The Conditionality of Life in the Buddhist Teachings.
An outline of the Twenty four Conditions as taught in the
By Nina van Gorkom
We read in the"Paììhåna" (II, Analytical Exposition, 3) about two kinds
As to conascent-predominance-condition, the conditioning factor
(paccaya) which has a dominating influence over the realities it
conditions (paccayupanna dhammas) is conascent with these, that is, it
arises together with them. A phenomenon does not arise alone, it arises
simultaneously with other phenomena. Citta does not arise alone, it is
accompanied by cetasikas; citta and cetasikas arise together and fall
There are four factors which condition other realities they arise together
with by way of conascent-predominance-condition, and these are:
viriya (energy or effort)
vimaÿsa (investigation of Dhamma, paññå cetasika)
Three of these factors, namely, chanda, viriya and vimaÿsa are
cetasikas and one is citta, but not every citta can be a predominant
factor as we shall see. It is due to these four factors that great and
difficult enterprises can be accomplished. Whenever we wish to
accomplish a task, one of these four factors can be the leader, the
predominance-condition for the realities they arise together with and
also for the rúpa which is produced at that moment by citta
one of these four factors at a time can be predominant. For example,
when chanda is foremost, the other three factors cannot be
predominant at the same time. Chanda, viriya and citta can be
predominant in the accomplishment of an enterprise or task both in a
wholesome way and in an unwholesome way, whereas vimaÿsa,
44Chanda is a cetasika which arises with cittas of the four jåtis, but it does not arise with
every citta. It accompanies kusala citta as well as akusala citta. It is translated as wish-to-do,
desire or zeal.
45As we have seen, citta is one of the factors which produces rúpas of the body.
investigation of Dhamma, which is a sobhana cetasika, beautiful.32
cetasika, can only be predominant in a wholesome way.
The conascent predominant factors operate at the moments of javana-cittas
(kusala cittas or akusala cittas in the case of non-arahats)
these javana-cittas have to be accompanied by at least two roots
(hetus), otherwise they would be too weak for the occurrence of
predominance-condition. For instance, the two types of moha-múla-citta
(citta rooted in ignorance) which are: moha-múla-citta accompanied by
uddhacca (restlessness) and moha-múla-citta accompanied by kukkucca
(doubt), have moha as their only root; they have no strength to
accomplish a task with one of the predominant factors as
When one undertakes works of art, such as painting, or one applies
oneself to music, one is bound to do so with lobha-múla-citta (citta
rooted in attachment). Lobha is attached to the object it experiences,
but it cannot accomplish an enterprise, it is not a predominant factor.
Chanda, zeal or wish-to-do, which accompamies lobha-múla-citta can be
a predominant factor in the accomplishment of one’s undertakings, it
conditions the citta and the other cetasikas it accompanies by way of
conascent-predominance. When we are generous and like to give
something away, chanda, which is kusala in this case, may be
predominant. There are also alobha, non-attachment, and adosa,
non-aversion or kindness, but these wholesome roots cannot be
predominant in the accomplishment of a generous deed. It is chanda
which can be predominant in the accomplishment of the generous deed,
for example, when one chooses the gift and hands it to someone else.
Viriya can be a predominant factor in the accomplishment of our tasks.
Preparing food may be part of our daily chores, and sometimes, when
we like to do this, chanda may be predominant. At other times we may
find it an effort but we may still want to cook. Then we may prepare
food with viriya as predominant factor. At such moments there is likely
to be lobha, but viriya is foremost in the accomplishment of cooking.
Citta can be a predominance-condition for the accompanying cetasikas,
but not all cittas can be predominance-condition. As we have seen,
predominance-condition can operate only when there are javana-cittas
accompanied by at least two roots. Seeing, for example, is an ahetuka
46Javana literally means: "running through",impulsion; the javana-cittas arise in the
sense-door processes of cittas and in the mind-door process, and they "run through the
object". There are usually seven javana-cittas in a process of cittas, and these are kusala
cittas or akusala cittas. Arahats do not have kusala cittas or akusala cittas, they have
kiriyacittas which perform the function of javana.
citta (without roots), it can only perform the function of seeing and it.33
cannot be predominance-condition. Moha-múla-citta, which has moha
as its only root cannot be predominance-condition. Lobha-múla-citta
and dosa-múla-citta have each two roots (respectively moha and lobha,
and moha and dosa), they can be predominance-condition; then they
have a dominating influence over the accompanying cetasikas in the
fulfilling of a task or enterprise in the unwholesome way. All mahå-kusala
cittas (kusala cittas of the sense-sphere) and all mahå-kiriyacittas
(of the arahat), always have the two roots of alobha, non-attachment,
and adosa, non-aversion, and they can have in addition the root which
is paññå, thus, they have two or three roots and therefore they can be
predominance-condition. When we accomplish a task with cittas which
are resolute, firmly established in kusala, the citta can be the
predominance-condition. The jhånacittas (kusala jhånacittas and kiriya
jhånacittas of the arahat) and the lokuttara cittas are always
accompanied by paññå, they have three roots, and thus they can be
Lobha cetasika is not a predominant factor, but lobha-múla-citta, citta
rooted in attachment, can be predominance-condition, as we have seen.
For example, when there is wrong view and wrong practice, the citta
arising at that moment is firm and steady in this way of akusala, and
then that citta is predominance-condition for the accompanying
dhammas. That type of citta is rooted in moha and lobha and thus it is
conditioned by these two roots by way of root-condition. When we
abstain from slandering, the citta which is firm in kusala can be
predominant, and in that case chanda, wish-to-do, and viriya, effort, are
With regard to investigation of the Dhamma, vimaÿsa, this is paññå
cetasika. When we listen to the Dhamma, consider it and are mindful of
realities, vimaÿsa can condition the accompanying citta and cetasikas
by way of predominance-condition.
The rúpas produced by citta can also be conditioned by way of
predominance-condition. Body intimation (kåya-viññatti) and speech
intimation (vací-viññatti ) are rúpas produced by citta
. When we
present food to the monks, citta which is firm in kusala can be the
predominant factor. While we, at such an occasion, show by our
47For details about the cittas which can be conascent-predominance-condition, see
48Body-intimation is a kind of rúpa which conditions gestures and other movements of
the body by which we express our intentions. Speech intimation is a rúpa which
conditions speech sound by which we express our intentions.
gestures our intention to give, there are rúpas which are body.34
intimation, and these are conditioned by kusala citta by way of
predominance-condition. When we slander the citta which is firm in
akusala may be predominance-condition, and then the rúpa which is
speech intimation is conditioned by the akusala citta by way of
For the attainment of jhåna the predominant factors are necessary
conditions, and in that case they have to be sobhana. It is extremely
difficult to develop samatha to the degree of jhåna, and without the
conditioning force of one of the four predominant factors one would not
be able to attain jhåna. We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (III,24):
...If a bhikkhu obtains concentration, obtains unification of mind, by
making zeal (chanda) predominant, this is called concentration due to
zeal. If... by making energy predominant, this is called concentration
due to energy. If... by making (natural purity of) citta predominant, this
is called concentration due to citta. If... by making inquiry (vimaÿsa)
predominant, this is called concentration due to inquiry (Vibhanga
216-219). So it is of four kinds as predominance.
