attain true calm merely by sitting and trying to

concentrate on one object. There are forty meditation subjects of

samatha and it depends on the individual which subject is suitable as a

means to develop calm (Vis. Ch IV-Ch X). For the development of

samatha it is essential that there is paññå which knows exactly when

there is akusala citta and when there is kusala citta with calm.

The sobhana jhåna-factors have each their own function in inhibiting

the hindrances so that calm can be developed. Vitakka, applied

thinking, "touches" the meditation subject; it thinks of it in the right

way. Vicåra, sustained thinking, keeps the citta "anchored" on the

meditation subject, reviewing it over and over again so that citta will

remain fixed on the meditation subject. Vitakka inhibits the hindrances

of sloth and torpor and vicåra inhibits the hindrance of doubt. Píti,

enthusiasm, takes an interest in the meditation subject so that one is not

bored with it. It inhibits the hindrance which is ill will. Sukha which is

developed in samatha is happy feeling concerning the meditation

subject. It inhibits the hindrances which are restlessness and regret

(uddhacca and kukkucca). Upekkhå is not mentioned among the jhåna-factors

which should be developed in samatha for the attainment of

jhåna, but in the fifth stage of rúpa-jhåna

135

there is upekkhå instead of

sukha. Samådhi, concentration, developed in samatha, is sammå-samådhi,

which is right concentration on the meditation subject. It

inhibits the hindrance which is sensuous desire (kåma-cchandha). As

calm grows samådhi also develops. There is miccha-samådhi, wrong

concentration, and sammå-samådhi, right concentration. If there is no

paññå which knows precisely when there is kusala citta and when

akusala citta, wrong concentration can be taken for right concentration.

Someone may mistakenly believe that there is calm when he just sits

and for example looks for a long time at a kasina (disk) which is among

the meditation subjects of samatha. Instead of true calm which is

wholesome there is clinging to quietness.

Not merely intellectual understanding of the jhåna-factors is needed for

135 Fine material jhåna. The meditation subjects of rúpa-jhåna are still

dependent on materiality, whereas the meditation subjects of arúpa-jhåna,

immaterial jhåna, are not.

the development of calm but there must also be right understanding.123

which discerns precisely their different characteristics. When one

underestimates the difficulty of the development of jhåna there is bound

to be wrong concentration. It is difficult to distinguish between different

jhåna-factors such as vitakka and vicåra. While we are thinking, there

are vitakka and vicåra performing their functions, they arise together;

but do we discern their different characteristics? Do we know the

characteristic of píti, rapture, and can we distinguish it from sukha,

pleasant feeling? When we find out for ourselves how difficult it is to

distinguish between these jhåna-factors, we will understand that a high

degree of paññå is needed for the development of the jhåna-factors.

When someone has attained the first stage of rúpa-jhåna the rúpåvacara

kusala citta is accompanied by all five jhåna-factors and these condition

that citta by way of jhåna-condition. After having emerged from jhåna

one has to review the jhåna-factors with mindfulness and right

understanding (Vis. IV, 138). Also in samatha mindfulness and right

understanding are needed but the aim is not, as is the case in vipassanå,

to see realities as non-self. The jhåna-factors are progressively

abandoned as higher stages of jhåna are attained. A high degree of

paññå is needed which discerns how to abandon the jhåna-factors so

that the higher stages of jhåna which are more refined and tranquil can

be reached. At the highest stage of rúpa-jhåna only the factors upekkhå

and samådhi are left (Vis. Ch IV). The arúpåvacara cittas (of arúpa-jhåna,

immaterial jhåna) are accompanied only by the jhåna-factors

upekkhå and samådhi.

Jhåna-factors which are sobhana condition each kusala citta, and thus

they also condition the kusala citta which develops vipassanå by way of

jhåna-condition. In vipassanå the aim is not the suppression of the

hindrances by the development of the sobhana jhåna-factors, as is the

case in samatha. Some people think that the hindrances have to be

suppressed first before there can be right understanding of nåma and

rúpa. In vipassanå, however, right understanding is developed of

whatever reality appears, also when that reality is a "hindrance". When

it appears it does so because it is conditioned. All conditioned realities

have to be known as they are, as non-self. At the moment of right

understanding of the characteristic of a hindrance such as desire or ill

will, the citta is kusala citta and there is no hindrance.

There is no rule that samatha should be developed before vipassanå can

be developed. Some people develop samatha, others do not, and this

depends on conditions. People are born with different inclinations,

different talents, different possibilities. Our life is an unbroken series of

cittas and thus, inclinations can be accumulated from one moment to.124

the next moment. The bhavanga-citta which succeeds the paìisandhi-citta

is conditioned by that citta by way of proximity-condition,

anantara-paccaya, and each following citta is conditioned by the

preceding one by way of proximity-condition. Cittas are conditioned by

many different conditions and there is no self who could alter the cittas

which arise.

Lokuttara cittas are conditioned by sobhana jhåna-factors by way of

jhåna-condition. The jhåna-factors are included in the enlightenment

factors

136

which perform their functions so that enlightenment can be

attained. The magga-citta (lokuttara kusala citta) eradicates defilements

in accordance with the stage of enlightenment which is attained. The

jhåna-factors condition the lokuttara citta to be steadfast and highly

concentrated on the object which is nibbåna. Thus, nibbåna appears

very clearly to the lokuttara citta and there is a high degree of calm.

Some people who attain enlightenment have developed samatha and

attained jhåna, others have not attained jhåna. Those who are proficient

in jhåna and also develop insight can take jhånacitta as object of

insight; jhåna is then the basis of insight. In that way they can become

detached from the idea that jhånacitta is self. We read in the "Kindred

Sayings"(III, Khandhå-vagga, XXVIII, Kindred Sayings on Såriputta, § 1,

Solitude) about a conversation between Såriputta and Ånanda. We read

that Ånanda said to Såriputta:

"Calm are your senses, friend Såriputta, clear and translucent the colour

of your face. In what mood has the venerable Såriputta been spending

this day?"

"Friend, I have been dwelling aloof from passions, aloof from things

evil, with my thought applied and sustained ( with vitakka and vicåra)

in first jhåna, which is born of solitude and full of zest (píti) and

happiness (sukha). To me thus, friend, the thought never came: ‘It is I

who am attaining first jhåna,’ or ‘It is I who have attained first jhåna,’ or

‘It is I who have emerged from first jhåna.’ "

"Surely for a long time have leanings to I-making, to mine-making and

to vanity been well rooted out from the venerable Såriputta. That is

why it occurs not to the venerable Såriputta: ‘It is I who am attaining

first jhåna,’ or ‘It is I who have attained first jhåna,’ or ‘It is I who have

136 Bodhipakkhiya dhammas, wholesome qualities which should be developed for

the attainment of enlightenment.

emerged from first jhåna.’ ".125

In the following suttas we read that Såriputta did not take the higher

stages of rúpa-jhåna nor the stages of arúpa-jhåna for self.

For those who are proficient in jhåna and attain enlightenment the

lokuttara cittas can be accompanied by jhåna-factors of the different

stages of jhåna, depending on the stage of jhåna which was the basis of

insight just before they attained enlightenment. Since there are five

stages of jhåna, the eight types of lokuttara cittas

137

can be

accompanied by jhåna-factors of five stages of jhåna

138

, and thus there

can be forty types of lokuttara cittas instead of eight types. The degree

and the amount of the jhåna-factors which condition a citta at a

particular moment are variegated, and this is dependent on many

different conditions.

As we have seen, those who are proficient in jhåna, who have jhåna as

basis of insight, can attain enlightenment with lokuttara jhånacittas,

lokuttara cittas accompanied by jhåna-factors of the different stages of

jhåna. The magga-citta (path-consciousness) is followed immediately, in

the same process, by its result, the phala-citta (fruition-consciousness),

and then, after that process is over, other types of citta arise. However,

phala-cittas which experience nibbåna can arise again in other processes

of citta, many times during their life. This is not possible for those who

attained enlightenment but who were not proficient in jhåna and did

not have jhåna as basis of insight. Thus we see that people have

different accumulations. However, for all those who have attained

enlightenment defilements are progressively eradicated depending on

the stage of enlightenment one has attained. We should not have desire

for the attainment of jhåna. A high degree of paññå is needed for the

development of the jhåna-factors so that jhåna can be attained. The

disciples of the Buddha who were able to do so had accumulated a high

proficiency in samatha during many lives. Instead of wishing for

something that cannot be reached we should pay attention to what can

be done right now. We can develop right understanding of the realities

which have arisen already because of their own conditions. This kind of

understanding leads to the eradication of defilements and that is the

137 At each of the four stages of enlightenment arise one type of lokuttara kusala

citta and one type of lokuttara vipåkacitta.

