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The Commentary to the Discourse
on the Arousing of Mindfulness
with Marginal Notes

The Contemplation of Mental Objects

The Five Hindrances

1. Sensuality

After explaining the Arousing of Mindfulness of the sixteenfold contemplation of consciousness, the Master said: "And, how, o bhikkhus," in order to expound the fivefold contemplation of mental objects [dhamma], -- things spiritual and material.

Further, the laying hold of pure corporeality or materiality was taught by the Blessed One in the instruction on body-contemplation, and in the instruction on the contemplation of feeling and consciousness, the laying hold of the purely spiritual. Now in order to teach the laying hold of a mixture of the material and the spiritual, he said, "And, how, o bhikkhus," and so forth. Or in the contemplation on the body the laying hold of the aggregate of corporeality or materiality was spoken of by the Master; in the contemplation on feeling, the laying hold of the aggregate of feeling; in the contemplation on mind, the laying hold of the aggregate of consciousness; and now in order to speak of even the laying hold of the aggregates of perception and formations, he said "And, how, o bhikkhus," and so forth.

There, in the Discourse, the word, santam = "present". It means existing by way of occurrence, practice or repeated happening. Asantam = "not present." Not existing, by way of non-occurrence or because of rejection from the mind by way of reflection or concentration.

In connection with the hindrances it must be known that the hindrance of sensuality arises because of wrong reflection on a object that is sensuously agreeable, pleasant, favourable. Such an object is either sensuality itself or that which produces sensuality -- the sensuality-object.

Wrong reflection is inexpedient reflection, reflection on the wrong track. Or it is reflection which considers the impermanent as permanent, pain as pleasure, non-soul as soul, the bad as good.

Sense-desire arises when wrong reflection occurs plentifully in a sensuously good object. Therefore the Blessed One said that the condition for the arising of fresh sense-desire and for the increase and expansion of existing sense-desire is plentiful wrong reflection on a sensuously auspicious or promising object.

Sense-desire is cast out, indeed, with right reflection on a sensuously inauspicious or unpromising object. Such an object itself or the jhana developed through such an object is meant by the term sensuously inauspicious object.

Right reflection is expedient reflection; reflection going on the right track. It is reflection that considers the facts of impermanence, suffering, soullessness and of impurity, according to reality.

When there is much right reflection on the sensuously inauspicious or unpromising object, sense-desire is knocked out. Therefore the Blessed One said that the condition for keeping out new sense-desire and for casting out old sense-desire is abundant right reflection on the sensuously inauspicious or unpromising object.

Further, there are six things which lead to the casting out of sense-desire: Taking up the sensuously inauspicious subject of meditation; application for the development of the jhana on the sensuously inauspicious subject of meditation; the guarded state of the controlling faculties of sense; moderation in food; the sympathy and support of good men in the endeavour; stimulating talk that helps the accomplishment of the object in view.

Explaining these six it is said: Taking up refers to the taking up of the tenfold object sensuously inauspicious, impure, or bad; the man who takes it up will cast out sense-desire. Sense-desire will also be cast out, by him who develops the jhana on the sensuously inauspicious object of meditation, by him who guards the controlling faculties of sense by closing the six sense doors, and by him who knows the measure of food for sustenance and of whom it is said:

Enough it is for the comfort of the almsman
Who has put aside all thoughts of body and life,
Who has his thoughts yoked on to craving's wane,
To stop eating when he could eat some four
Or five more lumps for which there's belly-room.
And, with drinks of water, end his begged repast.[33]

It will also be cast out by him who keeps the company of men like the Elder Tissa, the worker in the sensuously inauspicious subject of meditation, sympathetic towards those who endeavour in accomplishing the casting out of sense-desire and by talk connected with the tenfold sensuously inauspicious object. Therefore it is said by the commentator that six things are conducive to the casting out of sense-desire.

Sense-desire cast out by these six things becomes incapable of arising, in the future, through the attainment of the path of arahantship.

Hindrances have to be cast out first in the course of proper training. With the casting out of the hindrances there is induced jhana, the means of attaining quietude. Thus indeed is body-contemplation surely taught with quietude preceding.