There are different degrees of the predominant factors. When these four
factors have been developed to a high degree, they have become "bases
of success", iddhipådas, and then they can lead to the acquisition of
supernatural powers (Visuddhimagga, Ch XII, 50-53)
. The rúpas
produced by citta which exercises such powers are also conditioned by
way of predominance-condition.
In the development of vipassanå, right understanding of nåma and rúpa,
one also needs the "four bases of success" for the realisation of the
stages of insight wisdom and for the attainment of enlightenment. The
arising of awareness and understanding of realities is beyond control, it
is due to conditions. We need patience and courage to persevere
studying and considering nåma and rúpa, and to be aware of them in
daily life. For the accomplishment of our task, the development of right
understanding, the factors which are predominant condition are
indispensable. The study of the predominance-condition can be a
reminder that right understanding is dependant on different kinds of
conditions, that it does not depend on a "self". We read in the "Kindred
Sayings" (V, Mahå-vagga, Book VII, Kindred Sayings on the Bases of
49Powers developed by means of samatha, such as walking on water, knowing one’s
former lives, etc.
Psychic Power (Bases of Success), Ch I, 2, Neglected):.35
By whomsoever, monks, the four bases of psychic power are neglected,
by them also is neglected the ariyan way that goes on to the utter
destruction of dukkha. By whomsoever, monks, the four bases of
psychic power are undertaken, by them also is undertaken the ariyan
way that goes on to the utter destruction of dukkha....
It is then explained what the four bases of psychic power (iddhipådas)
are. They arise together with right concentration and with right effort.
Right effort in vipassanå is right effort to be aware of whatever reality
appears at this moment.
As we have seen, there are two kinds of predominance-condition:
conascent-predominance-condition and object-predominance-condition.
In the case of conascent-predominance-condition the
conditioning factor arises simultaneously with the conditioned
dhammas, but this is not so with object-predominance-condition. As
regards object-predominance-condition (årammaùådhipati-paccaya),
not every object citta experiences is object-predominance-condition. An
object which is predominance-condition is highly regarded by citta and
the accompanying cetasikas so that they give preponderance to it. The
predominant object is the conditioning factor (paccaya), and the citta
and cetasikas which experience that object are the conditioned
dhammas (paccayupanna dhammas). Object-predominance-condition is
different from object-condition. For example, when we like the colour of
a certain cloth, but we do not particularly want to possess it, that object
conditions the lobha-múla-citta by way of object-condition. When we
like that cloth very much and want to possess it, that object conditions
the lobha-múla-citta by way of object-predominance-condition. We then
give preponderance to that object.
Certain objects cannot be object-predominance-condition, because they
are undesirable. Among them is the type of body-consciousness which is
akusala vipåka, accompanied by painful feeling
. The two types of
dosa-múla-citta (one type unprompted and one type prompted, c.f.
Appendix 2) cannot be object-predominance-condition. They are
accompanied by unpleasant feeling and thus they are not desirable. The
two types of moha-múla-citta, one associated with doubt and one
50Body-consciousness is vipåkacitta which experiences pleasant or unpleasant tangible
objects. When it is kusala vipåka it is accompanied by pleasant bodily feeling and when it
is akusala vipåka it is accompanied by unpleasant bodily feeling.
associated with restlessness, cannot be object-predominance-condition,.36
they are not desirable. The akusala cetasikas which accompany dosa-múla-
citta and moha-múla-citta are not desirable either, thus, they
cannot be object-predominance-condition. One could not esteem regret,
jealousy or stinginess, akusala cetasikas which may accompany dosa-múla-
We read in the "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, VII, Investigation Chapter,
Conditions: Positive, 1, Classification Chapter, Predominance, 10, §
... After having offered the offering, having undertaken the precept,
having fulfilled the duty of observance, (one) esteems and reviews it.
(One) esteems and reviews (such acts) formerly well done...
Wholesomeness can be object-predominance-condition for kusala citta
which esteems and considers the wholesome deed which was done. In
this case one gives preponderance to that object. When we have been
generous we can recollect our generosity and then there can be the
arising again of kusala cittas.
We read in the same section (§ 414) that dåna, síla and jhåna can be
object-predominance-condition also for akusala citta. When we have
performed generous deeds with kusala citta we may find that citta
highly desirable, we may be pleased with our own generosity. There
may be attachment and wrong view on account of our good deeds. If we
do not know the different conditions for kusala citta and akusala citta
we may take for kusala what is actually akusala. Thus, kusala can be
object of clinging, it can even be object-predominance-condition for
clinging. Anything can be object of clinging, except Nibbåna. As we
have seen (in Ch 2), Nibbåna and the eight lokuttara cittas which
experience it cannot be object-condition for lobha-múla-citta; neither
can they be object-predominance-condition for lobha-múla-citta.
We read in the same section of the "Paììhåna" (§ 416):
Learners esteem and review (lower) Fruition. (They) esteem and review
Nibbåna. Nibbåna is related to change-of-lineage, purification
51Change-of-lineage or adaptation is the mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå
preceding the lokuttara citta of the sotåpanna and purification is the mahå-kusala citta
accompanied by paññå preceding the lokuttara citta of the three higher stages of
Nibbåna is object-predominance-condition for the eight lokuttara cittas
which experience it, and it can also be object-predominance-condition
for mahå-kusala citta accompanied by paññå and mahå-kiriyacitta (of
the arahat) accompanied by paññå. Lokuttara cittas can be object-predominance-
condition for the cittas which arise after the attainment
of enlightenment and which review, consider with paññå, the lokuttara
cittas which arose.
Akusala can condition akusala citta by way of object- predominance-condition.
We read in the "Paììhåna", in the same section, § 415:
(One) esteems, enjoys and delights in lust. Taking it as estimable object,
arises lust, arises wrong views. (One) esteems, enjoys and delights in
wrong views. Taking it as estimable object, arises lust, arise wrong
If someone does not see the danger of lobha, he considers it the goal of
his life to have as much enjoyment as possible. We like to enjoy nature,
to buy beautiful cloths, to eat delicious food, to hear nice music. We like
to enjoy all the pleasant things of life. It is natural that we enjoy
pleasant things, but we can also develop right understanding of the
different cittas which arise in daily life.
Pleasant sense objects are desirable and they can condition lobha-múla-citta
by way of object-predominance-condition. It may happen that we
have many duties to do but that we are so carried away by the sound of
music that we leave our duties and play the piano or go to a concert.