138 See my "Abhidhamma in daily life, Ch. 23. As regards the four stages of

arúpa-jhåna, they are accompanied by the same jhåna-factors as those of the

fifth stage of rúpa-jhåna, namely samådhi and upekkhå.

goal of the Buddha’s teachings..126

*********.127

Chapter 15

Path-Condition (Magga-Paccaya)

In the case of path-condition, magga-paccaya, the cetasikas which are

called path-factors are the conditioning dhammas (paccayas) and these

are related to the dhammas arising together with them, the conditioned

dhammas (paccayupanna dhammas), by way of path-condition, magga-paccaya.

The path-factors which are path-condition are not merely the

factors of the noble eightfold Path which leads to enlightenment, but

the term path-factor should be taken in a wider sense. Path-factors can

be akusala cetasikas which constitute the wrong path, or they can be

sobhana cetasikas which constitute the right path. The path-factors of

the wrong path lead downwards, to an unhappy rebirth, and the path-factors

of the right path lead to a happy rebirth, or, when they are

constituents of the noble eightfold Path, they lead to deliverance from

the cycle of birth and death.

In the "Dialologues of the Buddha" (III, no. 33, The Recital, VIII) the

path-factors of the wrong path are summed up as follows:

Eight wrong factors of character and conduct, to wit, wrong views,

thinking, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration.

Wrong speech, wrong action and wrong livelihood are not cetasikas, but

they are unwholesome actions motivated by akusala cetanå,

unwholesome volition, which accompanies akusala citta. Neither is

wrong mindfulness a cetasika, but it designates lack of attention to

kusala, lack of mindfulness which is a property of akusala citta. The

cetasika mindfulness, sati, can only accompany sobhana citta, it cannot

be akusala. Since the four factors of wrong speech, wrong action, wrong

livelihood and wrong mindfulness are not cetasikas they are not

conditioning factors of path-condition.

The other four factors of the wrong path are akusala cetasikas, namely:

wrong view, wrong thinking, wrong effort and wrong concentration.

Thus, they are conditioning factors of path-condition. We read in the

"Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation Chapter, § 432, IV):

Faulty state (akusala dhamma) is related to faulty state by path-condition.

Faulty path-factors are related to their associated.128

khandhas

139

by path-condition.

Wrong view (micchå-diììhi) is an akusala cetasika arising with four

types of lobha-múla-citta

140

. There can be wrong view about kamma

and vipåka, one may believe that good and bad deeds do not produce

their appropriate results. It is wrong view to take realities for

permanent or for "self". Wrong view conditions wrong practice of the

Dhamma, it conditions taking the wrong path for the right path. This

happens, for example, when someone believes that he should not be

aware of akusala, that akusala should be suppressed before vipassanå

can be developed. By understanding that akusala citta is conditioned by

numerous factors, some of which are stemming from the past, and some

of which are factors of the present, we can be reminded to be aware of

akusala in order to see it as a conditioned nåma, not self.

When someone teaches wrong practice the speech he utters is a kind of

rúpa produced by citta. Wrong view conditions that speech by way of

path-condition. The "Paììhåna" (in the same section, § 432, V), under

the heading of akusala dhamma which conditions indeterminate

dhamma, states that akusala path-factors condition mind-produced rúpa

by way of path-condition. As we have seen, indeterminate dhamma,

avyåkata dhamma, is neither kusala nor akusala. Conditioned dhammas

which are indeterminate include: vipåka-citta, kiriyacitta and rúpa. In

the following definition indeterminate dhamma means rúpa. We read:

(V) Faulty state (akusala dhamma) is related to indeterminate state by

path-condition.

Faulty path-factors are related to mind-produced matter by path-condition.

In the next item, under the section of akusala dhamma which conditions

(another) akusala dhamma and indeterminate dhamma, the "Paììhåna"

states that akusala path-factors condition the accompanying citta and

139 The akusala cetasikas which are factors of the wrong path are the khandha of

formations (saòkhåra-kkhandha, including all cetasikas except feeling and

saññå, remembrance or perception). The associated khandhas (the nåma-khandhas

which arise together with saòkhårakkhandha) are vedanå-kkhandha,

saññå-kkhandha and viññåùa-kkhandha.

140 See Appendix 2.

cetasikas and also rúpa produced by citta by way of path-condition. We.129

read:

(VI) Faulty state is related to faulty and indeterminate state by path-condition.

Faulty path-factors are related to (their) associated khandhas and

mind-produced matter by path-condition.

Wrong thinking (micchå-saòkappa) is the cetasika vitakka, thinking,

which "touches" the object so that citta can cognize it. This factor can

also condition wrong speech by way of path-condition. When we

slander, wrong thinking conditions the words we utter by way of path-condition.

Wrong effort (micchå-våyåma) is viriya cetasika which is akusala. It

strengthens and supports the accompanying dhammas so that they can

perform their functions in an unwholesome way.

Wrong concentration (micchå-samådhi) is ekaggatå cetasika which

conditions citta to focus on one object. Wrong concentration conditions

akusala citta to focus on the object in an unwholesome way.

The factors of the wrong path perform each their own function while

they condition citta, cetasikas and mind-produced rúpa by way of

path-condition. While the factors of the wrong path condition the

accompanying dhammas there can be wrong speech, wrong action and

wrong livelihood. We can easily indulge in idle speech and this may not

seem to be harmful. However, one kind of akusala can lead to other

kinds of akusala by way of natural decisive support-condition,

pakatúpanissaya paccaya, as we have seen

141

. Any degree of akusala is

dangerous. The study of the factors of the wrong path can remind us to

realize when we are on the wrong path which leads downwards.

Someone may take wrong effort for right effort and wrong

concentration for right concentration. He may for example try very hard

to focus on a particular object such as breath without right

understanding of what breath is: a rúpa conditioned by citta. He may

believe that he can develop calm with concentration on breath but he

does not realize when there is desire for result instead of kusala citta

with calm. Or someone may think that he should try to concentrate on

rúpas of the body and that he in that way can experience the arising

and falling away of realities. The development of the eigthfold Path is

141 See Chapter 8.

the development of right understanding of any reality which appears.130

because of conditions. If someone selects particular realities as objects

of awareness or if he tries to apply himself to certain techniques in

order to hasten the development of insight he is on the wrong path.

The factors of the right path are the following sobhana cetasikas:

right view (sammå-diììhi)

right thinking (sammå-saòkappa)

right speech (sammå-våcå)

right action (sammå-kammanta)

right livelihood (sammå-åjíva)

right effort (sammå-våyåma)

right mindfulness (sammå-sati)

right concentration (sammå-samådhi)

We read about these factors in the "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII,

Investigation Chapter, § 432) under the following three headings:

kusala dhamma conditions (other) kusala dhammas, kusala dhamma

conditions indeterminate dhamma (namely rúpa, produced by citta),

kusala dhamma conditions (other) kusala dhammas and indeterminate

dhamma (rúpa, produced by citta):

(I) Faultless state (kusala dhamma) is related to faultless state by

path-condition.

Faultless path factors are related to (their) associated khandhas by

path-condition.

(II) Faultless state is related to indeterminate state by path-condition.

Faultless path-factors are related to mind-produced matter by path-condition.

(III) Faultless state is related to faultless and indeterminate state by

path-condition.

Faultless path-factors are related to (their) associated khandhas and

mind-produced matter by path-condition.

The factors of the right path are sobhana cetasikas which condition

sobhana cittas. They condition mahå-kusala cittas, mahå-vipåkacittas

and mahå-kiriyacittas and also mind-produced matter by way of path-condition.

