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The Conditionality of Life in the Buddhist Teachings.

An outline of the Twenty four Conditions as taught in the

Abhidhamma.

By Nina van Gorkom

 

 

Chapter 3

Predominance-Condition (Adhipati-Paccaya)

We read in the"Paììhåna" (II, Analytical Exposition, 3) about two kinds

of predominance-condition:

conascent-predominance (sahajåtådhipati)

object-predominance (årammaùådhipati)

As to conascent-predominance-condition, the conditioning factor

(paccaya) which has a dominating influence over the realities it

conditions (paccayupanna dhammas) is conascent with these, that is, it

arises together with them. A phenomenon does not arise alone, it arises

simultaneously with other phenomena. Citta does not arise alone, it is

accompanied by cetasikas; citta and cetasikas arise together and fall

away together.

There are four factors which condition other realities they arise together

with by way of conascent-predominance-condition, and these are:

chanda (desire-to-do)

44

viriya (energy or effort)

citta

vimaÿsa (investigation of Dhamma, paññå cetasika)

Three of these factors, namely, chanda, viriya and vimaÿsa are

cetasikas and one is citta, but not every citta can be a predominant

factor as we shall see. It is due to these four factors that great and

difficult enterprises can be accomplished. Whenever we wish to

accomplish a task, one of these four factors can be the leader, the

predominance-condition for the realities they arise together with and

also for the rúpa which is produced at that moment by citta

45

. Only

one of these four factors at a time can be predominant. For example,

when chanda is foremost, the other three factors cannot be

predominant at the same time. Chanda, viriya and citta can be

predominant in the accomplishment of an enterprise or task both in a

wholesome way and in an unwholesome way, whereas vimaÿsa,

44 Chanda is a cetasika which arises with cittas of the four jåtis, but it does not arise with

every citta. It accompanies kusala citta as well as akusala citta. It is translated as wish-to-do,

desire or zeal.

45 As we have seen, citta is one of the factors which produces rúpas of the body.

investigation of Dhamma, which is a sobhana cetasika, beautiful.32

cetasika, can only be predominant in a wholesome way.

The conascent predominant factors operate at the moments of javana-cittas

(kusala cittas or akusala cittas in the case of non-arahats)

46

and

these javana-cittas have to be accompanied by at least two roots

(hetus), otherwise they would be too weak for the occurrence of

predominance-condition. For instance, the two types of moha-múla-citta

(citta rooted in ignorance) which are: moha-múla-citta accompanied by

uddhacca (restlessness) and moha-múla-citta accompanied by kukkucca

(doubt), have moha as their only root; they have no strength to

accomplish a task with one of the predominant factors as

predominance-condition.

When one undertakes works of art, such as painting, or one applies

oneself to music, one is bound to do so with lobha-múla-citta (citta

rooted in attachment). Lobha is attached to the object it experiences,

but it cannot accomplish an enterprise, it is not a predominant factor.

Chanda, zeal or wish-to-do, which accompamies lobha-múla-citta can be

a predominant factor in the accomplishment of one’s undertakings, it

conditions the citta and the other cetasikas it accompanies by way of

conascent-predominance. When we are generous and like to give

something away, chanda, which is kusala in this case, may be

predominant. There are also alobha, non-attachment, and adosa,

non-aversion or kindness, but these wholesome roots cannot be

predominant in the accomplishment of a generous deed. It is chanda

which can be predominant in the accomplishment of the generous deed,

for example, when one chooses the gift and hands it to someone else.

Viriya can be a predominant factor in the accomplishment of our tasks.

Preparing food may be part of our daily chores, and sometimes, when

we like to do this, chanda may be predominant. At other times we may

find it an effort but we may still want to cook. Then we may prepare

food with viriya as predominant factor. At such moments there is likely

to be lobha, but viriya is foremost in the accomplishment of cooking.

Citta can be a predominance-condition for the accompanying cetasikas,

but not all cittas can be predominance-condition. As we have seen,

predominance-condition can operate only when there are javana-cittas

accompanied by at least two roots. Seeing, for example, is an ahetuka

46 Javana literally means: "running through",impulsion; the javana-cittas arise in the

sense-door processes of cittas and in the mind-door process, and they "run through the

object". There are usually seven javana-cittas in a process of cittas, and these are kusala

cittas or akusala cittas. Arahats do not have kusala cittas or akusala cittas, they have

kiriyacittas which perform the function of javana.

citta (without roots), it can only perform the function of seeing and it.33

cannot be predominance-condition. Moha-múla-citta, which has moha

as its only root cannot be predominance-condition. Lobha-múla-citta

and dosa-múla-citta have each two roots (respectively moha and lobha,

and moha and dosa), they can be predominance-condition; then they

have a dominating influence over the accompanying cetasikas in the

fulfilling of a task or enterprise in the unwholesome way. All mahå-kusala

cittas (kusala cittas of the sense-sphere) and all mahå-kiriyacittas

(of the arahat), always have the two roots of alobha, non-attachment,

and adosa, non-aversion, and they can have in addition the root which

is paññå, thus, they have two or three roots and therefore they can be

predominance-condition. When we accomplish a task with cittas which

are resolute, firmly established in kusala, the citta can be the

predominance-condition. The jhånacittas (kusala jhånacittas and kiriya

jhånacittas of the arahat) and the lokuttara cittas are always

accompanied by paññå, they have three roots, and thus they can be

predominance-condition

47

.

Lobha cetasika is not a predominant factor, but lobha-múla-citta, citta

rooted in attachment, can be predominance-condition, as we have seen.

For example, when there is wrong view and wrong practice, the citta

arising at that moment is firm and steady in this way of akusala, and

then that citta is predominance-condition for the accompanying

dhammas. That type of citta is rooted in moha and lobha and thus it is

conditioned by these two roots by way of root-condition. When we

abstain from slandering, the citta which is firm in kusala can be

predominant, and in that case chanda, wish-to-do, and viriya, effort, are

not predominant.

With regard to investigation of the Dhamma, vimaÿsa, this is paññå

cetasika. When we listen to the Dhamma, consider it and are mindful of

realities, vimaÿsa can condition the accompanying citta and cetasikas

by way of predominance-condition.

The rúpas produced by citta can also be conditioned by way of

predominance-condition. Body intimation (kåya-viññatti) and speech

intimation (vací-viññatti ) are rúpas produced by citta

48

. When we

present food to the monks, citta which is firm in kusala can be the

predominant factor. While we, at such an occasion, show by our

47 For details about the cittas which can be conascent-predominance-condition, see

Appendix 2.

48 Body-intimation is a kind of rúpa which conditions gestures and other movements of

the body by which we express our intentions. Speech intimation is a rúpa which

conditions speech sound by which we express our intentions.

gestures our intention to give, there are rúpas which are body.34

intimation, and these are conditioned by kusala citta by way of

predominance-condition. When we slander the citta which is firm in

akusala may be predominance-condition, and then the rúpa which is

speech intimation is conditioned by the akusala citta by way of

predominance-condition.

