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Abhidhamma in Daily life
Glossary of Pali terms

abhinna  supernormal power.
adosa  non-aversion or kindness.
ahetuka  rootless, not accompanied by beautiful roots or unwholesome roots .
ahetuka ditthi  the wrong view of there being no cause of what arises. 
akasanancayatana  sphere of boundless space, the meditation subject of the first immaterial jhanacitta.
akincannayatana  sphere of nothingness, the meditation subject of the third immaterial jhanacitta.
akusala  unwholesome, unskillful.
alobha  non-attachment or generosity.
amoha  wisdom or understanding.
anagami  non-returner, the noble person who has realized the third stage of enlightenment.
anatta  not self, without abiding substance.
anicca  impermanent.
anuloma adaptation, the third of the four javana-cittas of the sense-sphere, arising before jhana, absorption, is attained, or before enlightenment is attained.
anupadi-sesa nibbana final nibbana, without the khandhas, aggregates or groups of existence, remaining, at the death of an arahat.
anusaya latent tendency or proclivity.
apo-dhatu element of water or cohesion.
appana absorption.
arahat  perfected one, noble person who has attained the fourth stage of enlightenment.
arammana object which is known by consciousness.
ariyan noble person who has attained enlightenment.
arupa-bhumi plane of existence of immaterial beings. For them birth was the result of arupa-jhana.
arupa-brahma plane plane of existence of immaterial beings.
arupavacara belonging to the immaterial plane of consciousness, thus, arupa-jhanacitta.
arupa-jhana  immaterial absorption.
asankharika  not instigated, not induced, neither by oneself nor by someone else.
asavas  cankers, influxes or intoxicants, group of defilements.
asobhana  not beautiful, not accompanied by beautiful roots.
asubha  foul.
asuras  demons, beings of one of the unhappy planes of existence.
atita bhavanga  past life-continuum, arising and falling away shortly before a process of cittas experiencing an object through one of the sense-doors starts.
avajjana  adverting of consciousness to the object which has impinged on one of the six doors.
avijja  ignorance.
ayoniso manasikara  unwise attention to an object.


bhavana  mental development, comprising the development of calm and the development of insight.
bhavangacitta  life-continuum, citta which does not arise within a process but in between processes.
bhavanga calana  vibrating bhavanga, arising shortly before a sense-cognition process starts.
bhavangupaccheda  arrest bhavanga, last bhavangacitta before a process starts. The bhavangupaccheda which arises before a mind-door process is the mind-door of that process.
bhinkkhu  monk.
bhikkhuni  nun
bhumi  plane of existence.
brahma-viharas  the four 'divine abidings', meditation subjects which are lovingkindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity.


cakkhu  eye.
cakkhu-dhatu  eye element.
cakkhu-dvara  eyedoor.
cakkhuppasada rupa  rupa which is the organ of eyesense, capable of receiving visible object.
cakkhuvinnana  seeing-consciousness.
cetana  intention or volition.
cetasika  mental factor arising with consciousness.
citta  consciousness, the reality which knows or cognizes an object.
cuti-citta  dying-consciousness.


dana  act of generosity, liberality.
dassana kicca  function of seeing.
dhamma-dhatu  element of dhammas, realities, comprising cetasikas, subtle rupas, nibbana.
dhammarammana  all objects other than the sense objects which can be experienced through the five sense-doors, thus, objects which can be experienced only through the mind-door. 
ditthi  wrong view, distorted view about realities.
ditthigata sampayutta  accompanied by wrong view.
domanassa  unpleasant feeling.
dosa  aversion or ill-will.
dosa-mula-citta  citta rooted in aversion.
dukkha  suffering, unsatisafactoriness of conditioned realities.
dukkha vedana  painful feeling or unpleasant feeling.
dvara  doorway through which an object is experienced, the five sense-doors or the mind-door. 
dvi-panca-vinnana  the five pairs of sense-cognitions, which are seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and the experience of objects through the bodysense. Of each pair, one is kusala vipaka and one akusala vipaka.


ekaggata cetasika one-pointedness which makes citta focus on one object.


ghana-dhatu  nose element.
ghanappasada rupa  rupa which is the organ of smelling-sense, capable of receiving odour.
ghandharammana  odour.
ganthas  bonds, a group of defilements.
ghayana kicca  function of smelling.
gotrabhu  adaptation or change of lineage, the last citta of the sense-sphere before jhana, absorption, is attained, or enlightenment is attained.