They condition rúpåvacara cittas and arúpåvacara cittas by

way of path-condition. They also condition lokuttara cittas by way of.131

path-condition

142

. Not all path-factors arise with each kind of sobhana

citta. The quality and the degree of the path-factors is variegated since

they accompany different kinds of sobhana cittas. As we have seen, citta

and the accompanying cetasikas condition one another by conascence-condition,

by mutuality-condition, by dependence-condition and by

other conditions. Evenso the sobhana citta and the cetasikas which are

the path-factors condition one another in these different ways. Sobhana

cittas may arise without the path-factor sammå-diììhi, paññå or right

understanding, or they may be accompanied by sammå-diììhi. As we

have seen, the development of the right path leads to happy rebirths or

to freedom from the cycle of birth and death. The performing of

wholesome deeds without the development of right understanding of

nåma and rúpa can lead to a happy rebirth, but it does not lead to the

eradication of the wrong view of self and of the other defilements, and

thus, it does not lead to freedom from rebirth.

The path-factor sammå-diììhi can have many degrees. It can be

intellectual understanding of kusala and akusala and their results, or

paññå which directly understands kusala as kusala and akusala as

akusala, or right understanding of nåma and rúpa as non-self. Only

right understanding of the true nature of nåma and rúpa will lead to

detachment from the "self" and from all realities, and then there will be

freedom from the cycle of birth and death. When the noble eightfold

Path which leads to the end of rebirth is being developed the object of

paññå is a nåma or rúpa which appears at the present moment.

Through mindfulness of realities appearing in our daily life sammå-diììhi

of the eightfold Path can come to see them as they are, as non-self.

Sammå-saòkappa, right thinking, is vitakka cetasika which is sobhana. It

assists each kusala citta which is intent on wholesomeness, it "touches"

the object of wholesomeness. When right thinking is a factor of the

noble eightfold Path it has to accompany right understanding, paññå.

Right thinking "touches" the nåma or rúpa which appears so that paññå

can understand it as it is. As we have seen, this cetasika also functions

as jhåna-condition for the accompanying dhammas. A reality can

condition other realities in more than one way.

There are three cetasikas which are síla, namely: right speech, right

action and right livelihood. They are actually the three abstinences or

virati cetasikas which are:

142 See Appendix 2 for details about these cittas.

abstinence from wrong speech (vacíduccarita virati).132

abstinence from wrong action (kåyaduccarita virati)

abstinence from wrong livelihood (åjívaduccarita virati)

They may, one at a time, accompany kusala citta when the occasion

arises. They do not accompany each kusala citta. While we abstain from

wrong action or speech there can be awareness and right understanding

of nåma and rúpa. Paññå can realize that the cetasika which abstains

from akusala is non-self, that it arises because of its appropriate

conditions. When paññå really sees the disadvantage and danger of

akusala there are conditions for abstaining from it and there is no need

to think, "I shall abstain from akusala". However, if virati cetasika, the

cetasika which abstains from akusala, does not accompany the citta at

such a moment there isn’t anybody who can abstain.

The three abstinences which accompany cittas of the sense-sphere,

kåmåvacara cittas, arise only one at a time. However, when lokuttara

citta arises all three abstinences accompany the lokuttara citta and then

nibbåna is the object. Thus, the object of the abstinences which are

lokuttara is different from the object of the abstinences which

accompany cittas of the sense-sphere. The abstinences which are

lokuttara are the right speech, the right action and the right livelihood

of the supramundane eightfold Path. They fulfill their function of

path-factors by eradicating the conditions for wrong speech, wrong

action and wrong livelihood. The tendencies to these kinds of evil

conduct are eradicated at the subsequent stages of enlightenment. The

magga-citta (path-consciousness) as well as the phala-citta (fruition-consciousness),

which is the result of the magga-citta and immediately

succeeds it in the same process, are accompanied by all three

abstinences. Right action, right speech and right livelihood do not

accompany the mahå-kiriyacitta of the arahat. He has eradicated all

akusala and therefore there is no need for him to abstain from akusala.

Neither do the three abstinences accompany jhånacitta since the

jhånacitta is remote from sense impressions and there is thus no

opportunity to abstain from the defilements connected with sense

impressions.

Sammå-våyåma or right effort is another factor of the right path. It is

viriya cetasika (energy or effort) which strengthens and supports the

accompanying dhammas so that they are intent on kusala. When it

accompanies right understanding of the noble eightfold Path it is energy

and courage to persevere being aware of nåma and rúpa which appear.

When there is mindfulness of nåma and rúpa right effort has arisen

already because of conditions and it performs its function; there is no.133

need to think of making an effort. When we think, "I can exert effort, I

can strive", with an idea of self who can do so, there is akusala citta

which desires to reach the goal. There is wrong effort without our

noticing it. Right effort, when it accompanies right understanding,

supports the other factors of the eightfold Path, but we should

remember that it arises because of its own conditions, that it is non-self.

We read in the "Gradual Sayings" (Book of the Threes, Ch V, § 49,

Ardent energy):

Monks, on three occasions ardent energy is to be exerted. What three?

To prevent the arising of evil, unprofitable states not yet arisen; to cause

the arising of good, profitable states not yet arisen; to endure bodily

feelings that have arisen, feelings which are painful, sharp, bitter, acute,

distressing and unwelcome, which drain the life away. These are the

three occasions...

Now when a monk exerts himself on these three occasions, he is called

"strenuous, shrewd and mindful for making an end of dukkha."

This sutta reminds us that right effort has to accompany right

understanding, otherwise there cannot be the development of all the

conditioning factors leading to the end of dukkha. Since we are born,

there are conditions for sickness and pain, we cannot control our body.

Also at such moments right understanding can be developed. Then

there is right effort performing its function of supporting the associated

dhammas.

Sammå-sati, right mindfulness, is non-forgetfulness of what is

wholesome. Mindfulness arises with each sobhana citta. There is

mindfulness of the levels of dåna, síla and bhåvanå. When it

accompanies right understanding of the eightfold Path it is a factor of

the eightfold Path. When there is right mindfulness of the nåma or rúpa

which appears understanding of that reality can be developed.

Mindfulness does not last, it arises just for a moment, but it can be

accumulated. It cannot arise when there are no conditions for it.

There are different levels of mindfulness. There may not yet be

mindfulness of the level of satipaììhåna, mindfulness of nåma and rúpa

with the purpose of realizing them as non-self. However, there may be

mindfulness of another level, namely, mindfulness of akusala citta when

it has arisen and in this way one learns to see akusala as akusala. We

may have aversion towards someone else’s words and behaviour and we.134

are about to answer back. But when mindfulness arises and we see that

aversion is ugly, we may refrain from speaking unpleasant words. At

such a moment we are considerate of the other person’s feelings and we

do not think of ourselves. There can be more understanding of kusala as

kusala and of akusala as akusala through our own experience. When

sati arises we can be encouraged to go on developing all kinds of

wholesomeness and considering realities in our daily life. When we

learn to be less selfish and develop kindness, thoughtfulness and

patience, these wholesome qualities will support paññå to become

detached from the idea of self. The clinging to the idea of self has to be

combatted on all levels of our life. That is why all the wholesome

factors which have been accumulated, the sobhana cetasikas which are

included in saòkhårakkhandha, the khandha of "formations", need to

perform their function; they support one another and are together the

conditions for right mindfulness of nåma and rúpa. There should not be

clinging to reach the goal soon. The truth of anattå cannot be realized

unless there is the development of all the different kinds of kusala for

many lives.

Sammå-samådhi, right concentration, is another factor of the right Path.

Kusala citta which is intent on dåna, síla or bhåvanå is accompanied by

right concentration which conditions the citta and accompanying

cetasikas to focus on the object in the wholesome way. Right

concentration which is a factor of the eightfold Path has to accompany

right understanding of the eightfold Path. We read in the "Kindred

Sayings" (V, Mahå-vagga, XLV, Kindred Sayings on the Way, Ch III,

Perversion, § 8, Concentration) that the Buddha, while he was at

Såvatthí, said to the monks:

I will teach you, monks, the ariyan right concentration, which is

associated and equipped. Do you listen to it.

And what, monks, is the ariyan right concentration which is associated

and equipped? It is (associated with) right view, right thinking, right

speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and

right concentration.

Now, monks, the one-pointedness of mind which is equipped with these

seven limbs is called "the ariyan right concentration which is associated,

likewise which is equipped."