For the attainment of jhåna the predominant factors are necessary

conditions, and in that case they have to be sobhana. It is extremely

difficult to develop samatha to the degree of jhåna, and without the

conditioning force of one of the four predominant factors one would not

be able to attain jhåna. We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (III,24):

...If a bhikkhu obtains concentration, obtains unification of mind, by

making zeal (chanda) predominant, this is called concentration due to

zeal. If... by making energy predominant, this is called concentration

due to energy. If... by making (natural purity of) citta predominant, this

is called concentration due to citta. If... by making inquiry (vimaÿsa)

predominant, this is called concentration due to inquiry (Vibhanga

216-219). So it is of four kinds as predominance.

There are different degrees of the predominant factors. When these four

factors have been developed to a high degree, they have become "bases

of success", iddhipådas, and then they can lead to the acquisition of

supernatural powers (Visuddhimagga, Ch XII, 50-53)

49

. The rúpas

produced by citta which exercises such powers are also conditioned by

way of predominance-condition.

In the development of vipassanå, right understanding of nåma and rúpa,

one also needs the "four bases of success" for the realisation of the

stages of insight wisdom and for the attainment of enlightenment. The

arising of awareness and understanding of realities is beyond control, it

is due to conditions. We need patience and courage to persevere

studying and considering nåma and rúpa, and to be aware of them in

daily life. For the accomplishment of our task, the development of right

understanding, the factors which are predominant condition are

indispensable. The study of the predominance-condition can be a

reminder that right understanding is dependant on different kinds of

conditions, that it does not depend on a "self". We read in the "Kindred

Sayings" (V, Mahå-vagga, Book VII, Kindred Sayings on the Bases of

49 Powers developed by means of samatha, such as walking on water, knowing one’s

former lives, etc.

Psychic Power (Bases of Success), Ch I, 2, Neglected):.35

By whomsoever, monks, the four bases of psychic power are neglected,

by them also is neglected the ariyan way that goes on to the utter

destruction of dukkha. By whomsoever, monks, the four bases of

psychic power are undertaken, by them also is undertaken the ariyan

way that goes on to the utter destruction of dukkha....

It is then explained what the four bases of psychic power (iddhipådas)

are. They arise together with right concentration and with right effort.

Right effort in vipassanå is right effort to be aware of whatever reality

appears at this moment.

As we have seen, there are two kinds of predominance-condition:

conascent-predominance-condition and object-predominance-condition.

In the case of conascent-predominance-condition the

conditioning factor arises simultaneously with the conditioned

dhammas, but this is not so with object-predominance-condition. As

regards object-predominance-condition (årammaùådhipati-paccaya),

not every object citta experiences is object-predominance-condition. An

object which is predominance-condition is highly regarded by citta and

the accompanying cetasikas so that they give preponderance to it. The

predominant object is the conditioning factor (paccaya), and the citta

and cetasikas which experience that object are the conditioned

dhammas (paccayupanna dhammas). Object-predominance-condition is

different from object-condition. For example, when we like the colour of

a certain cloth, but we do not particularly want to possess it, that object

conditions the lobha-múla-citta by way of object-condition. When we

like that cloth very much and want to possess it, that object conditions

the lobha-múla-citta by way of object-predominance-condition. We then

give preponderance to that object.

Certain objects cannot be object-predominance-condition, because they

are undesirable. Among them is the type of body-consciousness which is

akusala vipåka, accompanied by painful feeling

50

. The two types of

dosa-múla-citta (one type unprompted and one type prompted, c.f.

Appendix 2) cannot be object-predominance-condition. They are

accompanied by unpleasant feeling and thus they are not desirable. The

two types of moha-múla-citta, one associated with doubt and one

50 Body-consciousness is vipåkacitta which experiences pleasant or unpleasant tangible

objects. When it is kusala vipåka it is accompanied by pleasant bodily feeling and when it

is akusala vipåka it is accompanied by unpleasant bodily feeling.

associated with restlessness, cannot be object-predominance-condition,.36

they are not desirable. The akusala cetasikas which accompany dosa-múla-

citta and moha-múla-citta are not desirable either, thus, they

cannot be object-predominance-condition. One could not esteem regret,

jealousy or stinginess, akusala cetasikas which may accompany dosa-múla-

citta.

We read in the "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation Chapter,

Conditions: Positive, 1, Classification Chapter, Predominance, 10, §

413):

... After having offered the offering, having undertaken the precept,

having fulfilled the duty of observance, (one) esteems and reviews it.

(One) esteems and reviews (such acts) formerly well done...

Wholesomeness can be object-predominance-condition for kusala citta

which esteems and considers the wholesome deed which was done. In

this case one gives preponderance to that object. When we have been

generous we can recollect our generosity and then there can be the

arising again of kusala cittas.

We read in the same section (§ 414) that dåna, síla and jhåna can be

object-predominance-condition also for akusala citta. When we have

performed generous deeds with kusala citta we may find that citta

highly desirable, we may be pleased with our own generosity. There

may be attachment and wrong view on account of our good deeds. If we

do not know the different conditions for kusala citta and akusala citta

we may take for kusala what is actually akusala. Thus, kusala can be

object of clinging, it can even be object-predominance-condition for

clinging. Anything can be object of clinging, except Nibbåna. As we

have seen (in Ch 2), Nibbåna and the eight lokuttara cittas which

experience it cannot be object-condition for lobha-múla-citta; neither

can they be object-predominance-condition for lobha-múla-citta.

We read in the same section of the "Paììhåna" (§ 416):

Learners esteem and review (lower) Fruition. (They) esteem and review

Nibbåna. Nibbåna is related to change-of-lineage, purification

51

, Path

by predominance-condition.

51 Change-of-lineage or adaptation is the mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå

preceding the lokuttara citta of the sotåpanna and purification is the mahå-kusala citta

accompanied by paññå preceding the lokuttara citta of the three higher stages of

enlightenment..37

Nibbåna is object-predominance-condition for the eight lokuttara cittas

which experience it, and it can also be object-predominance-condition

for mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå and mahå-kiriyacitta (of

the arahat) accompanied by paññå. Lokuttara cittas can be object-predominance-

condition for the cittas which arise after the attainment

of enlightenment and which review, consider with paññå, the lokuttara

cittas which arose.

Akusala can condition akusala citta by way of object- predominance-condition.

We read in the "Paììhåna", in the same section, § 415:

(One) esteems, enjoys and delights in lust. Taking it as estimable object,

arises lust, arises wrong views. (One) esteems, enjoys and delights in

wrong views. Taking it as estimable object, arises lust, arise wrong

views.

If someone does not see the danger of lobha, he considers it the goal of

his life to have as much enjoyment as possible. We like to enjoy nature,

to buy beautiful cloths, to eat delicious food, to hear nice music. We like

to enjoy all the pleasant things of life. It is natural that we enjoy

pleasant things, but we can also develop right understanding of the

different cittas which arise in daily life.

Pleasant sense objects are desirable and they can condition lobha-múla-citta

by way of object-predominance-condition. It may happen that we

have many duties to do but that we are so carried away by the sound of

music that we leave our duties and play the piano or go to a concert.