Then we give preponderance to sound and this is object-predominance-condition
for lobha-múla-citta. This happens time and again in our daily
life. We should not pretend that we do not have lobha, we should come
to know our inclinations as they are. When lobha has arisen already
because of its own conditions we should not ignore it, but we can
develop right understanding of it. When there is mindfulness of lobha
when it appears it can be known as a conditioned nåma, not self.
We read in the "Paììhåna" (in the same section, § 416):
(One) esteems, enjoys and delights in the eye... ear... nose... tongue...
body... visible object... sound... smell... taste... tangible object...
(heart-)base... Taking it as estimable object, arises lust, arises wrong
The rúpas with characteristics which can be directly experienced can be
object-predominance-condition. Rúpa which is a desirable object can be
object-predominance-condition only for lobha-múla-citta. Rupa cannot
condition kusala citta by way of object-predominance-condition, only by
way of object-condition. For example, we want to give beautiful flowers
to someone else. Then rúpa, such as colour or odour, can condition
kusala citta by way of object-condition, rúpa is the object experienced
by kusala citta. That rúpa cannot be object-predominance-condition for
kusala citta, one does not give preponderance to it, one is intent on
giving it away. The kusala one has performed, such as generosity, may
be object-predominance-condition for kusala citta, then there are
conditions for more kusala cittas. Rúpa in itself does not condition
further development of kusala, that is conditioned by other factors. The
development of kusala is conditioned by the kusala one accumulated in
the past, and also by the factors of chanda (wish-to-do), viriya (effort),
citta and vimaÿsa (investigation of the Dhamma), which are conascent-predominance-
We should find out to which objects we give preponderance. We should
know whether they condition kusala citta or lobha-múla-citta. It is
important to realize in which way objects can condition different cittas.
When lobha-múla-citta arises the object which it experiences may
condition that citta only by way of object-condition or it may condition
it by way of object-predominance as well. At different moments
different conditions play their part in our life. Kusala can condition
wrong view or conceit by way of object-predominance-condition. We
may attach great importance to the notion of "my kusala" with wrong
view. Or we may have a high esteem of our good deeds with conceit,
while we compare ourselves with others.
When we are attached to colourful pictures our attachment may be
object-predominance-condition for lobha-múla-cittas; we may be quite
absorbed in our enjoyment and forgetful of the development of right
understanding. At other moments we may devote time to the study and
the consideration of the Dhamma so that right understanding can
develop. The Dhamma we hear may condition mahå-kusala citta
accompanied by paññå by way of object-predominance-condition. We
read in the "Lesser Discourse on the Destruction of Craving"(Middle
Length Sayings I, no. 37) that Sakka, lord of the devas, had inclinations
to mental development, but when there were conditions to enjoy
sense-pleasures, he was absorbed in those. We read that Sakka asked
the Buddha, who was staying near Savatthí in the Eastern Monastery, to
what extent a monk comes to be completely freed by the destruction of.39
craving. The Buddha answered:
As to this, lord of devas, a monk comes to hear: "It is not fitting that
there should be inclination towards any (mental-physical) conditions
." If, lord of devas, a monk comes to hear this, that "It is not fitting
that there should be any inclination towards any (mental-physical)
conditions", he knows all the conditions thoroughly, he knows all the
conditions accurately; by knowing all the conditions accurately,
whatever feeling he feels, pleasant or painful or neither painful nor
pleasant, he abides viewing impermanence, he abides viewing
dispassion, he abides viewing stopping, he abides viewing renunciation
in regard to those feelings.
We then read that when he is so abiding he grasps after nothing in the
world and attains arahatship. Moggallåna wanted to find out whether
Sakka had grasped the meaning of the Buddha’s words and to this end
he appeared among the "devas of the Thirtythree". Sakka, who was
equipped and provided with five hundred deva-like musical
instruments, was amusing himself. When he saw Moggallåna coming he
stopped those instruments and welcomed Moggallåna. Moggallåna then
asked Sakka to repeat the Buddha’s words about freedom by the
destruction of craving. Sakka answered:
I, my good Moggallåna, am very busy, there is much to be done by me;
both on my own account there are things to be done, and there are also
(still more) things to be done for the devas of the Thirtythree. Further,
my good Moggallåna, it was properly heard, properly learnt, properly
attended to, properly reflected upon, so that it cannot vanish quickly....
Sakka invited Moggallåna to come and see the delights of his splendid
palace. Moggallåna thought that Sakka lived much too indolently and
wanted to agitate him. By his supernatural power he made the palace
tremble, shake and quake. Moggallåna asked Sakka again to repeat the
Buddha’s words and then Sakka did repeat them.
We may recognize ourselves in Sakka when he tries to find excuses not
to consider the Dhamma. We also are inclined to think at times that we
52In the "Papañcasúdaní ", the commentary to this sutta, it is stated that these are the
five khandhas, the twelve sense-fields (åyåtanas), the eighteen elements.
are too busy to develop right understanding of realities, to be aware of.40
nåma and rúpa over and over again, until they are thoroughly
understood. When Moggallåna agitated Sakka there were conditions for
him to give preponderance to the development of right understanding.
Our life is likewise. When we listen to the Dhamma or read the
scriptures there can be conditions to give preponderance to the
consideration of the Dhamma and the development of right
understanding. When there is mindfulness of nåma and rúpa as they
appear one at a time, they can eventually be known as they are:
elements which are non-self.
Proximity-condition (Anantara-paccaya) and Contiguity-condition
We may wonder why life goes on and on. Yesterday there were seeing,
hearing and thinking, and today these realities occur again. Experiences
occur time and again because there are conditions for them. Proximity-condition
and contiguity-condition are conditions for cittas to arise
again and again, in succession. Each citta with its associated cetasikas
falls away and conditions the arising of the succeeding citta with its
associated cetasikas. The next citta cannot arise if the preceding citta
has not fallen away, there can be only one citta at a time. It is difficult
to know the succession of the different cittas since they arise and fall
away very rapidly. Attachment may arise in a sense-door process and
then in the mind-door process
, but, so long as there is no clear
understanding of different realities, it seems that attachment can last
for a while. In reality there are different cittas arising and falling away,
succeeding one another because of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition.
Anantara (proximity) means: without interval. Anantara and
samanantara (contiguity) are different in name, but the same in
meaning (Visuddhimagga, XVII, 74)
. The preceding citta is the
condition, paccaya, for the arising of the subsequent citta which is the
conditioned dhamma (paccayupanna dhamma). The conditions of
proximity and of contiguity do not pertain to rúpa. Rúpa can be
produced by four factors: by kamma, by citta, by food and by
temperature or heat. Rúpas arise and then fall away and so long as
53See Appendix 1.
54"Saÿ" in samanantara can mean right or proper. Citta conditions, after it has ceased,
the arising of the subsequent citta, without interval; citta is anantara-paccaya. Moreover,
citta is samanantara-paccaya; cittas follow upon one another in the proper way, in
accordance with a fixed order in their subsequent arising. The rebirth-consciousness, for
example, is not followed by seeing, but by the first bhavanga-citta in that life. The
relation of samanantara-paccaya has been taught in addition to anantara paccaya for the
benefit of the listeners who might have misunderstandings. Samanantara is sometimes
translated as immediate contiguity.