When paññå realizes the true nature of the nåma or rúpa which

appears, there is right concentration which assists the citta and the.135

accompanying cetasikas to experience the object. There is no need to

think of focusing on the nåma or rúpa which appears. As we have seen,

right concentration also conditions the sobhana citta and cetasikas it

accompanies by way of jhåna-condition.

When right understanding of nåma and rúpa is being developed the

other path-factors develop together with right understanding. Some

people believe that one should first develop síla and samatha before one

develops vipassanå, right understanding of nåma and rúpa. All kinds of

wholesomeness are beneficial and they can be developed along with

right understanding. However, there is no particular order according to

which different ways of kusala should be developed. It depends on the

accumulations of the individual, on natural decisive support-condition,

and on other conditions which type of kusala citta arises at a particular

moment. When right understanding of the eightfold Path arises the

object experienced at that moment is a nåma or rúpa which appears.

Paññå of the noble eightfold Path develops very gradually. When it is

more developed different stages of insight can arise. The first stage of

insight is knowing the difference between the characteristic of nåma

and of rúpa, and it is at a later stage of insight that their arising and

falling away can be realized. We may think of the stages of insight but

then longing for them is likely to arise and paññå will not develop.

Instead of thinking of the stages of insight we should consider realities

which appear now, at this very moment, so that we can have more

understanding of them. When seeing arises it sees all that appears

through the eyesense. Seeing only sees, it does not think or classify

what is seen as different things. When we know that there is a tree or a

house we classify different shapes, different images of a "whole" and

identify them. That is not seeing. However, if there had not been seeing

of all that appears through the eyes there could not be thinking about it.

It is the same in the case of hearing. When hearing hears sound, there is

no thinking, no classifying. However, since there is hearing there can be

thinking of the meaning of the sounds which are heard. There is so

much to be considered in daily life and we have hardly begun to do so.

When we consider realities which appear in daily life and begin to be

mindful of them, right understanding of the eightfold Path develops. It

develops because of conditions, we do not have to think of progress or

worry about the lack of progress. By the development of the noble

eightfold Path enlightenment can be attained and defilements can be

eradicated stage by stage. When the last stage of enlightenment, the

stage of the arahat, has been realized, all defilements are eradicated

and there will be the end of the cycle of birth and death..136

********.137

Chapter 16

Three Pairs of Conditions

There are six conditions which form three pairs and of each pair the two

conditions have characteristics opposite to each other. These conditions

are in part similar to previously mentioned conditions, but they each

manifest a different aspect. The three pairs are the following:

association-condition, sampayutta-paccaya

dissociation-condition, vippayutta-paccaya

presence-condition, atthi-paccaya

absence-condition, natthi-paccaya

disappearance-condition, vigata-paccaya

non-disappearance-condition, avigata-paccaya

With regard to association-condition, we read in the "Paììhåna" (II,

Analytical Exposition of Conditions, 19):

The four immaterial aggregates (nåma-kkhandhas) are mutually related

to one another by association-condition.

Association-condition, sampayutta-paccaya, only pertains to nåma, to

citta and its accompanying cetasikas. We read in the "Visuddhimagga"

(XVII, 94) about this condition:

Immaterial states (nåma dhammas) that assist by the kind of association

consisting in having the same physical basis (vatthu), the same object,

the same arising, the same cessation, are association-conditions,

according as it is said, "The four immaterial khandhas are a condition,

as association-condition, for each other" (Paììhåna, I, 6).

Seeing, for example, arises together with the associated cetasikas at the

same vatthu, the eye-base; seeing and the associated cetasikas

experience visible object through the eye-door and then they fall away

together. Citta and cetasikas condition one another by way of.138

association-condition, but they each perform their own funcion. Seeing-consciousness

cognizes visible object, it is the "chief" in knowing the

object. Feeling experiences the "flavour" of the object, saññå marks or

recognizes the object, and the other "universals"

143

perform their own

functions. The eyesense which is the base, the physical place of origin

(vatthu) for seeing, is also doorway (dvåra), that is, the means through

which citta and cetasikas experience the object. Only in the case of the

five pairs of sense-cognitions (seeing, hearing, etc.) the same rúpas,

namely the five senses, are both doorway and base. All the other cittas,

apart from the sense-cognitions, arise at the heart-base (hadaya-vatthu).

Each citta and its accompanying cetasikas arise together at the same

base, experience the same object and fall away together.

The citta and cetasikas which condition one another by way of

association-condition, sampayutta-paccaya, also condition one another

by way of conascence, sahajåta. However, association-condition is not

identical with conascence-condition. Conascence-condition also pertains

to rúpas which arise together and to nåma and rúpa which arise

together

144

. Association-condition, in contrast, only pertains to nåmas,

citta and cetasikas, which arise together and condition one another.

The teaching of association-condition reminds us that nåma and rúpa

are completely different from each other. This condition manifests the

close association between citta and cetasikas. Although in the planes

where there are five khandhas, nåma and rúpa, citta and cetasikas arise

together with rúpa, they are not associated with rúpa in the same way

as they are with each other. Feeling, for example, is nåma, it is closely

associated with citta and the other cetasikas. When lobha-múla-citta

accompanied by pleasant feeling enjoys a pleasant sound, the

accompanying cetasikas share the same object, and they are all affected

by the pleasant feeling, they are conditioned by it by way of association-condition.

Citta and the accompanying cetasikas are of great diversity

since each of them conditions the other nåma-dhammas by way of

association-condition. Kusala citta which is accompanied by sobhana

cetasikas is quite different from akusala citta which is accompanied by

akusala cetasikas. Some cetasikas can accompany cittas which are

kusala, akusala, vipåka or kiriya, but they are of a different quality in

each of these cases. Effort or energy (viriya), for example, which is

143 The seven cetasikas which arise with each citta, namely, contact, feeling,

perception (saññå), volition, concentration, life-faculty and attention.

144 See chapter 5.

kusala, such as energy for generosity or for awareness at this moment,.139

is quite different from energy which is akusala, such as wrong effort

accompanying attachment. Wrong effort arises, for example, when one

tries very hard to concentrate on particular objects of awareness in

order to attain a quick result of one’s practice.

As regards dissociation-condition, vippayutta-paccaya, we read in the

"Paììhåna" (II, Analytical Exposition of Conditions, 20):

The material states (rúpas) are related to the immaterial states (nåmas)

by dissociation-condition.

The immaterial states are related to the material states by dissociation-condition.

This condition is altogether different from association-condition, since it

pertains to nåma which conditions rúpa and to rúpa which conditions

nåma. The nature of nåma is completely different from the nature of

rúpa, they cannot condition one another by way of association. In the

case of dissociation-condition, the conditioning factor can arise at the

same time as the reality it conditions, it can arise before it or it can arise

after it. Thus, dissociation-condition can be conascent, prenascent or

postnascent. As regards conascent association-condition, the citta which

produces rúpa is related to that rúpa by way of conascent dissociation-condition.

When citta produces the rúpa which is speech, that rúpa

arises together with the citta, it is conditioned by citta by way of

conascence-condition and also by way of dissociation-condition.

In the case of prenascent dissociation-condition, the conditioning

factors, which are the sense-bases and the heart-base, have to arise

before the conditioned dhamma, the citta which is dependent on them;

thus, they condition citta by way of prenascent dissociation-condition.

As we have seen, the heart-base at the first moment of life arises at the

same time as the paìisandhi-citta

145

, it is conditioned by citta by way of

conascent dissociation-condition. During life, however, the heart-base

145 Both the heart-base and the paìisandhi-citta are produced by kamma at the

same time. See Ch. 5.

146 The rúpas which are the five sense objects have to arise prior to the citta

which is dependent on them, but they are not included in prenascent

dissociation-condition. They are external objects and it is obvious that these

rúpas are not associated (sampayutta) with the citta which experiences them.