Then we give preponderance to sound and this is object-predominance-condition

for lobha-múla-citta. This happens time and again in our daily

life. We should not pretend that we do not have lobha, we should come

to know our inclinations as they are. When lobha has arisen already

because of its own conditions we should not ignore it, but we can

develop right understanding of it. When there is mindfulness of lobha

when it appears it can be known as a conditioned nåma, not self.

We read in the "Paììhåna" (in the same section, § 416):

(One) esteems, enjoys and delights in the eye... ear... nose... tongue...

body... visible object... sound... smell... taste... tangible object...

(heart-)base... Taking it as estimable object, arises lust, arises wrong

views....38

The rúpas with characteristics which can be directly experienced can be

object-predominance-condition. Rúpa which is a desirable object can be

object-predominance-condition only for lobha-múla-citta. Rupa cannot

condition kusala citta by way of object-predominance-condition, only by

way of object-condition. For example, we want to give beautiful flowers

to someone else. Then rúpa, such as colour or odour, can condition

kusala citta by way of object-condition, rúpa is the object experienced

by kusala citta. That rúpa cannot be object-predominance-condition for

kusala citta, one does not give preponderance to it, one is intent on

giving it away. The kusala one has performed, such as generosity, may

be object-predominance-condition for kusala citta, then there are

conditions for more kusala cittas. Rúpa in itself does not condition

further development of kusala, that is conditioned by other factors. The

development of kusala is conditioned by the kusala one accumulated in

the past, and also by the factors of chanda (wish-to-do), viriya (effort),

citta and vimaÿsa (investigation of the Dhamma), which are conascent-predominance-

conditions.

We should find out to which objects we give preponderance. We should

know whether they condition kusala citta or lobha-múla-citta. It is

important to realize in which way objects can condition different cittas.

When lobha-múla-citta arises the object which it experiences may

condition that citta only by way of object-condition or it may condition

it by way of object-predominance as well. At different moments

different conditions play their part in our life. Kusala can condition

wrong view or conceit by way of object-predominance-condition. We

may attach great importance to the notion of "my kusala" with wrong

view. Or we may have a high esteem of our good deeds with conceit,

while we compare ourselves with others.

When we are attached to colourful pictures our attachment may be

object-predominance-condition for lobha-múla-cittas; we may be quite

absorbed in our enjoyment and forgetful of the development of right

understanding. At other moments we may devote time to the study and

the consideration of the Dhamma so that right understanding can

develop. The Dhamma we hear may condition mahå-kusala citta

accompanied by paññå by way of object-predominance-condition. We

read in the "Lesser Discourse on the Destruction of Craving"(Middle

Length Sayings I, no. 37) that Sakka, lord of the devas, had inclinations

to mental development, but when there were conditions to enjoy

sense-pleasures, he was absorbed in those. We read that Sakka asked

the Buddha, who was staying near Savatthí in the Eastern Monastery, to

what extent a monk comes to be completely freed by the destruction of.39

craving. The Buddha answered:

As to this, lord of devas, a monk comes to hear: "It is not fitting that

there should be inclination towards any (mental-physical) conditions

52

." If, lord of devas, a monk comes to hear this, that "It is not fitting

that there should be any inclination towards any (mental-physical)

conditions", he knows all the conditions thoroughly, he knows all the

conditions accurately; by knowing all the conditions accurately,

whatever feeling he feels, pleasant or painful or neither painful nor

pleasant, he abides viewing impermanence, he abides viewing

dispassion, he abides viewing stopping, he abides viewing renunciation

in regard to those feelings.

We then read that when he is so abiding he grasps after nothing in the

world and attains arahatship. Moggallåna wanted to find out whether

Sakka had grasped the meaning of the Buddha’s words and to this end

he appeared among the "devas of the Thirtythree". Sakka, who was

equipped and provided with five hundred deva-like musical

instruments, was amusing himself. When he saw Moggallåna coming he

stopped those instruments and welcomed Moggallåna. Moggallåna then

asked Sakka to repeat the Buddha’s words about freedom by the

destruction of craving. Sakka answered:

I, my good Moggallåna, am very busy, there is much to be done by me;

both on my own account there are things to be done, and there are also

(still more) things to be done for the devas of the Thirtythree. Further,

my good Moggallåna, it was properly heard, properly learnt, properly

attended to, properly reflected upon, so that it cannot vanish quickly....

Sakka invited Moggallåna to come and see the delights of his splendid

palace. Moggallåna thought that Sakka lived much too indolently and

wanted to agitate him. By his supernatural power he made the palace

tremble, shake and quake. Moggallåna asked Sakka again to repeat the

Buddha’s words and then Sakka did repeat them.

We may recognize ourselves in Sakka when he tries to find excuses not

to consider the Dhamma. We also are inclined to think at times that we

52 In the "Papañcasúdaní ", the commentary to this sutta, it is stated that these are the

five khandhas, the twelve sense-fields (åyåtanas), the eighteen elements.

are too busy to develop right understanding of realities, to be aware of.40

nåma and rúpa over and over again, until they are thoroughly

understood. When Moggallåna agitated Sakka there were conditions for

him to give preponderance to the development of right understanding.

Our life is likewise. When we listen to the Dhamma or read the

scriptures there can be conditions to give preponderance to the

consideration of the Dhamma and the development of right

understanding. When there is mindfulness of nåma and rúpa as they

appear one at a time, they can eventually be known as they are:

elements which are non-self.

*********.41

Chapter 4

Proximity-condition (Anantara-paccaya) and Contiguity-condition

(Samanantara-paccaya)

We may wonder why life goes on and on. Yesterday there were seeing,

hearing and thinking, and today these realities occur again. Experiences

occur time and again because there are conditions for them. Proximity-condition

and contiguity-condition are conditions for cittas to arise

again and again, in succession. Each citta with its associated cetasikas

falls away and conditions the arising of the succeeding citta with its

associated cetasikas. The next citta cannot arise if the preceding citta

has not fallen away, there can be only one citta at a time. It is difficult

to know the succession of the different cittas since they arise and fall

away very rapidly. Attachment may arise in a sense-door process and

then in the mind-door process

53

, but, so long as there is no clear

understanding of different realities, it seems that attachment can last

for a while. In reality there are different cittas arising and falling away,

succeeding one another because of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition.

Anantara (proximity) means: without interval. Anantara and

samanantara (contiguity) are different in name, but the same in

meaning (Visuddhimagga, XVII, 74)

54

. The preceding citta is the

condition, paccaya, for the arising of the subsequent citta which is the

conditioned dhamma (paccayupanna dhamma). The conditions of

proximity and of contiguity do not pertain to rúpa. Rúpa can be

produced by four factors: by kamma, by citta, by food and by

temperature or heat. Rúpas arise and then fall away and so long as

53 See Appendix 1.

54 "Saÿ" in samanantara can mean right or proper. Citta conditions, after it has ceased,

the arising of the subsequent citta, without interval; citta is anantara-paccaya. Moreover,

citta is samanantara-paccaya; cittas follow upon one another in the proper way, in

accordance with a fixed order in their subsequent arising. The rebirth-consciousness, for

example, is not followed by seeing, but by the first bhavanga-citta in that life. The

relation of samanantara-paccaya has been taught in addition to anantara paccaya for the

benefit of the listeners who might have misunderstandings. Samanantara is sometimes

translated as immediate contiguity.