Afterwards is given the higher instruction in regard to all divisions beginning with what should be understood -- the aggregations and the sense-base which ought to be understood, and the factors of enlightenment which should be developed. Therefore, here too, the development of quietude is desired so far as it is for the sake of insight.

It is said: "The instruction on the Arousing of Mindfulness has insight as the chief thing, abounds in insight."

Since there is no state of yoking together of the good and the bad moral qualities similar to the yoking of two bulls to a cart, -- since the good and the bad do not exist together -- from the absence of sensuality at the time of seeing one's mind through knowledge it is said: by way of occurrence. At the moment of seeing wisely the occurrence of sense-desire there is no sense-desire as good and bad states of mind cannot exist together

Existing means: When it is found in one's own mental flux.

Sensuously inauspicious or unpromising objects are the ten inanimate things: (1) The corpse that is swollen, (2) Blue, (3) Festering, (4) Fissured, (5) Mangled, (6) Dismembered, (7) Cut and dismembered, (8) With blood, (9) Wormy, (10) Become a skeleton. Details of these may be found in The Path of Purity in the exposition of the subject of meditation on the foul..

And the perception of hair of the head and so forth, because it is called in the Girimananda Sutta the perception of the sensuously inauspicious or impure, is taken as the sensuously inauspicious animate thing.

The jhana on the sensuously inauspicious object occurs in an inanimate or animate sensuously inauspicious thing. And the indication of the four kinds of wrong reflection and the four kinds of right reflection in regard to the sensuously inauspicious object is for the purpose of pointing out fully the subject.

The four kinds of consideration of the impure as pure, the impermanent as permanent, suffering as pleasure, and non-soul as soul are the four kinds of wrong reflection and the four kinds of consideration of the impure as impure and so forth are the four kinds of right reflection.

The taking up of the practice of considering the repulsiveness of any of the eleven kinds of the sensuously inauspicious or the practice of contemplation on the sensuously inauspicious object is "taking up" or "upholding."

The application to the development of the thought bent on the sensuously inauspicious object which brings partial and full concentration is application for the development of the jhana on the sensuously inauspicious subject of meditation.

Certain teachers say that as there is no opportunity for sense-desire in him who knows the proper measure of food to be taken, through absence of trouble owing to that knowledge from sloth and torpor, sense-desire is cast out in such a person. Just this reason is given in even the expository portion: The person who practices moderation in food brings about the perception of impurity bound up with that food, for instance, through the alteration of food by way of bodily excretions, and dwells on other similar thoughts as well as on the idea of corporeal subjection to food. Such a person casts out sense-desire.

The Elder Tissa referred to in the commentary above is the Elder Maha Tissa (of Anuradhapura), who saw the teeth of a woman and who by doing right reflection on their bony nature cast out sense-desire through jhana.

According to the Abhidhamma method of instruction, even the whole world is the hindrance of sense-desire. Therefore the commentator said: through the attainment of the path of arahantship [abhidhamma pariyayena sabbo pi loko kamacchandanivarananti aha arahattamaggenati].

2. Anger

Indeed, wrong reflection on an object of resentment produces anger. In this connection anger itself as well as the object which causes anger is called the resentment-object, or the sign of resentment. Wrong reflection has just the same character everywhere, and when it occurs much in the resentment-object or the resentment-sign, anger arises. Therefore the Blessed One said that intense wrong reflection on an object of resentment is the cause of fresh anger and of the increase and expansion of anger already existing.

By right reflection of the liberating thought of love, the thought of love that frees the heart indeed, anger gets cast out. The term "love" here is applicable both to partial concentration (upacara samadhi) and full concentration (appana samadhi). Heart-liberating love is only full concentration. Right reflection has the same character throughout. When it occurs strong in the thought of love, anger is removed from the heart. Therefore the Master said: "There is, o bhikkhus, the liberation of the mind through love. Intense right reflection on love is the condition for keeping out new anger and for throwing out anger that is already in the heart."

And it is said that these six things help to cast anger out: Taking up the practice of the love subject of meditation; applying oneself to the development of jhana on the thought of love; reflection on one's action as one's own property, abundance of wise consideration; sympathetic and helpful companionship of the good; and stimulating talk that assists the development of the thought of love and the overthrow of anger.