See U Nårada, Guide to Conditional Relations, Ch II, 20 c, Base-Prenascence-Dissociation.

arises before the citta which is dependent on it

146

..140

When we feel pain we can be reminded that the body-base (bodysense)

is rúpa which is dissociated from painful feeling which is nåma; the

body-base conditions the painful feeling by way of prenascent

dissociation-condition. When nåma and rúpa are not distinguished from

each other we cling to a "whole" of mind and body, we take them for

"mine" or "self" and they seem to last. We keep on thinking of "my

sensitive body" and "my painful feeling". The body-base which is the

base for body-consciousness and the accompanying painful feeling, is

only an extremely tiny rúpa which arises and falls away. Painful feeling

does not last either, it falls away immediately. Thus, when we think of

our painful feeling it has gone already. When we learn through

satipaììhåna to distinguish the characteristic of nåma from the

characteristic of rúpa, we will be less inclined to think of a self who

feels pain. We should learn to understand dissociation-condition not

only in theory but also through the practice.

We read in the "Kindred Sayings" (V, Book VIII, Kindred Sayings about

Anuruddha, Ch II, § 10, Grievously afflicted):

On a certain occasion the venerable Anuruddha was staying near

Såvatthí in Dark Wood, being sick and grievously afflicted.

Now a number of monks came to visit the venerable Anuruddha, and on

coming to him... said this:

"Pray what is the venerable Anuruddha’s life, in that the painful feelings

that come upon him make no impression on his mind?"

"Friends, it is because I dwell with my mind well grounded in four

arisings of mindfulness. That is why the painful feelings that come upon

me make no impression on my mind. What are the four?

Herein, friends, I dwell in body contemplating body, being ardent,

self-possessed and mindful. So with regard to feelings... mind...

dhammas....

It is because I thus dwell, friends, that the painful feelings that come

upon me make no impression on my mind."

In the case of dissociation-condition which is postnascent, the

conditioning dhamma arises after the dhamma it conditions. We have

seen under the section on postnascence-condition, pacchajåta-paccaya

(Ch 9), that citta consolidates the rúpas of the body which have arisen

previously to it and have not fallen away yet. Citta also conditions these

rúpas by way of postnascent dissociation-condition. The citta which.141

conditions the rúpas of the body in this way is altogether different from

these rúpas, it is "dissociated" from rúpa.

With regard to presence-condition, atthi-paccaya, the conditioning

dhamma consolidates the conditioned dhamma by its presence. The

dhamma which conditions another dhamma in this way can arise at the

same time as the conditioned dhamma, it can arise prior to it or after it.

Conascent presence-condition pertains to nåma which conditions

another nåma, to nåma which conditions rúpa, and to rúpa which

conditions another rúpa. The same conditioning dhammas and

conditioned dhammas which are related by conascence-condition,

sahajåta-paccaya (Ch 5), are also related by conascent presence-condition.

As we have seen, citta and cetasikas are mutually related by

conascence-condition. The four great Elements are mutually related by

conascence-condition. The rebirth-consciousness and the heart-base

condition one another by conascence-condition. Moreover, the rebirth-consciousness

is conascence-condition for the other rúpas produced by

kamma at that moment. Citta which produces rúpa is conascence-condition

for that rúpa. The four great Elements are conascence-condition

for the "derived rúpas" (the rúpas other than the four great

Elements). The conascent presence-condition seems to be identical with

conascence-condition. However, the teaching of conascent presence-condition

reminds us of the fact that the reality which conditions

another reality which has arisen at the same time is still present, that it

has not fallen away yet.

As regards prenascent presence-condition, this pertains to the rúpas

which are bases, vatthus, and the rúpas which are the sense objects and

which condition the citta by way of object-condition. The rúpas which

are bases and objects condition citta after having arisen prior to it

147

. If

we merely think of a prenascent condition we may not know whether it

is still present when it conditions another reality. The teaching of

prenascent presence-condition shows us that, although the conditioning

reality has arisen previously, it is still present when it conditions

another reality. Visible object conditions seeing by way of prenascent

presence-condition. It has arisen before seeing, but when it is

experienced by seeing it is still present. The other cittas of the eye-door

process also experience visible object which is still present. Seeing arises

at the eye-base and it is conditioned by this rúpa by way of prenascent

147 Rúpa cannot at its arising moment condition citta since it is then too weak. It can only condition citta after it has arisen, thus, at

the moments of its presence. Therefore, it has to arise prior to the citta it conditions. Rúpa lasts as long as seventeen moments of

citta. See Appendix 1 for the process of cittas which experience a sense object.

presence-condition. Learning about the base and the object which.142

condition seeing helps us to understand the truth of anattå, non-self.

There is no self who can cause eye-base and visible object to arise at the

right moment, prior to seeing, and to condition seeing while they are

still present.

Presence-condition can also be postnascent. Citta consolidates rúpas of

the body which have previously arisen but have not fallen away yet by

way of postnascence-condition

148

and by way of postnascent presence-condition.

The teaching of postnascent presence-condition shows us

that citta and the rúpas of the body it consolidates are still present to

each other.The "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, Investigation Chapter, §

435, VII, d,e) mentions food and also physical life-faculty (rúpa-jívitindriya)

separately under presence-condition. We read:

Edible food is related to this body by presence-condition.

Physical life-faculty is related to kamma-produced rúpa by presence-condition.

After edible food has been taken and it has pervaded the body, the

nutritive essence it contains supports the internal nutritive essence

present in the groups of rúpa of the body, so that new groups of rúpa

can be produced

149

. When we consider the relation of nutrition to the

body it helps us to see that we go on living because of conditions. The

rúpa which is nutritive essence present in each group of rúpas of the

body can produce new rúpas, but it cannot do so without the support of

the nutritive essence present in food. Nutritive essence is one of the four

factors which can produce rúpas of the body, the other being kamma,

citta and temperature. Edible food conditions the rúpas of the body by

way of presence-condition, it supports and consolidates them.

As regards physical life faculty, rúpa-jívitindriya, this is always present

in the groups of rúpa produced by kamma. It does not occur in the

groups of rúpa produced by citta, heat or nutrition. Eyesense, for

example, is produced by kamma, and thus there must also be

jívitindriya together with it in that group of rúpas. The same is true for

the other senses. We read about life faculty in the "Visuddhimagga"

(XIV, 59):

148 See Ch 9.

149 Nutritive essence is one of the eight inseparable rúpas present in each group

of rúpas..143

The life faculty has the characteristic of maintaining conascent kinds of

matter

150

. Its function is to make them occur. It is manifested in the

establishing of their presence. And although it has the capacity

consisting in the characteristic of maintaining, etc., yet it only

maintains conascent kinds of matter at the moment of presence, as

water does lotuses and so on. Though dhammas arise due to their own

conditions, it maintains them, as a wet-nurse does a prince....

Past kamma is cause in the production of rúpa, but it is not present in

the same way as the other three factors which produce rúpa: citta,

temperature and nutrition. A deed, done in the past has fallen away,

but the intention or volition which motivated that deed is accumulated

from moment to moment. The force of past kamma is carried on and

therefore kamma still has the power to produce rúpa at present. Life

faculty takes as a "wetnurse" the place of kamma, the "mother", in

maintaining the life of the kamma-produced rúpas. Thus, life faculty

conditions these rúpas by way of presence-condition. Life faculty

maintains the life of the rúpas it arises together with in a group, it

consolidates them, and then it falls away together with them. However,

life faculty also plays its part in the successive arising of kamma-produced

rúpas throughout life. Life faculty performs its task of

consolidating kamma-produced rúpas from birth to death.

Life faculty is a condition for distinguishing kamma-produced rúpa from

other kinds of rúpa. We cling to the body which is alive, we cling to

eyesense and earsense and take them for self. They are only elements

maintained by life faculty, a kind of rúpa which is not self. They arise

only because there are the appropriate conditions for their arising.

When we lose eyesense or earsense there are no longer conditions for

the arising of these kamma-produced rúpas.

As regards absence-condition, natthi-paccaya, we read in the "Paììhåna"

(Analytical Exposiiton, iI, 23):

States, citta and cetasikas, which have just disappeared in contiguity,

are related to present states, citta and cetasikas, by absence-condition.

150 Life faculty arises together with other rúpas in a group and it maintains these

rúpas.

This condition is similar to proximity-condition, anantara-paccaya, and.144

contiguity-condition, samanantara-condition

151

. The citta which falls

away conditions the arising of the next one by way of proximity-condition

and contiguity-condition. However, the next citta can only

arise when the preceding one has fallen away, when it is absent.

Absence does not mean that the citta never was there; it has arisen and

fallen away, and then it conditions the arising of the subsequent citta

without any interval. There can only be one citta at a time which arises

and then falls away, but there is a sucession of cittas from birth to death

and then there is rebirth again. The cycle of birth and death continues

until all defilements have been eradicated and one finally passes away.