55In some cases there can be temporary suspension of citta, and then only rúpas arise
and fall away. Those who have developed samatha up to the fourth stage of arúpa-jhåna,
the "Sphere of Neither Perception Nor Non-Perception " and who have also realized the
stage of enlightenment of the anågåmí, non-returner, and of the arahat, can attain
there are conditions new rúpas are produced by the four factors
The rebirth-consciousness, paìisandhi-citta, which is vipåkacitta,
conditions the arising of the succeeding citta, the first bhavanga-citta in
that life, which is of the same type of citta as the rebirth-consciousness.
The bhavanga-cittas which arise throughout life, in between the sense-door
and the mind-door processes of cittas, are the same type of citta
. When there is birth in an unhappy plane of existence, such as the
animal plane, the rebirth-consciousness is akusala vipåkacitta. Because
of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition bhavanga-citta succeeds
the rebirth-consciousness and this citta is also akusala vipåkacitta. The
bhavanga-citta is in accordance with that kind of birth, it could not be
changed into kusala vipåkacitta. When one is born with mahå-vipåkacitta
acccompanied by the three sobhana hetus of alobha,
non-attachment, adosa, non-aversion, and amoha or paññå, the
succeeding bhavanga-citta is of the same type of citta as the rebirth-consciousness.
The bhavanga-citta is conditioned by the rebirth-consciousness
by way of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition.
The person who is born with three sobhana hetus has the possibility to
attain enlightenment in that life if paññå is developed. Because of
proximity-condition and contiguity-condition the potentialities one is
born with are carried on from moment to moment.
Besides bhavanga-cittas, there are also cittas arising in sense-door
processes and mind-door processes which experience objects impinging
on the six doors. In the course of life we experience happiness and
"cessation" nirodha-samåpatti. This is the temporary suspension of citta, cetasikas and
mind-produced rúpa. Rúpas produced by kamma, temperature and nutriment, in the case
of human beings, and rúpas produced by kamma and temperature, in the case of beings
in the Brahma plane, continue to arise. When they emerge from cessation, the first citta
which arises is the phala-citta, fruition-consciousness (lokuttara vipåkacitta), which has
nibbåna as its object. For the anågåmí it is the phala-citta of the anågåmí and for the
arahat it is the phala-citta of the arahat. This citta is conditioned by the preceding citta,
the arúpa-jhånacitta of the fourth stage which occurred prior to cessation. Thus, the force
of proximity is not destroyed by the temporary suspension of citta.
It is the same in the case of rebirth in the asañña-satta plane, the plane where there is
only rúpa. When the lifespan in that plane is over and there is rebirth in the sensuous
plane, the rebirth-consciousness is conditioned by the dying-consciousness which
occurred prior to rebirth in the asañña-satta-plane. Thus, the force of proximity is not
56Bhavanga-cittas do not experience the objects which impinge on the six doors and
which are experienced by the cittas arising within processes. Bhavanga-cittas experience
the same object as the rebirth-consciousness, and this object is the same as experienced
shortly before the dying-consciousness in the previous life. The object which the
bhavanga-citta experiences does not appear to us, we do not know it.
57Kusala vipåkacitta of the sense sphere, accompanied by two or three sobhana hetus,
sorrow, but we could not have such experiences if the rebirth-.43
consciousness had not arisen and if this citta was not succeeded by the
following cittas, bhavanga-cittas and cittas arising in sense-door
processes and mind-door processes. Our life is an unbroken series of
cittas, succeeding one another without interval.
The cittas which perform their functions in the different processes
succeed one another in a regular order. The sense-door adverting-consciousness,
the first citta which arises in a sense-door process, is
conditioned by the last bhavanga-citta arising before the sense-door
process starts, by way of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition.
The sense-door adverting-consciousness experiences an object different
from the object the bhavanga-citta experiences; it adverts to the object
which impinges on one of the senses and is then succeeded by the
sense-cognition (dvipañca-viññåùa, seeing, hearing, etc.) which
experiences that object. There is seeing and hearing time and again,
also now. Thus, we know that the conditions of proximity and
contiguity still continue. The sense-cognition, such as seeing or hearing
does not last, it falls away and conditions the arising of the next citta,
the receiving-consciousness, sampaìicchana-citta, which "receives" the
object. This citta is succeeded by the investigating-consciousness,
santíraùa-citta, which investigates the object, and this again by the
determining-consciousness, votthapana-citta which "determines" the
object. The votthapana-citta, after it has determined the object, is, in the
case of non-arahats, followed by akusala javana-cittas or kusala javana-cittas.
There are usually seven types of javana-cittas in a process of
cittas, performing the function of impulsion or "running through" the
object. The javana-cittas may be succeeded by the registering-consciousness,
tadårammaùa-cittas, vipåkacittas which "hang on" to the
object. Each of these cittas is conditioned by the preceding citta by way
of proximity and contiguity, and in its turn, each of them conditions the
arising of the next citta in these ways. After the sense-door process has
been completed there are bhavanga-cittas again and then the object can
be experienced by cittas arising in a mind-door process. The mind-door
adverting-consciousness which adverts to the object through the mind-door,
is the first citta of the mind-door process. It is succeeded by
javana-cittas (in the case of non-arahats akusala cittas or kusala cittas),
and then registering-consciousness, tadårammaùa-cittas may arise. The
cittas arising within the different processes arise according to a
particular order which is unchangeable; they succeed one another
58See Appendix 1 for these processes. One cannot understand the conditions of
proximity and contiguity if one does not know about the processes of citta.
without any interval and this is conditioned by proximity-condition and.44
contiguity-condition. The javana-cittas, for instance, cannot arise if, in
the sense-door process, the determining-consciousness and, in the
mind-door process, the mind-door adverting-consciousness has not
arisen. This reminds us that there is no self who can cause the arising of
When the object which is experienced is rúpa, such as visible object or
sound, it lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta
moments is still extremely short. The experience of visible object and
sound seem to occur at the same time, but in reality several processes of
cittas which experience these different objects have occurred. If insight
has not been developed one does not realize the falling away of citta
and the arising of the succeeding citta. We find the experience of sense
objects very important, but we should remember that these experiences
are fleeting, insignificant. Only through satipaììhåna the understanding
can be developed which realizes the arising and falling away of realities.
We are so absorbed in sense objects that we neglect the development of
satipaììhåna although we have opportunity for it, since we are born in
the human plane where we can hear the Dhamma.
The relations of proximity-condition and contiguity-condition prevail
throughout the cycle of birth and death with unbroken continuity.
Because of the uninterrupted succession of cittas past lives condition the
present life and evenso the present life will condition future lives. Each
citta falls away completely, but it conditions the succeeding citta.