In explanation the commentator said: Anger will be put down in one who takes up the love subject of meditation by way of spreading it particularly or separately. Or if one takes up the love subject of meditation by way of spreading it generally, without particularization or directional restriction in space, then too anger will be put down, in one.

Anger vanishes also through the development of jhana by spreading love restrictedly with differentiation on seven or twenty-eight ways or by spreading it unrestrictedly without differentiation in five or twenty ways or by spreading it directionally towards the ten points in space.

Anger vanishes in one who reflects thus too: "What will you do to him by becoming angry?" "Will you be able to destroy things like his virtue?" "Have you not been born here just by your own actions and will you not also by your own actions get reborn hereafter?" "Getting angry with another is comparable to the state of him who wishes to strike another with glowing coals, red-hot crowbar, excreta and such other damaging things after taking them up in his bare hands." "And what can another who is angry with you do to you?" "Can he destroy your virtue or any other similar thing of yours?" "He, too, has been born here as a result of his actions and will be reborn hereafter just according to his actions." "Like a present not accepted is that anger of his and like a handful of dust thrown against the wind, that anger of his alights on his own head." In this way one reflects on one's own action as one's own property and also another person's action as that person's own, and puts out anger.

To one remaining in an abundance of wise consideration after reflecting on action as one's or another's own property, anger vanishes. And it vanishes in him who is in the company of a sympathetic friend who delights in developing the jhana of the thought of love like the Elder Assagutta and through stimulating talk on the thought of love when in any one of the four postures. Therefore it is said: Six things are conducive to the casting out of anger. The anger cast out by these six things, however, is finally destroyed by the attainment of the state of the Anagami, the Never-returner.

The thought of love [metta] is a sublime state of mind [brahmavihara]; it is one's own state of freedom from hatred. A detailed description of the way of developing love as a subject of meditation is given in the Path of Purity.

The following summary of hints gathered from different comments and the Path of Purity will be helpful to a beginner:

The love-thought of meditation is different from worldly attachment. It is based on wishing well to all beings. The idea of possession of the loved object is foreign to it. It is not a state of mind that encourages exclusiveness. The aim of the meditation is finally to include in the ambit of one's goodwill all beings equally, without distinction. "The liberation of the mind through love" refers only to full concentration. Without reaching full concentration there is no effective freedom from anger. The beginner who works at this subject of meditation is not to practice the thought of love at first:

On a sensuously promising object of the opposite sex, as attachment towards it might arise in the yogi's mind.

On a dead person, as the practice would be futile.

On an enemy, as anger might arise.

On an indifferent person, as the practice might prove wearisome.

On one who is very dear as the arousing of friendly thoughts without attachment towards such a one would be tiring; and as mental agitation might occur should even some slight trouble overtake that one.

Taking up the practice of the love subject of meditation is the generating, the bringing about of the characteristic, sign or mark, of the love thought of meditation of him who through loving-kindness gathers together all beings with goodwill.

The reflection on the thought of love itself is the sign of the love thought of meditation, because the reflection arisen first is the reason of the later reflection.

Spreading it particularly: Consecutively in the following order: to oneself, to a friend, an indifferent person, and an enemy. Spreading it generally: By breaking down all barriers, limits and reservations which separate oneself from all others, and extending the same kind of friendly thought to all. Directionally: Extending the thought of love towards one point of the compass, for instance, the east. These three kinds of spreading of the thought of love refer to the stage of meditation of "taking up the practice of the thought of love" which covers the training from the beginning to the attainment of partial concentration (upacara samadhi). In regard to this state of meditation the following is stated: Spreading the thought of love after particularizing the direction by way of a monastery, a street, village and so forth is one way and spreading the thought of love towards a direction in space generally by way of the eastern direction and so forth without specifying a monastery and so forth is another way of practice