As regards the third pair of conditions, this is disappearance-condition,

vigata-paccaya, and non-disappearance-condition, avigata-paccaya.

Disappearance-condition is identical with absence-condition. Non-disappearance-

condition is identical with presence-condition. Identical

conditions have been given different names, "as an embellishment of

teaching to suit the needs of those who are teachable", the

"Visuddhimagga" (XVII, 100) states.

Disappearance-condition is the same as absence-condition, but the word

disappearance helps us to understand that the absence of the

conditioning dhamma does not mean that it never was. The preceding

citta, which is the conditioning dhamma, has just disappeared and thus

it can condition the arising of the subsequent citta, the conditioned

dhamma, without any interval. If we do not learn about the different

conditions under different aspects we may have misunderstandings

about the moments of their arising and falling away.

Non-disappearance-condition is the same as presence-condition. A

dhamma which has not yet disappeared can, while it is still present,

condition other dhammas. However, the conditioning dhamma cannot

stay on, it has to disappear. Just as in the case of presence-condition,

the conditioning dhamma can be prenascent, conascent or postnascent

to the dhamma it conditions by way of non-disappearance-condition.

*********

151 See Ch. 4..145.146

Chapter 17

Different Aspects of the Twentyfour Conditions

Summarizing the twentyfour conditions, they are:

root-condition (hetu-paccaya)

object-condition (årammaùa-paccaya)

predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya)

proximity-condition (anantara-paccaya)

contiguity-condition (samanantara-paccaya)

conascence-condition (sahajåta-paccaya)

mutuality-condition (aññamañña-paccaya)

dependence-condition (nissaya-paccaya)

decisive support-condition (upanissaya-paccaya)

prenascence-condition (purejåta-paccaya)

postnascence-condition (pacchåjåta-paccaya)

repetition-condition (åsevana-paccaya)

kamma-condition (kamma-paccaya)

vipåka-condition (vipåka-paccaya)

nutriment-condition (åhåra-paccaya)

faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya)

jhåna-condition (jhåna-paccaya)

path-condition (magga-paccaya)

association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya)

dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya)

presence-condition (atthi-paccaya)

absence-condition (natthi-paccaya)

disappearance-condition (vigata-paccaya)

non-disappearance-condition (avigata-paccaya)

The Buddha taught the conditions for each reality which arises. These

conditions are not abstractions, they occur now, in our daily life. What

we take for our mind and our body are only elements which arise

because of their appropriate conditions and are devoid of self. We.147

should often consider how our body comes into being. At the first

moment of our life kamma produced the heart-base and other rúpas

together with the rebirth-consciousness, and throughout our life kamma

continues to produce the heartbase and the sense-bases. Not only

kamma, but also citta, heat and nutrition produce rúpas of the body.

When we touch the body hardness appears, but this is only an element

which arises and falls away; nobody can cause its arising and it does not

belong to "our body". Through awareness of realities we will

understand more clearly that there are only elements which arise

because of their own conditions.

The different cittas which arise are dependent on many different

conditions. Cittas succeed one another without any interval. Seeing

arises time and again and after seeing has fallen away akusala cittas

usually arise. We cling to visible object, or we take it for a being or a

person. Defilements arise because they have been accumulated and they

are carried on, from moment to moment, from life to life. They are a

natural decisive support-condition, pakatúpanissaya-paccaya, for

akusala citta arising at this moment. Akusala citta has become our

nature, but if we see the disadvantage of akusala there are conditions

for the development of right understanding which can eradicate

akusala.

We are so used to the idea of seeing living beings, people and animals,

and we do not realize that we are deluded about reality because of our

accumulated ignorance and wrong view. When we watch T.V. and we

see people moving, we know that there are no people there. There are

rapidly changing projected images on a screen and this gives us the

illusion that there are people who are acting. These images are merely

different colours which appear through the eyesense and then we know

the meaning of what we see, we think of concepts on account of what

we see. The same happens in real life. There is seeing of visible object

and then we take what we see for people or things which last. Persons

are not real in the ultimate sense, no matter whether we see them on a

screen or in the world around us. The world with people, living beings

or things is real in conventional sense. The Buddha taught that there is

ultimate truth and conventional truth. We do not have to avoid thinking

of conventional truth, of concepts of people and things; we could not

lead our daily life without thinking of concepts and dealing with

concepts. We have to know what the different things and matters are

we are dealing with time and again. We have to pay attention to the

people we meet in our social life, we could not give assistance to them

without thinking of them in terms of concepts. When we develop.148

generosity we need to think of the gift we wish to give and of the

people to whom we are handing the gift. We could not develop

kindness and compassion without thinking of people. However, we

should know the difference between conventional truth and ultimate

truth.

Right understanding can be developed so that it can be known when a

paramattha dhamma, an ultimate reality, is the object of citta and when

a concept. When we know that there is this person or that thing, we

should realize that citta has arisen and knows at that moment a

concept. The citta which thinks of a concept is a paramattha dhamma,

the concept is not. In our daily life the object of citta is either a

paramattha dhamma or a concept. The cittas which experience sense

objects through the six doorways experience paramattha dhammas, but

if satipaììhåna is not developed it is not known that rúpas such as

visible object or sound are paramaììha dhammas. When satipaììhåna is

developed only a paramaììha dhamma is the object of awareness, not a

concept. Only paramaììha dhammas have the characteristics of

impermanence, dukkha and anattå, non-self, which should be realized

as they are, so that defilements can be eradicated. We may think of

concepts with kusala citta or with akusala citta. The Buddha and the

arahats also thought of concepts but they were not deluded about them,

they had no defilements on account of them. If we cling to concepts and

take them for things which really exist, which are permanent or self, we

are deluding ourselves. Clinging to concepts of person or self leads to

many other kinds of defilements, it leads to a great deal of sorrow.

When someone has lost a person who was dear to him he seems to live

with his memories of the person he loved, he lives with his dreams, with

an illusion. However, also when a beloved person is still alive we live

with our dreams; we take the person we believe we see, hear or touch

for reality. Someone who is in love with another person is actually in

love with his own concept of that person, with an idealized image he

has of that person. He does not have understanding of realities, of the

different cittas which arise because of their approriate conditions. When

he finds out that the image he has of another person is completely

different from reality he may experience disillusion. We may have

idealized images of other people and have expectations about them

which cannot be realised. We have learnt about nåma and rúpa and

about the conditions for their arising, but theoretical understanding is

not enough. We should consider ultimate realities in daily life. We tend

to forget that seeing is only a conditioned reality and that visible object

is only a conditioned reality, and therefore we are easily carried away.149

by sense impressions. It is beneficial to remember that seeing, hearing

and the other sense-cognitions are vipåkacittas, cittas which are results

of kamma. They arise at their appropriate bases, vatthus, which are also

produced by kamma. These bases have to arise before the sense-cognitions

and they condition these by way of prenascent dependence-condition.

Visible object and the other sense objects are rúpas which

also have to arise before the sense-cognitions and which condition these

by way of prenascent dependence-condition. Each reality which arises

does so because of a concurrence of different conditions which operate

in a very intricate way. We should not try to pinpoint all the different

conditions for the nåma and rúpa which appear. However, the study of

different conditions helps us to understand that there isn’t anybody who

can control realities, that realities arise because of their own conditions.

Nobody can cause the arising of seeing. There was also seeing in past

lives and there will be seeing in next lives. Seeing always sees visible

object. The object of seeing is always the same, but the thinking about

what is seen changes. We ourselves and other people were different

beings in past lives with different ways of thinking and we will be

different again in lives to come. We think with cittas conditioned by

root-condition, hetu-paccaya; these cittas can have akusala hetus or

sobhana hetus. On account of what is seen or heard there is happiness

or sorrow, but we are ignorant of realities. If there can be mindfulness

of one reality as it appears through one of the six doors, we will know

the difference between the moments of mindfulness of a reality and the

moments there is thinking of an image of a "whole", a person or a thing.

By being mindful of just visible object or sound we learn to distinguish

between the objects appearing through the five sense-doors and the

mind-door.