Tendencies and inclinations we had in former lives have been
accumulated from moment to moment up to the present. Since each
citta which falls away conditions the succeeding citta we can
accumulate skills, knowledge and wisdom. It is because of proximity-condition
and contiguity-condition that we can remember past
experiences, events which occurred many years ago.
Kammas, good and bad deeds, committed in the past are accumulated
from moment to moment, from life to life, and they can produce their
appropriate results later on, when it is the right time. Because of kamma
which produces results, pleasant or unpleasant objects are experienced
through the senses by cittas which arise within processes. We see
pleasant and unpleasant objects. Seeing is vipåkacitta, produced by
kamma, but the eye-door adverting-consciousness which precedes
seeing in the eye-door process conditions seeing by way of proximity-59
See Ch 2. When that rúpa arises at the moment the past bhavanga arises, it still lasts
sixteen moments more and then the process of cittas which experience it can run its full
course. A process, however, can be interrupted earlier. For details see Appendix 1.
condition and contiguity-condition. If there were no eye-door adverting-.45
consciousness, seeing could not arise. Cittas arise and fall away
succeeding one another continuously because of conditions and we
never know what the next moment will bring. We may be surprised that
we quite suddenly have to suffer great pain or an accident. We are
surprised, because we do not see proximity-condition and contiguity-condition
which occur all the time within the cycle of birth and death.
The rebirth-consciousness, paìisandhi-citta, is vipåkacitta produced by
kamma. Kamma causes us to be born in particular circumstances, in a
particular family, where there will be favorable conditions or
unfavorable conditions to do good deeds and to develop right
understanding. The rebirth-consciousness is preceded by the dying-consciousness,
the last citta of the preceding life. Because of proximity-condition
the dying-consciousness is succeeded without any interval by
the rebirth-consciousness. If we understand the proximity-condition
occurring now, at this moment, we will also see that the last citta of this
life conditions the first citta of the following life. We read in the
"Paììhåna" (Feeling Triplet, Vedanå-ttika, VII, Investigation Chapter,
Conditions: Positive. Classification Chapter, Proximity 7, § 45,2):
State associated with pleasant feeling is related to state associated with
neither painful nor pleasant feeling by proximity-condition.
Death-consciousness associated with pleasant feeling is related to
rebirth-consciousness associated with neither painful nor pleasant
feeling by proximity-condition.
When rebirth-consciousness is accompanied by indifferent feeling, it
may be kusala vipåkacitta, but it can also be akusala vipåkacitta and in
that case there is rebirth in an unhappy plane. This passage of the
"Paììhåna" reminds us that we are in the cycle of birth and death. After
this life there will be another life, until one has attained arahatship. The
dying-consciousness of the arahat is not proximity-condition for rebirth-consciousness.
So long as we are in the cycle of birth and death and we
have not attained the state of the sotåpanna (who has realized the first
stage of enlightenment), we can still be subject to an unhappy rebirth.
In the "Kindred Sayings" (I, Sagåthå-vagga, Ch VII, Brahmin Suttas, 2,
The Lay Adherents, § 2, Udaya) we are reminded of rebirth with its toils
and sufferings, again and again, until arahatship has been attained. We
read that the Buddha, on three consecutive days, came with his bowl to
Udaya who filled it with rice. After the third time Udaya critized the
Buddha for coming again and again. The Buddha answered:.46
Again, again is seed in furrow sown,
Again, again the cloud-king sends down rain,
Again, again the ploughmen plough the fields,
Again, again comes corn into the realm,
Again, again do beggars go their round,
Again, again do generous donors give,
Again, again when many gifts are given,
Again, again the donors find their heaven.
Again, again the dairy-folk draw milk,
Again, again the calf its mother seeks,
Again, again we tire and toil anew,
Again, again the slow wits seek rebirth,
Again, again comes birth, and dying comes,
Again, again men bear us to the grave.
When once the man of broad insight that Path
Which brings no new becoming does attain,
Then is he no more born again, again.
We then read that Udaya expressed his appreciation of the Buddha’s
words and took refuge in the Triple Gem. He wanted to become a
layfollower of the Buddha.
Conascence-Condition (Sahajåta-Paccaya) and Mutuality-
The Påli term sahajåta in sahajåta-paccaya means: that which has arisen
together. In the case of conascence-condition, a conditioning dhamma,
paccaya dhamma, on arising, causes the conditioned dhammas,
paccayupanna dhammas, to arise simultaneously with it. In the case of
proximity-condition and contiguity-condition, the conditioning dhamma
arises previously to the conditioned dhamma, but in the case of
conascence-condition the conditioning dhamma and the conditioned
dhamma arise at the same time. We read in the "Visuddhimagga" (XVII,
A dhamma which, while arising, assists (another dhamma) by making it
arise together with itself is a conascence-condition, as a lamp is for
For the explanation of conascence-condition the "Visuddhimagga" uses
the simile of an oil lamp: when its flame appears the light, colour and
heat are produced simultaneously with it. Light, colour and heat
produced by the flame are not present before the flame appears nor
after it dies out
We read in the "Paììhåna" (II, Analytical Exposition, 6, Conascence-condition)
about different classes of phenomena, nåma and rúpa, to
which conascence-condition pertains. We read with regard to the first
The four immaterial aggregates (nåma-kkhandhas) are mutually related
to one another by conascence-condition.
Viññåùakkhandha, citta, cannot arise without the three other nåma-kkhandhas,
namely: vedanåkkhandha (feeling), saññåkkhandha
(remembrance or perception) and saòkhårakkhandha (formations, the
other cetasikas). Citta is different from cetasika, it does not feel or
60See "Guide to Conditional Relations" Part I, p. 23, by U Nårada.
remember; citta is the "chief" in cognizing an object but it needs the.48
accompanying cetasikas which share the same object and which each
have their own task while they assist the citta. Citta cannot arise
without cetasika and cetasika cannot arise without citta, they condition
one another by conascence-condition. Citta needs for example the
cetasika phassa, contact, which contacts the object so that citta can
cognize it. Thus, citta is conditioned by phassa by way of conascence.
Phassa is conditioned by citta and the accompanying cetasikas by way
of conascence. When phassa accompanies akusala citta it is also akusala
and when it accompanies kusala citta it is also kusala.
Each of the four nåmakkhandhas can be taken in turn as conditioning
dhamma or as conditioned dhamma because they are mutually related
by way of conascence. The "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, Ch VII,
Investigation Chapter. Conditions: positive, 1, classification chapter,
Conascence 9, § 419) expresses this as follows:
Faultless state (kusala dhamma) is related to faultless state by
One faultless khandha is related to three (faultless) khandhas by
conascence-condition; three khandhas are related to one khandha by
conascence-condition; two khandhas are related to two khandhas by
This pertains only to the four nåmakkhandhas. The same is said with
regard to the four nåmakkhandhas which are akusala (faulty).