55 In some cases there can be temporary suspension of citta, and then only rúpas arise

and fall away. Those who have developed samatha up to the fourth stage of arúpa-jhåna,

the "Sphere of Neither Perception Nor Non-Perception " and who have also realized the

stage of enlightenment of the anågåmí, non-returner, and of the arahat, can attain

there are conditions new rúpas are produced by the four factors

55

..42

The rebirth-consciousness, paìisandhi-citta, which is vipåkacitta,

conditions the arising of the succeeding citta, the first bhavanga-citta in

that life, which is of the same type of citta as the rebirth-consciousness.

The bhavanga-cittas which arise throughout life, in between the sense-door

and the mind-door processes of cittas, are the same type of citta

56

. When there is birth in an unhappy plane of existence, such as the

animal plane, the rebirth-consciousness is akusala vipåkacitta. Because

of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition bhavanga-citta succeeds

the rebirth-consciousness and this citta is also akusala vipåkacitta. The

bhavanga-citta is in accordance with that kind of birth, it could not be

changed into kusala vipåkacitta. When one is born with mahå-vipåkacitta

57

acccompanied by the three sobhana hetus of alobha,

non-attachment, adosa, non-aversion, and amoha or paññå, the

succeeding bhavanga-citta is of the same type of citta as the rebirth-consciousness.

The bhavanga-citta is conditioned by the rebirth-consciousness

by way of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition.

The person who is born with three sobhana hetus has the possibility to

attain enlightenment in that life if paññå is developed. Because of

proximity-condition and contiguity-condition the potentialities one is

born with are carried on from moment to moment.

Besides bhavanga-cittas, there are also cittas arising in sense-door

processes and mind-door processes which experience objects impinging

on the six doors. In the course of life we experience happiness and

"cessation" nirodha-samåpatti. This is the temporary suspension of citta, cetasikas and

mind-produced rúpa. Rúpas produced by kamma, temperature and nutriment, in the case

of human beings, and rúpas produced by kamma and temperature, in the case of beings

in the Brahma plane, continue to arise. When they emerge from cessation, the first citta

which arises is the phala-citta, fruition-consciousness (lokuttara vipåkacitta), which has

nibbåna as its object. For the anågåmí it is the phala-citta of the anågåmí and for the

arahat it is the phala-citta of the arahat. This citta is conditioned by the preceding citta,

the arúpa-jhånacitta of the fourth stage which occurred prior to cessation. Thus, the force

of proximity is not destroyed by the temporary suspension of citta.

It is the same in the case of rebirth in the asañña-satta plane, the plane where there is

only rúpa. When the lifespan in that plane is over and there is rebirth in the sensuous

plane, the rebirth-consciousness is conditioned by the dying-consciousness which

occurred prior to rebirth in the asañña-satta-plane. Thus, the force of proximity is not

destroyed.

56 Bhavanga-cittas do not experience the objects which impinge on the six doors and

which are experienced by the cittas arising within processes. Bhavanga-cittas experience

the same object as the rebirth-consciousness, and this object is the same as experienced

shortly before the dying-consciousness in the previous life. The object which the

bhavanga-citta experiences does not appear to us, we do not know it.

57 Kusala vipåkacitta of the sense sphere, accompanied by two or three sobhana hetus,

beautiful roots.

sorrow, but we could not have such experiences if the rebirth-.43

consciousness had not arisen and if this citta was not succeeded by the

following cittas, bhavanga-cittas and cittas arising in sense-door

processes and mind-door processes. Our life is an unbroken series of

cittas, succeeding one another without interval.

The cittas which perform their functions in the different processes

58

succeed one another in a regular order. The sense-door adverting-consciousness,

the first citta which arises in a sense-door process, is

conditioned by the last bhavanga-citta arising before the sense-door

process starts, by way of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition.

The sense-door adverting-consciousness experiences an object different

from the object the bhavanga-citta experiences; it adverts to the object

which impinges on one of the senses and is then succeeded by the

sense-cognition (dvipañca-viññåùa, seeing, hearing, etc.) which

experiences that object. There is seeing and hearing time and again,

also now. Thus, we know that the conditions of proximity and

contiguity still continue. The sense-cognition, such as seeing or hearing

does not last, it falls away and conditions the arising of the next citta,

the receiving-consciousness, sampaìicchana-citta, which "receives" the

object. This citta is succeeded by the investigating-consciousness,

santíraùa-citta, which investigates the object, and this again by the

determining-consciousness, votthapana-citta which "determines" the

object. The votthapana-citta, after it has determined the object, is, in the

case of non-arahats, followed by akusala javana-cittas or kusala javana-cittas.

There are usually seven types of javana-cittas in a process of

cittas, performing the function of impulsion or "running through" the

object. The javana-cittas may be succeeded by the registering-consciousness,

tadårammaùa-cittas, vipåkacittas which "hang on" to the

object. Each of these cittas is conditioned by the preceding citta by way

of proximity and contiguity, and in its turn, each of them conditions the

arising of the next citta in these ways. After the sense-door process has

been completed there are bhavanga-cittas again and then the object can

be experienced by cittas arising in a mind-door process. The mind-door

adverting-consciousness which adverts to the object through the mind-door,

is the first citta of the mind-door process. It is succeeded by

javana-cittas (in the case of non-arahats akusala cittas or kusala cittas),

and then registering-consciousness, tadårammaùa-cittas may arise. The

cittas arising within the different processes arise according to a

particular order which is unchangeable; they succeed one another

58 See Appendix 1 for these processes. One cannot understand the conditions of

proximity and contiguity if one does not know about the processes of citta.

without any interval and this is conditioned by proximity-condition and.44

contiguity-condition. The javana-cittas, for instance, cannot arise if, in

the sense-door process, the determining-consciousness and, in the

mind-door process, the mind-door adverting-consciousness has not

arisen. This reminds us that there is no self who can cause the arising of

particular cittas.

When the object which is experienced is rúpa, such as visible object or

sound, it lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta

59

. Seventeen

moments is still extremely short. The experience of visible object and

sound seem to occur at the same time, but in reality several processes of

cittas which experience these different objects have occurred. If insight

has not been developed one does not realize the falling away of citta

and the arising of the succeeding citta. We find the experience of sense

objects very important, but we should remember that these experiences

are fleeting, insignificant. Only through satipaììhåna the understanding

can be developed which realizes the arising and falling away of realities.

We are so absorbed in sense objects that we neglect the development of

satipaììhåna although we have opportunity for it, since we are born in

the human plane where we can hear the Dhamma.

The relations of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition prevail

throughout the cycle of birth and death with unbroken continuity.

Because of the uninterrupted succession of cittas past lives condition the

present life and evenso the present life will condition future lives. Each

citta falls away completely, but it conditions the succeeding citta.