When there is right understanding of a reality as it appears one at a

time, we do not expect other people to behave according to an idealized

image. Someone may insult us, but if we can see that there is nobody

who can hurt us we will be less inclined to take unjust treatment

personally. When words of praise and blame are spoken to us, the

hearing is result produced by kusala kamma or akusala kamma. When

we think about the meaning of the words which were spoken to us

defilements tend to arise. We take what we hear very seriously and we

forget that what is experienced by hearing is only sound. Depending on

our accumulations we may be afflicted on account of what is heard, we

think about it for a long time. We are so affected by what others say or

do to us because of clinging to ourselves. Life is short, a moment of

experiencing an object is very short. If there were no citta which.150

experiences an object the world and everything in it would not appear.

The sotåpanna who has no more wrong view about person or self

understands that there are only conditioned nåma and rúpa, no people.

We forget that the citta which hears only hears sound, that in realty

there isn’t anybody’s voice, not my voice or someone else’s voice. When

we do not expect praise we will be less affected by blame. When we are

insulted we will be less resentful. We should learn to forgive. Forgiving

is a kind of dåna, generosity, and at such a moment there is kusala citta

instead of akusala citta. All kinds of wholesomeness should be

developed along with right understanding because the clinging to self

and the other defilements are deeply rooted. We have accumulated

conceit and we do not notice it when it arises. We find it difficult to

forgive others because conceit is obstructing. We keep on thinking,

"Why did he do this to me", because we find ourselves important.

Forgiving is a means to have less conceit. When we perform good deeds

we tend to cling to "our kusala", we want to be a "good person". As we

have seen, even kusala can be a natural decisive support-condition,

pakatúpanissaya-paccaya, for akusala

152

. While we study the conditions

we learn that there are many factors which can condition akusala citta.

Sense objects can condition akusala citta by way of object-condition,

object predominance-condition or object decisive support-condition

153

.

Akusala roots, hetus, condition akusala citta by way of root-condition,

hetu-paccaya

154

. When akusala citta arises there is not only one type of

citta but seven types since each javana-citta conditions the next one by

way of repetition-condition, åsevana-paccaya

155

. When lobha-múla-citta

arises it can be the object of lobha-múla-citta which arises later on, in

another process, because we like being attached. We accumulate

clinging from life to life; the lobha which arises now is a natural

decisive support-condition for lobha arising in the future. We may have

regret of our attachment and then attachment is the object of dosa-múla-

citta with regret. Since we have accumulated such a great deal of

defilements, our speech is produced more often by akusala citta than by

kusala citta. We cling to speech and take it for self and "mine".

However, as we have seen, it is citta which produces the rúpa which is

152 See chapter 8.

153 See chapters 2, 3 and 7.

154 See chapter 1.

155 See chapter 10.

speech while it arises at the same time. There is no self who decides to.151

speak and then orders the occurrence of speech. Citta which produces

rúpa conditions rúpa in many different ways: by conascence-condition

156

, by dependence-condition

157

, by nutriment-condition

158

, by faculty-condition

159

, by conascent dissociation-condition, by conascent

presence-condition and non-disappearance-condition

160

. Kusala citta or

akusala citta which produces rúpa, for example the rúpa which is

speech, conditions that rúpa by way of root-condition

161

. If citta is a

predominant factor among the four factors which can be conascent

predominance-condition

162

, it conditions the rúpa it produces by way of

conascent predominance-condition. The study of conditions makes it

clearer to us that our life consists of only fleeting phenomena which

arise because of their own conditions. We are reminded that there is no

self who could control the events of our life.

There are many factors which condition akusala now and also in the

future and by learning about these conditions we acquire more

understanding of the dangers in the accumulation of akusala. When we

have understood that akusala leads to dukkha we will not forget the

purpose of the study of Dhamma: the development of right

understanding which leads to the eradication of the clinging to the

wrong view of self and of all defilements.

As we have seen, wholesome qualities such as dåna, síla, mettå,

patience or detachment are "perfections" which have to be developed

for aeons along with right understanding in order for us finally to attain

156 See chapter 5.

157 See chapter 6.

158 See chapter 12. Citta is one of the three mental nutriments and as such it can

condition rúpa by way of nutriment-condition.

159 See chapter 13. Citta is mind faculty, manindriya, and as such it can condition

rúpa by way of faculty-condition.

160 See for these last three conditions chapter 16.

161 See chapter 1.

162 See chapter 3. Chanda, desire-to-do, viriya, energy, citta and vimaÿsa,

investigation of dhamma, are four factors which can be conascent predominance-condition.

Only javana cittas accompanied by at least two roots can be

predominance-condition.

163 The Buddha, when he was still a Bodhisatta, had to develop these perfections

for an endlessly long time in order to attain Buddhahood.

enlightenment

163

. All these wholesome qualities are perfections which.152

eventually lead to enlightenment only if the goal is the eradication of

defilements. If we merely think of the goal it is not enough. We should

not be forgetful at this moment and develop each kind of kusala for

which there is an opportunity. If there can be sati and paññå at this

moment we will realize that akusala is not beneficial and then there are

conditions for different kinds of kusala. They can arise alternately with

satipaììhåna. When akusala arises it can be realized as a conditioned

nåma, not self, and then there is kusala citta. There is no self who can

make kusala citta arise at will or who can choose which level of kusala

will arise. Right understanding of the benefit of kusala can condition its

arising. We may see the benefit of generosity, dåna. When we give away

useful things to others we should not expect any gain for ourselves, our

aim should be to have less attachment to things. Only when our aim is

having less defilements dåna is a perfection leading to enlightenment.

We should come to know the different cittas which arise in our life. To

what purpose do we study the conditions of realities? We may study

because we want to become "somebody with a great deal of kusala and

understanding", but then we have not understood the purpose of the

study of Dhamma. There should be less clinging to the idea of self, more

humility. Thus, we need the perfection of truthfulness (sacca), we need

to realize when kusala citta arises and when akusala citta; we should

not delude ourselves as to the different realities which appear. There

must be the firm resolution as to the right purpose we strive after: the

eradication of wrong view and other defilements. The perfections of

truthfulness and of resolution (adiììhåna) support the development of

the other perfections. All wholesome qualities condition one another.

The study of conditions helps us to have more understanding of the

factors which cause us to continue being in the cycle of birth and death.

Because of ignorance and clinging life has to go on and on, until there is

the elimination of the cause of rebirth. There is no self who chose to be

in the cycle of birth and death and there is no self who can eliminate

the cause of rebirth. Everything occurs according to conditions, but this

should not make us desperate. When we hear the Dhamma and

consider it, we learn how to develop the right conditions leading to the

end of dukkha.

In the "Kindred Sayings"(I, Sagåthå-vagga, V, Suttas of Sisters, § 9),

in the "Selå-sutta", we read that at Såvatthí Måra addressed Sister Selå:

Who was it that made the human puppet’s form?

Where is the maker of the human doll?.153

Whence, tell me, has the puppet come to be?

Where will the puppet cease and pass away?

Selå answered:

Neither self-made the puppet is, nor yet

By other wrought is this ill-plighted thing.

By reason of a cause it came to be,

By rupture of a cause it dies away.

Like a certain seed sown in the field,

Which, when it comes upon the taste of earth,

And moisture likewise, by these two grows,

So the five khandhas, the elements,

And the six spheres of sense

164

-- even all these,

By reason of a cause they came to be;

By rupture of a cause they die away.

Then Måra the evil one thought: "Sister Selå knows me", and sad and

sorrowful he vanished there and then.

******** Appendix 1

Sense-door process and mind-door process of cittas

When a sense object, which is rúpa, impinges on one of the sensedoors,

it is experienced by several cittas arising in a sense-door process.

Counting from the "past bhavanga", there are seventeen moments of

citta if the sense-door process of cittas runs its full course. Rúpa lasts as

long as seventeen moments of citta, and thus it falls away when that

process is over. The seventeen moments of citta are as follows:

1 atíta-bhavanga (past bhavanga)

164 Åyatanas.