hadaya-vatthu  heart-base, place of origin of the cittas other than the sense-cognitions. 
hasituppada citta  smiling-consciousness of the arahat.
hetu  root, which can be beautiful or unwholesome.


indriya  faculty. Some are rupas such as the sense organs, some are namas such as feeling. Five 'spiritual faculties' are wholesome qualifies which should be cultivated, namely: confidence, energy, sati, concentration and wisdom. A faculty is 'leader' in its own field.
issa  jealousy.


jati  nature, class (of cittas).
jhana  absorption which can be attained when one develops calm.
jivha-dhatu  tongue-element.
jivhappasada rupa  rupa which is the organ of tasting-sense, capable of receiving flavour.


kama bhumi  sensuous plane of existence.
kamacchanda  sensuous desire. .
kama-sobhana cittas  beautiful cittas of the sense-sphere.
kamavacara cittas  cittas of the sense-sphere.
kamma  intention or volition which may be wholesome or unwholesome; it is also the deed motivated by volition.
kamma-patha  course of action, which is wholesome or unwholesome.
kasina  disk, as meditation subject in the development of calm.
kaya  body. It can also stand for the 'mental body', the cetasikas.
kaya-dhatu  element of bodysense.
kayappasada rupa  bodysense, the rupa which is capable of receiving tangible object. It is all over the body, inside or outside.
kayavinnana  body consciousness, the experience of bodily impressions.
kaya-vinnatti  bodily intimation, such as gestures, facial expression, etc.
khandha  aggregate or group of existence. There are five khandhas, one of them being physical phenomena, one feelings, one perception or remembrance, one cetasikas other than feeling and perception, and one consciousness. Thus, there are five khandhas, groups of conditioned realities.
karuna  compassion.
kicca  function (of citta).
kilesa  defilement.
kiriyacitta  inoperative citta (neither cause nor result).
kukkucca  regret or worry.
kusala  wholesome.


lobha  attachment or greed.
lobha-mula-citta  citta rooted in attachment.
lokiya citta  citta which is mundane, not experiencing nibbana.
lokuttara citta  supramundane citta, experiencing nibbana.
lokuttara dhammas  the unconditioned dhamma ,which is nibbana and the cittas which experience nibbana.


macchariya  stinginess.
magga  path (Eightfold Path).
magga-citta  path-consciousness, lokuttara citta which experiences nibbana and eradicates defilements.
maha-bhuta-rupas  the rupas which are the four great elements of earth or solidity, water or cohesion, fire or temperature and wind or motion.
maha-kiriyacitta  inoperative citta of the sense-sphere accompanied by beautiful roots.
maha-kusala citta  wholesome citta of the sense-sphere.
maha-vipakacitta citta  of the sense-sphere which is result, accompanied by beautiful roots.
mano  mind, consciousness.
mano-dhatu  mind-element, comprising the five-sense-door adverting-consciousness and the two types of receiving-consciousness. 
mano-dvaravajjana-citta  mind-door adverting consciousness.
mano-dvara-vithi-cittas cittas arising in a mind-door process.
mano-vinnana dhatu  mind-consciousness element, comprising all cittas other than the sense-cognitions (seeing, etc.) and mind-element.
metta  lovingkindness.
middha  torpor.
moha  ignorance.
moha-mula-citta  citta rooted in ignorance.
mudita  sympathetic joy.


nama  mental phenomena, including those which are conditioned and also the unconditioned nama which is nibbana.
natthika ditthi  wrong view of annihilation, assumption that there is no result of kamma.
n'eva-sanna-n'asannayatana  sphere of neither perception nor non-perception, the meditation subject of the fourth immaterial jhana.
nibbana the unconditioned reality which is freedom from suffering, or the deathless.
nimitta  mental image one can acquire of a meditation subject.
nirodha-samapatti  attainment of cessation of consciousness.
nivaranas  the hindrances, a group of defilements.
nana  wisdom.