Tendencies and inclinations we had in former lives have been

accumulated from moment to moment up to the present. Since each

citta which falls away conditions the succeeding citta we can

accumulate skills, knowledge and wisdom. It is because of proximity-condition

and contiguity-condition that we can remember past

experiences, events which occurred many years ago.

Kammas, good and bad deeds, committed in the past are accumulated

from moment to moment, from life to life, and they can produce their

appropriate results later on, when it is the right time. Because of kamma

which produces results, pleasant or unpleasant objects are experienced

through the senses by cittas which arise within processes. We see

pleasant and unpleasant objects. Seeing is vipåkacitta, produced by

kamma, but the eye-door adverting-consciousness which precedes

seeing in the eye-door process conditions seeing by way of proximity-59

See Ch 2. When that rúpa arises at the moment the past bhavanga arises, it still lasts

sixteen moments more and then the process of cittas which experience it can run its full

course. A process, however, can be interrupted earlier. For details see Appendix 1.

condition and contiguity-condition. If there were no eye-door adverting-.45

consciousness, seeing could not arise. Cittas arise and fall away

succeeding one another continuously because of conditions and we

never know what the next moment will bring. We may be surprised that

we quite suddenly have to suffer great pain or an accident. We are

surprised, because we do not see proximity-condition and contiguity-condition

which occur all the time within the cycle of birth and death.

The rebirth-consciousness, paìisandhi-citta, is vipåkacitta produced by

kamma. Kamma causes us to be born in particular circumstances, in a

particular family, where there will be favorable conditions or

unfavorable conditions to do good deeds and to develop right

understanding. The rebirth-consciousness is preceded by the dying-consciousness,

the last citta of the preceding life. Because of proximity-condition

the dying-consciousness is succeeded without any interval by

the rebirth-consciousness. If we understand the proximity-condition

occurring now, at this moment, we will also see that the last citta of this

life conditions the first citta of the following life. We read in the

"Paììhåna" (Feeling Triplet, Vedanå-ttika, VII, Investigation Chapter,

Conditions: Positive. Classification Chapter, Proximity 7, § 45,2):

State associated with pleasant feeling is related to state associated with

neither painful nor pleasant feeling by proximity-condition.

Death-consciousness associated with pleasant feeling is related to

rebirth-consciousness associated with neither painful nor pleasant

feeling by proximity-condition.

When rebirth-consciousness is accompanied by indifferent feeling, it

may be kusala vipåkacitta, but it can also be akusala vipåkacitta and in

that case there is rebirth in an unhappy plane. This passage of the

"Paììhåna" reminds us that we are in the cycle of birth and death. After

this life there will be another life, until one has attained arahatship. The

dying-consciousness of the arahat is not proximity-condition for rebirth-consciousness.

So long as we are in the cycle of birth and death and we

have not attained the state of the sotåpanna (who has realized the first

stage of enlightenment), we can still be subject to an unhappy rebirth.

In the "Kindred Sayings" (I, Sagåthå-vagga, Ch VII, Brahmin Suttas, 2,

The Lay Adherents, § 2, Udaya) we are reminded of rebirth with its toils

and sufferings, again and again, until arahatship has been attained. We

read that the Buddha, on three consecutive days, came with his bowl to

Udaya who filled it with rice. After the third time Udaya critized the

Buddha for coming again and again. The Buddha answered:.46

Again, again is seed in furrow sown,

Again, again the cloud-king sends down rain,

Again, again the ploughmen plough the fields,

Again, again comes corn into the realm,

Again, again do beggars go their round,

Again, again do generous donors give,

Again, again when many gifts are given,

Again, again the donors find their heaven.

Again, again the dairy-folk draw milk,

Again, again the calf its mother seeks,

Again, again we tire and toil anew,

Again, again the slow wits seek rebirth,

Again, again comes birth, and dying comes,

Again, again men bear us to the grave.

When once the man of broad insight that Path

Which brings no new becoming does attain,

Then is he no more born again, again.

We then read that Udaya expressed his appreciation of the Buddha’s

words and took refuge in the Triple Gem. He wanted to become a

layfollower of the Buddha.

********.47

Chapter 5

Conascence-Condition (Sahajåta-Paccaya) and Mutuality-

Condition (Aññamañña-Paccaya)

The Påli term sahajåta in sahajåta-paccaya means: that which has arisen

together. In the case of conascence-condition, a conditioning dhamma,

paccaya dhamma, on arising, causes the conditioned dhammas,

paccayupanna dhammas, to arise simultaneously with it. In the case of

proximity-condition and contiguity-condition, the conditioning dhamma

arises previously to the conditioned dhamma, but in the case of

conascence-condition the conditioning dhamma and the conditioned

dhamma arise at the same time. We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (XVII,

77):

A dhamma which, while arising, assists (another dhamma) by making it

arise together with itself is a conascence-condition, as a lamp is for

illumination...

For the explanation of conascence-condition the "Visuddhimagga" uses

the simile of an oil lamp: when its flame appears the light, colour and

heat are produced simultaneously with it. Light, colour and heat

produced by the flame are not present before the flame appears nor

after it dies out

60

.

We read in the "Paììhåna" (II, Analytical Exposition, 6, Conascence-condition)

about different classes of phenomena, nåma and rúpa, to

which conascence-condition pertains. We read with regard to the first

class:

The four immaterial aggregates (nåma-kkhandhas) are mutually related

to one another by conascence-condition.

Viññåùakkhandha, citta, cannot arise without the three other nåma-kkhandhas,

namely: vedanåkkhandha (feeling), saññåkkhandha

(remembrance or perception) and saòkhårakkhandha (formations, the

other cetasikas). Citta is different from cetasika, it does not feel or

60 See "Guide to Conditional Relations" Part I, p. 23, by U Nårada.

remember; citta is the "chief" in cognizing an object but it needs the.48

accompanying cetasikas which share the same object and which each

have their own task while they assist the citta. Citta cannot arise

without cetasika and cetasika cannot arise without citta, they condition

one another by conascence-condition. Citta needs for example the

cetasika phassa, contact, which contacts the object so that citta can

cognize it. Thus, citta is conditioned by phassa by way of conascence.

Phassa is conditioned by citta and the accompanying cetasikas by way

of conascence. When phassa accompanies akusala citta it is also akusala

and when it accompanies kusala citta it is also kusala.

Each of the four nåmakkhandhas can be taken in turn as conditioning

dhamma or as conditioned dhamma because they are mutually related

by way of conascence. The "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, Ch VII,

Investigation Chapter. Conditions: positive, 1, classification chapter,

Conascence 9, § 419) expresses this as follows:

Faultless state (kusala dhamma) is related to faultless state by

conascence-condition.

One faultless khandha is related to three (faultless) khandhas by

conascence-condition; three khandhas are related to one khandha by

conascence-condition; two khandhas are related to two khandhas by

conascence-condition.

This pertains only to the four nåmakkhandhas. The same is said with

regard to the four nåmakkhandhas which are akusala (faulty).