2 bhavanga calana (vibrating bhavanga).154

3 bhavangupaccheda (arrest bhavanga, the last bhavanga

arising before the object is experienced through the

sense-door)

4 five-sense-door-adverting-consciousness

(pañcadvåråvajjana-citta), which is a kiriyacitta

5 sense-cognition (dvi-pañcaviññåùa, seeing-consciousness,

etc.), which is vipåkacitta

6 receiving-consciousness (sampaìicchana-citta), which is

vipåkacitta

7 investigating-consciousness (santíraùa-citta) which is

vipåkacitta

8 determining-consciousness (votthapana-citta) which is

kiriyacitta

9 javana-citta ("impulsion", kusala citta or akusala citta in the

case of non-arahats)

10 " "

11 " "

12" "

13" "

14" "

15" "

16 registering-consciousness (tadårammaùa-citta) which may or

may not arise, and which is vipåkacitta

17 registering-consciousness

A sense-door process does not always run its full course. When a rúpa

impinges on one of the senses it may happen that more than three

bhavanga-cittas pass before the sense-door adverting-consciousness

arises, and then the process cannot run its full course, but it is

interrupted earlier, since rúpa cannot last longer than seventeen

moments of citta. The rúpa may have fallen away before the

tadårammaùa-citta is due to arise, and in that case the process ends

with the javana-cittas. The process of cittas which experience rúpa may

also end its course with the votthapana-citta, determining-consciousness,

and then the javana-cittas do not arise. Or it may happen.155

that the "vibrating bhavanga", bhavanga calana, succeeds the past

bhavanga, atíta-bhavanga, but that the arrest bhavanga,

bhavangupaccheda (last bhavanga before the stream of bhavanga-cittas

is arrested and a sense-door process begins), does not arise and then

there cannot be any sense-door process. In that case there is a "futile

course".

After a sense object has been experienced through a sense-door it is

experienced through the mind-door, and then that object has just fallen

away. Before the mind-door process begins there are bhavanga-cittas

and the last two of these are specifically designated by a name. There

are the following cittas:

bhavanga calana (vibrating bhavanga)

bhavangupaccheda (which is in this case the mind-door through

which the cittas of the mind-door process will experience the

object)

mind-door-adverting-consciousness (mano-dvåråvajjana-citta)

which is kiriyacitta

7 javana-cittas

2 tadårammaùa-cittas (which may or may not arise).

After the mind-door process has been completed there are bhavanga-cittas

again.

*******

Appendix 2.156

The cittas which can be conascent-predominance-condition: the cittas

which perform the function of javana (impulsion) in the process of

cittas and which are accompanied by at least two roots, hetus.

Altogether there are fifty-five types of citta which can perform the

function of javana, but one of those is not accompanied by hetus,

namely, the smile-producing consciousness of the arahat (hasituppåda

citta). This is an ahetuka kiriyacitta which performs the function of

javana

165

, but since it is ahetuka, without roots, it cannot be

predominance-condition. The two types of moha-múla-citta, cittas

rooted in ignorance, cannot be predominance-condition either since

they have moha as their only root. Thus, out of the fiftyfive types of

citta which can perform the function of javana, there are fiftytwo types

of citta which can be predominance-condition. They are the following

types:

8 lobha-múla-cittas, cittas rooted in attachment

2 dosa-múla-cittas, cittas rooted in aversion

8 mahå-kusala cittas

8 mahå-kiriyacittas

5 rúpåvacara kusala cittas

5 rúpåvacara kiriyacittas

4 arúpåvacara kusala cittas

4 arúpåvacara kiriyacittas

4 magga-cittas (path-consciousness, lokuttara kusala citta)

4 phala-cittas (fruition-consciousness, lokuttara vipåkacitta)

Of the eight types of lobha-múla-cittas, four are accompanied by wrong

view, diììhi, four are without wrong view, four are accompanied by

pleasant feeling, four by indifferent feeling, four are unprompted, four

are prompted (induced by someone else or by oneself). Of the two types

of dosa-múla-citta, one type is unprompted and one type is prompted.

Of the eight types of mahå-kusala cittas (kusala cittas of the sense-sphere)

and of the eight types of mahå-kiriyacittas (kiriyacittas of the

arahat which belong to the sense-sphere), there are four out of the eight

165 Arahats do not laugh aloud, because they have no accumulations for laughing, they

only smile. When they smile it may be motivated by sobhana kiriyacitta (kiriyacitta

accompanied by wholesome roots) or by ahetuka kiriyacitta which is called hasituppåda-citta.

This is the only kind of ahetuka kiriyacitta which can perform the function of

javana.

types which are accompanied by paññå, and four which are.157

unaccompanied by paññå, four which are accompanied by pleasant

feeling and four which are accompanied by indifferent feeling, four

which are unprompted, and four which are prompted.

The five types of rúpåvacåra cittas (kusala cittas and kiriyacittas of the

arahat) are jhånacittas corresponding to the five stages of rúpa-jhåna,

and the four types of arúpåvacara cittas (kusala cittas and kiriyacittas of

the arahat) are jhånacittas corresponding to the four stages of arúpa-jhåna.

All jhåna-cittas are accompanied by paññå. When jhåna is being

developed there have to be one of the four predominant factors which

condition the accompanying dhammas by way of predominance-condition.

There are four types of magga-cittas, lokuttara kusala cittas

experiencing nibbåna, which correspond to the four stages of

enlightenment. The four types phala-cittas are lokuttara vipåkacittas,

the results of the magga-cittas. All lokuttara cittas are accompanied by

paññå. The magga-citta is succeeded immediately by phala-citta within

the process of cittas during which enlightenment is attained; the phala-citta

is the only type of vipåkacitta which performs the function of

javana, and thus it can be predominance-condition.

Thus, there are fiftytwo types of cittas performing the function of

javana which can be conascent-predominance-condition. The factors

chanda and viriya, when they are predominance-condition, can arise

only with these types of javana-cittas. As regards the factor vimaÿsa,

investigation of Dhamma, this is paññå cetasika and, as we have seen,

this does not arise with all sobhana cittas of the sense-sphere; all

jhånacittas and all lokuttara cittas, however, are accompanied by

paññå. Vimaÿsa can only be conascent-predominance-condition when

it accompanies those javana-cittas which are associated with paññå.

Vimaÿsa is paññå cetasika, but when it has the conditioning force of

conascent predominance-condition it is called vimaÿsa.

*******.158

Appendix 3.

Appendix to Ch 10, Repetition-Condition.

The javana-cittas which can be repetition-condition are the following:

8 lobha-múla-cittas, cittas rooted in attachment

2 dosa-múla-cittas, cittas rooted in aversion

2 moha-múla-cittas, cittas rooted in ignorance

8 mahå-kusala cittas

8 mahå-kiriyacittas

1 hasituppåda-citta (ahetuka kiriyacitta, smile producing citta of

the arahat)

5 rúpåvacara kusala cittas

5 rúpåvacara kiriyacittas

4 arúpåvacara kusala cittas

4 arúpåvacara kiriyacittas

In the process when jhåna is attained there are after the mind-door

adverting-consciousness, the mano-dvåråvajjana-citta, first kåmåvacara

cittas which are, in the case of non-arahats, mahå-kusala cittas which

experience the meditation subject through the mind-door. These cittas

are:

parikamma or preparatory consciousness

upacåra, which means proximity or access

anuloma, conformity or adaptation

gotrabhú, change-of-lineage, which overcomes the sense sphere

Each one of these is repetition-condition for the next one and the last

mahå-kusala citta in that process, the gotrabhú, conditions the jhåna-citta

by way of repetition-condition.

In the process during which enlightenment is attained, there are, after

the mano-dvåråvajjana-citta, first mahå-kusala cittas accompanied by

paññå which clearly see the reality appearing at that moment as

impermanent, dukkha or anattå. These mahå-kusala are:

parikamma, preparatory-consciousness.159

upacåra, proximity or access

anuloma, conformity or adaptation

gotrabhú or change-of-lineage

Each of these mahå-kusala cittas is repetition-condition for the next one.

The last mahå-kusala-citta, the "change-of lineage", arising before the

magga-citta, conditions the magga-citta by way of repetition-condition

but the magga-citta itself is not repetition-condition for the phala-citta.

The phala-citta is not repetition-condition either.

Thus, there are 29 kåmåvacara cittas, cittas of the sense-sphere, and 18

jhånacittas which can be repetition-condition. The lokuttara kusala

cittas, magga-cittas, and the lokuttara vipåkacittas, phala-cittas, are

excluded.

**********