oja  the rupa which is nutrition.
olarika rupas  gross rupas (sense-objects and sense-organs)


pancadvaravajjana-citta five sense-door adverting-consciousness.
pancavinnana (or dvi-pancavinnana)  the sense-cognitions (seeing, etc.) of which there are five pairs.
panna  wisdom or understanding.
pannatti  conventional term or idea represented by it. It is not a reality which can be directly experienced.
paramattha dhammas  absolute or ultimate realities, which can be directly experienced through one of the six doors.
parikamma  preparatory consciousness, the first javanacitta arising in the process during which absorption or enlightenment is attained.
pasada-rupas sense-organs, the rupas which are capable of receiving sense-objects.
patibhaga nimitta  counterpart image, more perfected mental image of a meditation subject acquired in the development of calm.
patigha  aversion or ill-will.
patisandhi-citta  rebirth-consciousness-
phala-citta  fruit-consciousness, experiencing nibbana. It is the result of magga-citta, path-consciousness.
phottabbarammana  tangible object, experienced through bodysense.
phusana kicca  function of experiencing tangible object.
piti  enthusiasm or rapture.
puthujjana  worldling or ordinary person, not a noble person who has attained enlightenment.


rasarammana  object of flavour. 
rupa  physical phenomena which cannot experience anything.
rupa-bhumi  plane of beings whose birth was the result of rupa-jhana, fine-material jhana. 
rupa-brahma plane  fine material plane of existence.
rupa-jhana  fine material absorption, developed with a meditation subject which is still dependent on materiality. It is less refined as immaterial jhana, arupa-jhana, developed with a meditation subject which is independent on materiality.
rupakkhandha  aggregate or group of physical phenomena.
rupavacara citta  consciousness of the fine-material sphere, rupa-jhanacitta.


saddarammana  object of sound.
saddha  faith or confidence in wholesomeness.
sahetuka  accompanied by roots.
sakadagami  once-returner, noble person who has attained the second stage of enlightenment.
samadhi  concentration or one-pointedness.
samatha  the development of calm.
sampaticchana-citta  receiving-consciousness.
sampayutta  associated with.
sankharadhamma  conditioned realities.
sankarakkhandha  aggregate or group of all cetasikas other than feeling and perception or remembrance.
sanna  perception or remembrance.
santirana-citta  investigating-consciousness.
sasankharika  induced, instigated, either by oneself or someone else.
sati  mindfulness or awareness; non-forgetfuIness of what is wholesome or non-forgetfulness of realities which appear.
satipatthana  application of mindfulness. It can be the cetasika sati or the object of mindfulness.
sa-upadi-sesa nibbana  arahatship with the khandhas or groups of existence remaining, thus not final nibbana at death of an arahat.
savana-kicca  function of hearing.
sayana-kicca  function of tasting.
sila  morality (in action or speech).
silabbatupadana  wrong practice which is clinging to certain rules (rites and rituals) in one's practice.
sobhana (citta and cetasikas) beautiful, accompanied by beautiful roots.
somanassa  pleasant feeling.
sota-dhatu  element of ear.
sota-dvara-vithi-cittas  ear-door process cittas.
sotapanna  noble person who has attained the first stage of enlightenment.
sota-vinnana  hearing-consciousness.
sukha-vedana  pleasant feeling.


tadarammana      } retention or registering, last citta of a complete process.      
tatra-majjhattata  equanimity or even-mindedness.
tejo-dhatu  element of fire or heat.
thina  sloth.


uddhacca  restlessness.
upacara  access or proximatory consciousness, the second javana-citta in the process in which absorption or enlightenment is attained.
upada rupa  derived rupas, the rupas other than the four great elements.
upadana  clinging.
upadanakkhandha  the aggregates or groups which are objects of clinging.
upekkha  indifferent feeling. It can stand for even-mindedness or equanimity, and then it is not feeling.


vaci-vinnatti  the rupa which is speech intimation.
vatthu  base, physical base of citta.
vayo-dhatu  element of wind or motion.
vedana  feeling.
vicara  sustained thought or discursive thinking.
vicikiccha  doubt.
vinnana  consciousness.
vinnana-dhatu  element of consciousness, comprising all cittas.
vinnanakkhandha  aggregate of consciousness, comprising all cittas.
vinnanancayatana  sphere of boundless consciousness, meditation subject for the second stage of immaterial jhana. .
vipakacitta  citta which is the result of a wholesome deed (kusala kamma) or an unwholesome deed (akusala kamma).
vipassana  insight, wisdom which sees realities as they are.
vippayutta  unaccompanied by.
visankharadhamma  unconditioned dhamma, nibbana.
vitakka  applied thought, a cetasika which directs the citta to the object.
vithicittas  cittas arising in processes.
vithi-vimutti-cittas  process freed cittas, cittas which do not arise within a process.
votthapana-citta  determining consciousness.
vyapada  ill-will


yoniso manasikara  wise attention to the object.


March 10, 2001