When lobha-múla-citta, citta rooted in attachment, arises, the four

nåmakkhandhas are akusala and they condition one another by way of

conascence. Lobha-múla-citta has as roots moha and lobha, and these

roots condition the accompanying dhammas by way of conascence-condition

and also by way of root-condition. Phenomena can condition

other phenomena by way of several relations. Lobha-múla-citta may be

accompanied by pleasant feeling. Feeling is conditioned by citta and the

accompanying cetasikas, and when it accompanies akusala citta it is

also akusala. Pleasant feeling which is akusala has a characteristic

which is quite different from pleasant feeling which is kusala.

It is beneficial to learn more about conascence-condition because this

condition pertains to our life now. Since citta and cetasikas condition

one another mutually while they arise together, there is such a great

variety of cittas. When one, for example, develops understanding of

nåma and rúpa, there is kusala citta accompanied by paññå and by

other sobhana cetasikas. That citta is also accompanied by sati which is.49

mindful of the reality which appears, by "applied thinking", vitakka

61

,

which "touches" the object so that paññå can understand it, by non-attachment,

alobha, and by other cetasikas which each perform their

own function. They all mutually support one another while they arise

together. There are many degrees of paññå and as paññå grows the

accompanying cetasikas develop as well. Alobha, for example, is still

weak in the beginning, but as paññå develops there will also be more

detachment from realities.

Citta and cetasikas can be of four "jåtis" (classes), they can be kusala,

akusala, vipåka or kiriya. Some cetasikas can accompany cittas of the

four jåtis, but in each case they are completely different since they are

conditioned by the citta and the other cetasikas they accompany.

Manasikåra, attention, for example, is a cetasika which arises with each

citta, but it is quite different when it accompanies lobha-múla-citta

which clings to the object which is experienced, or when it accompanies

kusala citta which is intent on generosity or on the observance of síla.

Viriya, energy or effort, can be energy exerted in an unwholesome way,

such as effort to steal, or it can be energy for what is wholesome. Thus,

there is a great variety of citta and cetasikas which mutually support

one another. When we come to understand more the different

conditions for the realities which arise it will help us to see that there is

no self who experiences objects, likes or dislikes them, or develops right

understanding.

As to the second class of phenomena to which conascence-condition

pertains, we read in the "Paììhåna" (Analytical Exposition, 6):

The four great primaries (Great Elements, mahå-bhúta rúpas) are

mutually related to one another by conascence-condition.

The Elements of Earth (solidity), Water (cohesion), Fire (temperature)

and Wind (motion) always arise together and condition another. Rúpas

of the body and rúpas of materiality outside arise and fall away in

groups or units, and in each group there have to be the four Great

Elements. Solidity is the foundation of the other three elements,

temperature maintains the other three elements, cohesion holds them

61 Vitakka cetasika arises with many cittas, but not with every citta. When it accompanies

akusala citta it is wrong thinking and when it accompanies kusala citta it is right

thinking. As a factor of the eightfold Path it is called "right thinking".

62 Motion is not movement in conventional sense; this rúpa has the characteristic of

motion or pressure. It is sometimes translated as oscillation or vibration. It causes

together and the element of motion

62

acts as their distension.50

(Visuddhimagga XI, 109).

The "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, Investigation Chapter, § 419, VII, c )

states as to the way the four great Elements condition each other that

one "great primary" conditions the other three, three condition one, and

two condition two.

There is such a great variety of sense objects we experience every day,

but they are only different compositions of rúpa elements. When we

touch a table or a piece of cloth there is only tangible object, appearing

as hardness or softness, which is composed of different rúpa elements.

Hardness, softness, heat, cold, motion or pressure can be experienced

by touch

63

. We think that tangible object can last, but it is only rúpa

which arises and falls away all the time.

As to the third class of phenomena to which conascence-condition

pertains, the paìisandhi-citta arising in the five-khandha planes (where

there are nåma and rúpa) and the rúpa which is the heart-base for the

paìisandhi-citta condition one another by way of conascence.

In the planes where there are nåma and rúpa each citta needs a physical

base (vatthu) or place of origin. The vatthu for seeing is the eye-base,

and each of the sense-cognitions (the five pairs, pañca-viññåùas, of

which one is kusala vipåkacitta and one akusala vipåkacitta) has its

corresponding base. The cittas other than the sense-cognitions have the

heart-base as their vatthu. During life the rúpa which is the vatthu has

to arise before the citta which is dependant on it. However, at the

moment of rebirth it is different. When the paìisandhi-citta arises

kamma produces the heart-base at the same time as the paìisandhi-citta

which is the mental result of kamma, vipåkacitta, and this citta arises at

the heart-base. In the planes where there are nåma and rúpa the

paìisandhi-citta and the heart-base cannot arise without one other. They

condition one another by way of conascence.

The heart-base is not the only rúpa produced by kamma at the first

moment of our life. Kamma produces at that moment three groups of

rúpa: one group with the heart-base, one group with the bodybase and

one group with sex, masculinity or femininity. In each of these groups

distension, and this can be noticed, for example, when there is pressure of air in the

stomach or abdomen.

63 The element of cohesion cannot be experienced by touch.

64 The four Great Elements and in addition: colour, odour, flavour and nutritive essense.

These eight are present in each group of rúpas.

65 This rúpa is present in all groups produced by kamma, not in groups produced by

citta, temperature or nutrition. It only arises with rúpas of the body, not with external

the eight inseparable rúpas

64

and life-faculty (jívitindriya)

65

are.51

included as well, thus there are three groups of ten rúpas produced by

kamma at the moment of our birth. Without the paìisandhi-citta these

groups could not arise at the moment of birth. Thus, the paìisandhi-citta

is conascence-condition for the three groups of rúpas produced by

kamma at that moment, but only the heart-base among these rúpas is in

turn conascence-condition for the paìisandhi-citta, this citta could not

arise without the heart-base.

As to the fourth class of phenomena to which conascence-condition

pertains, citta and its accompanying cetasikas condition the rúpa

produced by them by way of conascence-condition.

Citta produces rúpa at its arising moment. Each moment of citta can be

divided into three extremely short periods (Visuddhimagga XX, 26): the

moment of its arising (uppåda khaùa), the moment of presence (tiììhi

khaùa) and the moment of dissolution (bhaòga khaùa). Citta can only

produce rúpa at its arising moment; at the moment of its presence and

of its dissolution it is too weak to do so. Sixteen types of citta do not

produce rúpa. They are: the paìisandhi-citta, the sense-cognitions (the

five pairs of seeing, hearing, etc.), the four arúpåvacara vipåkacittas (of

immaterial jhåna, arising in the arúpa-brahma-planes where there is no

rúpa) and the dying-consciousness, cuti-citta, of the arahat. Apart from

these cittas, all the other cittas produce rúpa

66

. Akusala cittas and

kusala cittas can, for example, produce bodily intimation (gestures by

which we express our intentions) and speech intimation. Akusala cittas

and kusala cittas can produce bodily features by which our moods are

expressed, such as regret, anger or enjoyment. Dosa can produce frowns

and lobha can produce laughter. When we decorate our house, when

we dress ourselves or when we use cosmetics, do we realize which types

of citta produce rúpas while we move our hands? We may not even

realize that lobha-múla-cittas produce rúpas at such moments. We

cannot force ourselves to lead the life of a monk, a life without sense-pleasures,

but it is beneficial to know the different types of citta which

arise. Therefore, it is instructive also for laypeople to read the "Vinaya".