When lobha-múla-citta, citta rooted in attachment, arises, the four
nåmakkhandhas are akusala and they condition one another by way of
conascence. Lobha-múla-citta has as roots moha and lobha, and these
roots condition the accompanying dhammas by way of conascence-condition
and also by way of root-condition. Phenomena can condition
other phenomena by way of several relations. Lobha-múla-citta may be
accompanied by pleasant feeling. Feeling is conditioned by citta and the
accompanying cetasikas, and when it accompanies akusala citta it is
also akusala. Pleasant feeling which is akusala has a characteristic
which is quite different from pleasant feeling which is kusala.
It is beneficial to learn more about conascence-condition because this
condition pertains to our life now. Since citta and cetasikas condition
one another mutually while they arise together, there is such a great
variety of cittas. When one, for example, develops understanding of
nåma and rúpa, there is kusala citta accompanied by paññå and by
other sobhana cetasikas. That citta is also accompanied by sati which is.49
mindful of the reality which appears, by "applied thinking", vitakka
which "touches" the object so that paññå can understand it, by non-attachment,
alobha, and by other cetasikas which each perform their
own function. They all mutually support one another while they arise
together. There are many degrees of paññå and as paññå grows the
accompanying cetasikas develop as well. Alobha, for example, is still
weak in the beginning, but as paññå develops there will also be more
detachment from realities.
Citta and cetasikas can be of four "jåtis" (classes), they can be kusala,
akusala, vipåka or kiriya. Some cetasikas can accompany cittas of the
four jåtis, but in each case they are completely different since they are
conditioned by the citta and the other cetasikas they accompany.
Manasikåra, attention, for example, is a cetasika which arises with each
citta, but it is quite different when it accompanies lobha-múla-citta
which clings to the object which is experienced, or when it accompanies
kusala citta which is intent on generosity or on the observance of síla.
Viriya, energy or effort, can be energy exerted in an unwholesome way,
such as effort to steal, or it can be energy for what is wholesome. Thus,
there is a great variety of citta and cetasikas which mutually support
one another. When we come to understand more the different
conditions for the realities which arise it will help us to see that there is
no self who experiences objects, likes or dislikes them, or develops right
As to the second class of phenomena to which conascence-condition
pertains, we read in the "Paììhåna" (Analytical Exposition, 6):
The four great primaries (Great Elements, mahå-bhúta rúpas) are
mutually related to one another by conascence-condition.
The Elements of Earth (solidity), Water (cohesion), Fire (temperature)
and Wind (motion) always arise together and condition another. Rúpas
of the body and rúpas of materiality outside arise and fall away in
groups or units, and in each group there have to be the four Great
Elements. Solidity is the foundation of the other three elements,
temperature maintains the other three elements, cohesion holds them
61Vitakka cetasika arises with many cittas, but not with every citta. When it accompanies
akusala citta it is wrong thinking and when it accompanies kusala citta it is right
thinking. As a factor of the eightfold Path it is called "right thinking".
62Motion is not movement in conventional sense; this rúpa has the characteristic of
motion or pressure. It is sometimes translated as oscillation or vibration. It causes
together and the element of motion
acts as their distension.50
(Visuddhimagga XI, 109).
The "Paììhåna" (Faultless Triplet, Investigation Chapter, § 419, VII, c )
states as to the way the four great Elements condition each other that
one "great primary" conditions the other three, three condition one, and
two condition two.
There is such a great variety of sense objects we experience every day,
but they are only different compositions of rúpa elements. When we
touch a table or a piece of cloth there is only tangible object, appearing
as hardness or softness, which is composed of different rúpa elements.
Hardness, softness, heat, cold, motion or pressure can be experienced
. We think that tangible object can last, but it is only rúpa
which arises and falls away all the time.
As to the third class of phenomena to which conascence-condition
pertains, the paìisandhi-citta arising in the five-khandha planes (where
there are nåma and rúpa) and the rúpa which is the heart-base for the
paìisandhi-citta condition one another by way of conascence.
In the planes where there are nåma and rúpa each citta needs a physical
base (vatthu) or place of origin. The vatthu for seeing is the eye-base,
and each of the sense-cognitions (the five pairs, pañca-viññåùas, of
which one is kusala vipåkacitta and one akusala vipåkacitta) has its
corresponding base. The cittas other than the sense-cognitions have the
heart-base as their vatthu. During life the rúpa which is the vatthu has
to arise before the citta which is dependant on it. However, at the
moment of rebirth it is different. When the paìisandhi-citta arises
kamma produces the heart-base at the same time as the paìisandhi-citta
which is the mental result of kamma, vipåkacitta, and this citta arises at
the heart-base. In the planes where there are nåma and rúpa the
paìisandhi-citta and the heart-base cannot arise without one other. They
condition one another by way of conascence.
The heart-base is not the only rúpa produced by kamma at the first
moment of our life. Kamma produces at that moment three groups of
rúpa: one group with the heart-base, one group with the bodybase and
one group with sex, masculinity or femininity. In each of these groups
distension, and this can be noticed, for example, when there is pressure of air in the
stomach or abdomen.
63The element of cohesion cannot be experienced by touch.
64The four Great Elements and in addition: colour, odour, flavour and nutritive essense.
These eight are present in each group of rúpas.
65This rúpa is present in all groups produced by kamma, not in groups produced by
citta, temperature or nutrition. It only arises with rúpas of the body, not with external
the eight inseparable rúpas
and life-faculty (jívitindriya)
included as well, thus there are three groups of ten rúpas produced by
kamma at the moment of our birth. Without the paìisandhi-citta these
groups could not arise at the moment of birth. Thus, the paìisandhi-citta
is conascence-condition for the three groups of rúpas produced by
kamma at that moment, but only the heart-base among these rúpas is in
turn conascence-condition for the paìisandhi-citta, this citta could not
arise without the heart-base.
As to the fourth class of phenomena to which conascence-condition
pertains, citta and its accompanying cetasikas condition the rúpa
produced by them by way of conascence-condition.
Citta produces rúpa at its arising moment. Each moment of citta can be
divided into three extremely short periods (Visuddhimagga XX, 26): the
moment of its arising (uppåda khaùa), the moment of presence (tiììhi
khaùa) and the moment of dissolution (bhaòga khaùa). Citta can only
produce rúpa at its arising moment; at the moment of its presence and
of its dissolution it is too weak to do so. Sixteen types of citta do not
produce rúpa. They are: the paìisandhi-citta, the sense-cognitions (the
five pairs of seeing, hearing, etc.), the four arúpåvacara vipåkacittas (of
immaterial jhåna, arising in the arúpa-brahma-planes where there is no
rúpa) and the dying-consciousness, cuti-citta, of the arahat. Apart from
these cittas, all the other cittas produce rúpa
. Akusala cittas and
kusala cittas can, for example, produce bodily intimation (gestures by
which we express our intentions) and speech intimation. Akusala cittas
and kusala cittas can produce bodily features by which our moods are
expressed, such as regret, anger or enjoyment. Dosa can produce frowns
and lobha can produce laughter. When we decorate our house, when
we dress ourselves or when we use cosmetics, do we realize which types
of citta produce rúpas while we move our hands? We may not even
realize that lobha-múla-cittas produce rúpas at such moments. We
cannot force ourselves to lead the life of a monk, a life without sense-pleasures,
but it is beneficial to know the different types of citta which
arise. Therefore, it is instructive also for laypeople to read the "Vinaya".