The "Vinaya" is a faithful mirror and a constant reminder of our

defilements. We read in the "Vinaya" that it is forbidden to monks to

decorate dwellings and objects they use, or to beautify themselves, since

that is indulgement in sense-pleasures. The text of the "Vinaya" (Book

of Discipline V, Cullavagga, Ch V, 106) states:

materiality.

66 Rúpas of the body are produced by four factors: by kamm, citta, nutrition and

temperature..52

Now at that time the group of six monks anointed their faces, they

rubbed (paste) into their faces, they powdered their faces with chunam,

they smeared their faces with red arsenic, they painted their limbs, they

painted their faces, they painted their limbs and faces. People spread it

about, saying, "Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses"....

We then read that the Buddha did not allow it and said that it would be

an offence of wrong-doing if monks would do any of those things.

The "Book of Analysis"(Vibhaùga, second Book of the Abhidhamma, Ch

17, Analysis of Small Items, § 854) reminds us that it is vanity to

decorate objects or one’s body:

Therein, what is "personal vanity"? Decoration of the robes, decoration

of the alms-bowl, decoration of the abode; the decoration, beautifying,

taking pride in, adorning, cupidity, state of cupidity, act of personal

vanity, personal vanity for this putrid body and for the external

requisites. This is called personal vanity.

Laypeople still have conditions for a life with sense-pleasures, but right

understanding of the realities which arise can be developed. Also while

one adorns oneself there are nåma and rúpa and there can be

awareness of them. If we know that there is, in such cases, rúpa

conditioned by citta by way of conascence, it can help us to understand

nåma and rúpa as conditioned elements.

Citta and cetasikas which produce rúpa at their arising moment

condition rúpa by way of conascence, but mind-produced rúpa does not

reciprocally condition citta by way of conascence. The arising of citta

does not depend on mind-produced rúpa.

As to the fifth group to which conascence-condition pertains, the four

Great Elements condition the derived rúpas (upådåya rúpas) by way of

conascence, but the derived rúpas do not reciprocally condition the four

Great Elements by way of conascence. There are twentyeight kinds of

rúpa in all, and the "derived rúpas" are the twentyfour kinds of rúpa

other than the four Great Elements of solidity, cohesion, temperature

and motion. The derived rúpas are dependant on the four Great

Elements, they cannot arise without them. When sound, for instance,

arises, it needs solidity, cohesion, temperature and motion. We are

attached to the body and to our possessions, but these are only rúpas,

the four Great Elements and derived rúpas in different compositions,.53

arising because of conditions.

There is a sixth group of phenomena mentioned in the same section of

the "Analytical Exposition"of the "Paììhåna" concerning conascence-condition,

but this is actually a further explanation of the relation of the

heart-base to the citta which arises at the heart-base. Throughout life

the heart-base has to arise before the citta which is dependant on it.

Also the sense-bases which are the physical bases for the sense-cognitions

such as seeing or hearing, which arise throughout life, have

to arise previously to the cittas which are dependant on them. Rúpa, at

its arising moment is too weak to be base, and therefore it can only

after it has arisen perform the function of base. The moment of rebirth

is the first moment of life and therefore the situation is different;

kamma produces the heart-base and the paìisandhi-citta which is

dependant on it simultaneously. At that moment the paìisandhi-citta

and the heart-base condition one another by way of conascence. The

"Paììhåna" (II, Analytical Exposition, 6, VI) states about the relation

between heart-base and the citta which is dependant on it as follows:

The material states (rúpa-dhammas) are sometimes related to the

immaterial states (nåma-dhammas) by conascence-condition and are

sometimes not related by conascence-condition.

Some of the phenomena which are related by conascence-condition are

also related by mutuality-condition (aññamañña-paccaya). They

condition one another reciprocally while they arise simultaneously.

Since the realities involved condition one another mutually, each of

them can be in turn conditioning dhamma (paccaya) and conditioned

dhamma (paccayupanna dhamma). We read in the "Visuddhimagga"

(XVII, 78):

A state that assists by means of mutual arousing and consolidating is a

mutuality-condition, as three sticks of a tripod give each other

consolidating support.

Three sticks which are leaning against each other at the upper ends

mutually support one another. Evenso the realities involved in

mutuality-condition condition one another reciprocally. There are three

classes of phenomena to which this condition pertains.

As to the first class, the four nåma-kkhandhas which condition one.54

another by way of conascence, also condition one another by way of

mutuality. They support and consolidate one another.

As to the second class, the four Great Elements which are related to one

another by conascence-condition are also related to one another by way

of mutuality-condition. Solidity, cohesion, temperature and motion

which arise together condition one another reciprocally and give each

other mutual support.

As to the third class, the paìisandhi-citta with the accompanying

cetasikas and the heart-base arising simultaneously condition one

another by way of mutuality. As we have seen, at the moment of rebirth

kamma conditions, apart from the group of rúpas with the heart-base,

two other groups, namely the group with the body-base and the group

with sex. There is no relation of mutuality between the latter two

groups and the paìisandhi-citta.

The other classes of phenomena which are related by conascence are

not related by mutuality. The rúpa produced by citta is conditioned by

that citta by way of conascence, but, as we have seen, there is no

relation of mutuality. That rúpa does not, in its turn, condition citta, it

does not consolidate citta by way of mutuality-condition. The four Great

Elements are conascent-condition for the derived rúpas, but there is no

relation of mutuality; the derived rúpas do not consolidate the four

Great Elements by way of mutuality-condition. Visible object or sound,

which are derived rúpas, cannot arise without the four Great Elements,

but the four Great Elements are not dependant on these rúpas. Thus we

see that phenomena which are related by mutuality also are related by

conascence, but that not all phenomena which are related by

conascence are also related by mutuality.

*******.55

Chapter 6

Dependence-Condition (Nissaya-Paccaya)

The dependence-condition, nissaya-paccaya, refers to realities which

condition other realities by being their support or foundation. We read

in the "Visuddhimagga" (XVII, 79) about dependence-condition, which

is here translated as support-condition:

A state (dhamma) that assists in the mode of foundation and in the

mode of support is a support-condition, as the earth is for trees, as

canvas is for paintings, and so on.

This type of condition refers to phenomena which are conascent (arising

together) with the phenomena they condition as well as to phenomena

which have arisen previously to the phenomena they condition.

We read in the "Paììhåna" (Analytical Exposition, 8) as to the

dependence-condition for conascent phenomena:

1. The four immaterial khandhas are mutually related to one another by

dependence-condition.

2. The four great Elements are mutually related to one another by

dependence-condition.

3. At the moment of conception, nåma and rúpa are mutually related to

one another by dependence-condition.

4. States, citta and cetasikas, are related to mind-produced rúpa by

dependence condition.

As to the first class, the four nåma-kkhandhas are mutually related to

one another by conascent dependence-condition: citta and cetasikas

always arise together and they are depending on one another. Citta

cannot arise without cetasikas and cetasikas cannot arise without citta.

As we have seen, they are also related to one another by way of

conascence, sahajåta, and by way of mutuality, aññamañña.

The teaching of dependence-condition, nissaya paccaya, reminds us that

citta and cetasikas need one another to perform their functions. Citta is

the "chief" in cognizing an object, and cetasikas share the same object

while they perform each their own function. Feeling, vedanå, and.56

remembrance, saññå, are cetasikas which arise with each citta. Citta is

different from cetasika, it does not feel or remember; citta cognizes or

knows the object. Through awareness and right understanding

developed in vipassanå the difference between citta and cetasika can

gradually be known. Without awareness and right understanding there

will only be theoretical knowledge of the way citta and cetasika

condition each other by dependence-condition.

When lobha-múla-citta arises it is dependent on the accompanying

cetasikas. The roots of moha and lobha condition that citta and the

other cetasikas by way of root-condition, hetu-paccaya, and also by way

of dependence-condition, nissaya-paccaya. Ignorance and attachment

are a support for the lobha-múla-citta. There are also chanda, desire-to-do,

and viriya, energy, accompanying the lobha-múla-citta. Chanda can

be predominance-condition, adhipati-paccaya, while one tries to acquire

the things one clings to. Lobha-múla-citta just cognizes the desirable

object which presents itself, it needs chanda to accomplish something,

such as acquiring the object. Viriya can also be predominant when one

tries to obtain something. When kusala citta arises it is dependent on

alobha, non-attachment, and adosa, non-aversion, and also on other

cetasikas. It needs for example chanda and viriya for the performance of

dåna, the observance of síla or the development of right understanding.

Each of the accompanying cetasikas which performs its own task

supports citta and conditions it by way of dependence-condition.

As to the second class, the four great Elements which are the rúpas of

solidity, cohesion, temperature and motion, condition one another by

way of conascent dependence-condition, sahajåta-nissaya-paccaya. They

are a support for one another. Solidity cannot arise without cohesion,

temperature and motion, and this is also true for the other three great

Elements. They also condition one another by way of conascence-condition,

sahajåta-paccaya, and mutuality-condition, aññamañña-paccaya.

As to the third class, at the moment of birth the paìisandhi-citta and the

hadaya-vatthu (heart-base) are mutually related to one another by way

of dependence. In the planes where there are five khandhas, nåma and

rúpa, kamma produces the rúpa which is heart-base at the same time as

the paìisandhi-citta which arises at the heart-base. The paìisandhi-citta

and the heart-base support each other and they cannot arise without

each other. They are also related by way of conascence, sahajåta and by

way of mutuality, aññamañña.

As to the fourth class, citta and cetasikas are related to mind-produced.57

rúpa by way of dependence-condition. As we have seen, citta is one of

the four factors which produce rúpas of the body. Citta and its

accompanying cetasikas are a support to the rúpa produced by them,

but that rúpa does not reciprocally condition the citta and cetasikas by

way of dependence. When we, for example, speak kind words, the rúpa

which is speech intimation is conditioned by kusala citta and

accompanying cetasikas by way of dependence-condition. If there are

no conditions for the arising of kusala citta it is impossible to speak

kindly.

As to the fifth class, the four great Elements condition the derived rúpas

(upåda rúpas, the rúpas other than the four great Elements

67

) by way

of dependence-condition, but the opposite does not apply. Odour is a

derived rúpa. It cannot arise by itself, it needs solidity, cohesion, heat

and motion. When odour is experienced through the nose, only odour

appears, the other rúpas which arise together with it in one group are

not experienced. Visible object which is experienced through the eyes

and sound which is experienced through the ears need the four great

Elements as a foundation, they are conditioned by them by way of

dependence.

Some phenomena which condition other phenomena by way of

dependence have arisen previously to the phenomena they condition

and, at that moment, they have not fallen away yet. These are the rúpas

which serve as vatthus or bases for the cittas they condition. They

cannot be base at their arising moment since they are then too weak.

Rúpa can only at the moment of its presence perform the function of

vatthu

68

. Thus, it must be prenascent, arisen previously to the citta it

conditions by dependence-condition. As we have seen, only at the

moment of birth the heart-base arises together with the paìisandhi-citta

and serves as its base, but throughout life it arises previously to the

cittas for which it serves as base and it conditions them by way of

prenascent dependence-condition

69

. We read in the "Paììhåna" (

Analytical Exposition, 8. Dependence Condition):

67 There are twentyeight types of rúpa in all. Apart from the four great Elements there

are twentyfour rúpas which are the derived rúpas. Among them are for example colour,

odour, flavour, nutritive essence, the eye-base, the other sense-bases and the heart-base.

68 Rúpa lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta. After its arising moment it lasts

sixteen more moments, fifteen moments of its presence and then there is its dissolving

moment.

69 The vatthus are during life for the cittas they condition a base-prenascence-dependence-

condition, vatthu-purejåta-nissaya-paccaya.

(vi )Eye-base is related to eye-consciousness element and its associated.58

states by dependence-condition.

( vii) Ear-base is related to ear-consciousness element and its associated

states by dependence-condition.

(viii) Nose-base is related to nose-consciousness element and its

associated states by dependence-condition.

(ix) Tongue-base is related to tongue-consciousness element and its

associated states by dependence-condition.

(x) Body-base is related to body-consciousness element and its

associated states by dependence-condition.

The five sense-bases have to arise previously to the corresponding

sense-cognitions they condition by way of dependence-condition. The

previously arisen eyebase is related to seeing-consciousness and the

accompanying cetasikas by way of prenascent dependence-condition.

Without eyesense, which serves as physical base and doorway, seeing

could not arise. The eyebase itself is also conditioned, it is produced by

kamma, and it lasts only seventeen moments of citta, which is extremely

short. We cling to the notion of "my eyes", or "my ears", but they are

only rúpas produced by kamma which fall away immediately. The

following sutta reminds us of the fact that whatever reality arises

because of conditions has to be impermanent. Conditioned nåma and

rúpa cannot last. Eyesense and seeing, earsense and hearing are

impermanent and not self. We read in the "Kindred Sayings" (IV,

Saîåyatana vagga, Third Fifty, Ch 4, The Chapter on Devadaha, § 139,

The personal, by way of condition):

The eye, monks, is impermanent. Whatever condition, whatever cause

there be for the appearance of the eye, that also is impermanent. Owing

to impermanence the eye has come into being, monks. How could the

eye be permanent?

(And it is the same with the other organs of sense).

The mind is impermanent.... Owing to impermanence the mind has

come into being, monks. How could mind be permanent?

So seeing, the well-taught ariyan disciple is repelled by the eye...

tongue... mind. Being repelled he lusts not for it... so that he realizes,

"for life in these conditions there is no hereafter.".59

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