The "Vinaya" is a faithful mirror and a constant reminder of our
defilements. We read in the "Vinaya" that it is forbidden to monks to
decorate dwellings and objects they use, or to beautify themselves, since
that is indulgement in sense-pleasures. The text of the "Vinaya" (Book
of Discipline V, Cullavagga, Ch V, 106) states:
66Rúpas of the body are produced by four factors: by kamm, citta, nutrition and
Now at that time the group of six monks anointed their faces, they
rubbed (paste) into their faces, they powdered their faces with chunam,
they smeared their faces with red arsenic, they painted their limbs, they
painted their faces, they painted their limbs and faces. People spread it
about, saying, "Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses"....
We then read that the Buddha did not allow it and said that it would be
an offence of wrong-doing if monks would do any of those things.
The "Book of Analysis"(Vibhaùga, second Book of the Abhidhamma, Ch
17, Analysis of Small Items, § 854) reminds us that it is vanity to
decorate objects or one’s body:
Therein, what is "personal vanity"? Decoration of the robes, decoration
of the alms-bowl, decoration of the abode; the decoration, beautifying,
taking pride in, adorning, cupidity, state of cupidity, act of personal
vanity, personal vanity for this putrid body and for the external
requisites. This is called personal vanity.
Laypeople still have conditions for a life with sense-pleasures, but right
understanding of the realities which arise can be developed. Also while
one adorns oneself there are nåma and rúpa and there can be
awareness of them. If we know that there is, in such cases, rúpa
conditioned by citta by way of conascence, it can help us to understand
nåma and rúpa as conditioned elements.
Citta and cetasikas which produce rúpa at their arising moment
condition rúpa by way of conascence, but mind-produced rúpa does not
reciprocally condition citta by way of conascence. The arising of citta
does not depend on mind-produced rúpa.
As to the fifth group to which conascence-condition pertains, the four
Great Elements condition the derived rúpas (upådåya rúpas) by way of
conascence, but the derived rúpas do not reciprocally condition the four
Great Elements by way of conascence. There are twentyeight kinds of
rúpa in all, and the "derived rúpas" are the twentyfour kinds of rúpa
other than the four Great Elements of solidity, cohesion, temperature
and motion. The derived rúpas are dependant on the four Great
Elements, they cannot arise without them. When sound, for instance,
arises, it needs solidity, cohesion, temperature and motion. We are
attached to the body and to our possessions, but these are only rúpas,
the four Great Elements and derived rúpas in different compositions,.53
arising because of conditions.
There is a sixth group of phenomena mentioned in the same section of
the "Analytical Exposition"of the "Paììhåna" concerning conascence-condition,
but this is actually a further explanation of the relation of the
heart-base to the citta which arises at the heart-base. Throughout life
the heart-base has to arise before the citta which is dependant on it.
Also the sense-bases which are the physical bases for the sense-cognitions
such as seeing or hearing, which arise throughout life, have
to arise previously to the cittas which are dependant on them. Rúpa, at
its arising moment is too weak to be base, and therefore it can only
after it has arisen perform the function of base. The moment of rebirth
is the first moment of life and therefore the situation is different;
kamma produces the heart-base and the paìisandhi-citta which is
dependant on it simultaneously. At that moment the paìisandhi-citta
and the heart-base condition one another by way of conascence. The
"Paììhåna" (II, Analytical Exposition, 6, VI) states about the relation
between heart-base and the citta which is dependant on it as follows:
The material states (rúpa-dhammas) are sometimes related to the
immaterial states (nåma-dhammas) by conascence-condition and are
sometimes not related by conascence-condition.
Some of the phenomena which are related by conascence-condition are
also related by mutuality-condition (aññamañña-paccaya). They
condition one another reciprocally while they arise simultaneously.
Since the realities involved condition one another mutually, each of
them can be in turn conditioning dhamma (paccaya) and conditioned
dhamma (paccayupanna dhamma). We read in the "Visuddhimagga"
A state that assists by means of mutual arousing and consolidating is a
mutuality-condition, as three sticks of a tripod give each other
Three sticks which are leaning against each other at the upper ends
mutually support one another. Evenso the realities involved in
mutuality-condition condition one another reciprocally. There are three
classes of phenomena to which this condition pertains.
As to the first class, the four nåma-kkhandhas which condition one.54
another by way of conascence, also condition one another by way of
mutuality. They support and consolidate one another.
As to the second class, the four Great Elements which are related to one
another by conascence-condition are also related to one another by way
of mutuality-condition. Solidity, cohesion, temperature and motion
which arise together condition one another reciprocally and give each
other mutual support.
As to the third class, the paìisandhi-citta with the accompanying
cetasikas and the heart-base arising simultaneously condition one
another by way of mutuality. As we have seen, at the moment of rebirth
kamma conditions, apart from the group of rúpas with the heart-base,
two other groups, namely the group with the body-base and the group
with sex. There is no relation of mutuality between the latter two
groups and the paìisandhi-citta.
The other classes of phenomena which are related by conascence are
not related by mutuality. The rúpa produced by citta is conditioned by
that citta by way of conascence, but, as we have seen, there is no
relation of mutuality. That rúpa does not, in its turn, condition citta, it
does not consolidate citta by way of mutuality-condition. The four Great
Elements are conascent-condition for the derived rúpas, but there is no
relation of mutuality; the derived rúpas do not consolidate the four
Great Elements by way of mutuality-condition. Visible object or sound,
which are derived rúpas, cannot arise without the four Great Elements,
but the four Great Elements are not dependant on these rúpas. Thus we
see that phenomena which are related by mutuality also are related by
conascence, but that not all phenomena which are related by
conascence are also related by mutuality.
The dependence-condition, nissaya-paccaya, refers to realities which
condition other realities by being their support or foundation. We read
in the "Visuddhimagga" (XVII, 79) about dependence-condition, which
is here translated as support-condition:
A state (dhamma) that assists in the mode of foundation and in the
mode of support is a support-condition, as the earth is for trees, as
canvas is for paintings, and so on.
This type of condition refers to phenomena which are conascent (arising
together) with the phenomena they condition as well as to phenomena
which have arisen previously to the phenomena they condition.
We read in the "Paììhåna" (Analytical Exposition, 8) as to the
dependence-condition for conascent phenomena:
1. The four immaterial khandhas are mutually related to one another by
2. The four great Elements are mutually related to one another by
3. At the moment of conception, nåma and rúpa are mutually related to
one another by dependence-condition.
4. States, citta and cetasikas, are related to mind-produced rúpa by
As to the first class, the four nåma-kkhandhas are mutually related to
one another by conascent dependence-condition: citta and cetasikas
always arise together and they are depending on one another. Citta
cannot arise without cetasikas and cetasikas cannot arise without citta.
As we have seen, they are also related to one another by way of
conascence, sahajåta, and by way of mutuality, aññamañña.
The teaching of dependence-condition, nissaya paccaya, reminds us that
citta and cetasikas need one another to perform their functions. Citta is
the "chief" in cognizing an object, and cetasikas share the same object
while they perform each their own function. Feeling, vedanå, and.56
remembrance, saññå, are cetasikas which arise with each citta. Citta is
different from cetasika, it does not feel or remember; citta cognizes or
knows the object. Through awareness and right understanding
developed in vipassanå the difference between citta and cetasika can
gradually be known. Without awareness and right understanding there
will only be theoretical knowledge of the way citta and cetasika
condition each other by dependence-condition.
When lobha-múla-citta arises it is dependent on the accompanying
cetasikas. The roots of moha and lobha condition that citta and the
other cetasikas by way of root-condition, hetu-paccaya, and also by way
of dependence-condition, nissaya-paccaya. Ignorance and attachment
are a support for the lobha-múla-citta. There are also chanda, desire-to-do,
and viriya, energy, accompanying the lobha-múla-citta. Chanda can
be predominance-condition, adhipati-paccaya, while one tries to acquire
the things one clings to. Lobha-múla-citta just cognizes the desirable
object which presents itself, it needs chanda to accomplish something,
such as acquiring the object. Viriya can also be predominant when one
tries to obtain something. When kusala citta arises it is dependent on
alobha, non-attachment, and adosa, non-aversion, and also on other
cetasikas. It needs for example chanda and viriya for the performance of
dåna, the observance of síla or the development of right understanding.
Each of the accompanying cetasikas which performs its own task
supports citta and conditions it by way of dependence-condition.
As to the second class, the four great Elements which are the rúpas of
solidity, cohesion, temperature and motion, condition one another by
way of conascent dependence-condition, sahajåta-nissaya-paccaya. They
are a support for one another. Solidity cannot arise without cohesion,
temperature and motion, and this is also true for the other three great
Elements. They also condition one another by way of conascence-condition,
sahajåta-paccaya, and mutuality-condition, aññamañña-paccaya.
As to the third class, at the moment of birth the paìisandhi-citta and the
hadaya-vatthu (heart-base) are mutually related to one another by way
of dependence. In the planes where there are five khandhas, nåma and
rúpa, kamma produces the rúpa which is heart-base at the same time as
the paìisandhi-citta which arises at the heart-base. The paìisandhi-citta
and the heart-base support each other and they cannot arise without
each other. They are also related by way of conascence, sahajåta and by
way of mutuality, aññamañña.
As to the fourth class, citta and cetasikas are related to mind-produced.57
rúpa by way of dependence-condition. As we have seen, citta is one of
the four factors which produce rúpas of the body. Citta and its
accompanying cetasikas are a support to the rúpa produced by them,
but that rúpa does not reciprocally condition the citta and cetasikas by
way of dependence. When we, for example, speak kind words, the rúpa
which is speech intimation is conditioned by kusala citta and
accompanying cetasikas by way of dependence-condition. If there are
no conditions for the arising of kusala citta it is impossible to speak
As to the fifth class, the four great Elements condition the derived rúpas
(upåda rúpas, the rúpas other than the four great Elements
) by way
of dependence-condition, but the opposite does not apply. Odour is a
derived rúpa. It cannot arise by itself, it needs solidity, cohesion, heat
and motion. When odour is experienced through the nose, only odour
appears, the other rúpas which arise together with it in one group are
not experienced. Visible object which is experienced through the eyes
and sound which is experienced through the ears need the four great
Elements as a foundation, they are conditioned by them by way of
Some phenomena which condition other phenomena by way of
dependence have arisen previously to the phenomena they condition
and, at that moment, they have not fallen away yet. These are the rúpas
which serve as vatthus or bases for the cittas they condition. They
cannot be base at their arising moment since they are then too weak.
Rúpa can only at the moment of its presence perform the function of
. Thus, it must be prenascent, arisen previously to the citta it
conditions by dependence-condition. As we have seen, only at the
moment of birth the heart-base arises together with the paìisandhi-citta
and serves as its base, but throughout life it arises previously to the
cittas for which it serves as base and it conditions them by way of
. We read in the "Paììhåna" (
Analytical Exposition, 8. Dependence Condition):
67There are twentyeight types of rúpa in all. Apart from the four great Elements there
are twentyfour rúpas which are the derived rúpas. Among them are for example colour,
odour, flavour, nutritive essence, the eye-base, the other sense-bases and the heart-base.
68Rúpa lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta. After its arising moment it lasts
sixteen more moments, fifteen moments of its presence and then there is its dissolving
69The vatthus are during life for the cittas they condition a base-prenascence-dependence-
(vi )Eye-base is related to eye-consciousness element and its associated.58
states by dependence-condition.
( vii) Ear-base is related to ear-consciousness element and its associated
states by dependence-condition.
(viii) Nose-base is related to nose-consciousness element and its
associated states by dependence-condition.
(ix) Tongue-base is related to tongue-consciousness element and its
associated states by dependence-condition.
(x) Body-base is related to body-consciousness element and its
associated states by dependence-condition.
The five sense-bases have to arise previously to the corresponding
sense-cognitions they condition by way of dependence-condition. The
previously arisen eyebase is related to seeing-consciousness and the
accompanying cetasikas by way of prenascent dependence-condition.
Without eyesense, which serves as physical base and doorway, seeing
could not arise. The eyebase itself is also conditioned, it is produced by
kamma, and it lasts only seventeen moments of citta, which is extremely
short. We cling to the notion of "my eyes", or "my ears", but they are
only rúpas produced by kamma which fall away immediately. The
following sutta reminds us of the fact that whatever reality arises
because of conditions has to be impermanent. Conditioned nåma and
rúpa cannot last. Eyesense and seeing, earsense and hearing are
impermanent and not self. We read in the "Kindred Sayings" (IV,
Saîåyatana vagga, Third Fifty, Ch 4, The Chapter on Devadaha, § 139,
The personal, by way of condition):
The eye, monks, is impermanent. Whatever condition, whatever cause
there be for the appearance of the eye, that also is impermanent. Owing
to impermanence the eye has come into being, monks. How could the
eye be permanent?
(And it is the same with the other organs of sense).
The mind is impermanent.... Owing to impermanence the mind has
come into being, monks. How could mind be permanent?
So seeing, the well-taught ariyan disciple is repelled by the eye...
tongue... mind. Being repelled he lusts not for it... so that he realizes,
"for life in these conditions there is no hereafter.".59