The development of the jhana on the thought of love is the practice again and again of the thought of love that has got partial concentration. The development is done in three ways: (1) The spreading of the love thought universally. This is done by wishing that all living beings (satta), all breathing things (pana), all beings born (bhuta), all persons (puggala), all who have reached a state of individuality (attabhavapariyapanna), be without hatred, disease, and grief, and be happy taking care of themselves (avera, abyapajjha, anigha hontu, suhki attanam pariharantu). (2) Spreading the thought of love by way of a restricted group of beings. This is done by wishing that all females, all males, all purified ones, all non-purified ones, all divine beings, all humans, all beings fallen to states of woe, be without hatred, disease and grief and happy taking care of themselves. (3) Spreading the thought of love directionally in space. This is done by restricting the thought of love towards each of the ten directions in space: the cardinal points, the intermediate points, and the zenith and nadir. And it is also done by wishing that the beings in each of the directions taken up, according to the divisions and groups given above, be without hatred and so forth according to the formula already mentioned.

3. Sloth and Torpor

Through wrong reflection on a state of boredom and the like, sloth and torpor come to be. Boredom is just dissatisfaction. Lassitude is bodily laziness. Languidity of body is the bending of the body torpidly in getting up and in similar actions. Lethargy after a meal is a dizziness or slight faint which is due to eating a principal meal. It is also called the discomfort which follows such a meal. The mind's sluggishness is the dullness of the mind. An abundance of wrong reflection on boredom and similar states of mind produces sloth and torpor. Therefore the Blessed One said that much wrong reflection on boredom, lassitude, languidity of body, lethargy after a meal, and the mind's sluggishness, is a condition for the production of fresh sloth and torpor and the increase and expansion of sloth and torpor already come into being.

Through right reflection in inceptive energy and similar states of mind is brought about the overthrow of sloth and torpor. Inceptive energy is the effort first set afoot. Exertion is more powerful than the inceptive energy because it leaves indolence behind. And because of its assailing further and further of the destructive condition, progressive endeavour is more powerful than exertion. By the exercise of right reflection intensely on this threefold strenuousness sloth and torpor are cast out. Therefore the Blessed One said that the condition for keeping out new sloth and torpor, and for casting out sloth and torpor that is old, is abundant right reflection on the element of inceptive energy, of exertion and of progressive endeavour.

There are six things which lead to the casting out of sloth and torpor: The seeing of the reason of sloth and torpor in the fact of eating too much or gluttony; the changing of the postures completely; reflection on the perception of light; staying in the open; sympathetic and helpful companionship of the good; and stimulating talk that assists in dispelling sloth an torpor.

There is the following explanation of these six things: The bhikkhu who has eaten gluttonously is assailed by sloth and torpor while doing his recluse duty of meditation in his day or night quarters as by a mighty elephant pressing down on him, but that one who practices moderation in food is not troubled thus with these hindrances. In one who thus sees the characteristic of sloth and torpor in gluttony there is the casting out of sloth and torpor.

Sloth and torpor disappear in him who changes over from the posture which induces sloth and torpor to another; in him who reflects on the brightness or the light of the moon, a lamp or a torch by night, and on the light or brightness of the sun by day; in him who lives in the open; in him who associates with sympathetic and helpful companions, like the Elder Maha Kassapa, who have dispelled sloth and torpor; and by stimulating talk connected with a strict recluse-regimen.

Therefore it is said: Six things lead to the casting out of sloth and torpor. The yogi understands thus: sloth and torpor cast out by these six things are stopped from arising forever in the future by the attainment of the path of arahantship.

The bhikkhu who has eaten gluttonously after the manner of the well-known types of Brahamanical gormandizers mentioned in ancient Indian books. There are five kinds of these greedy eaters: (1) He who eats until he has to be raised up by the hand from his seat. (2) He who lies rolling just where he has eaten and eats as long as he likes. (3) He who eats until he slips off his waist cloth. (4) He who fills himself with food in such a way that it seems as if a crow could peck at the food in him. (5) He who having filled his belly full and vomitted eats more food again, or he who eats until he vomits.

On the light or brightness of the sun by day: The meaning should be understood thus: Sloth and torpor vanish in him, too, who at night is reflecting on the image of the perception of the brightness of the sun he got by day.

Here it may be helpful to state the eight ways of dealing with torpor taught by the Master to the Elder Maha Moggallana: (1) One should neglect to mind the thought which says that drowsiness is descending on one, or (2) one should reflect on the Dhamma, or (3) repeat or recite the Dhamma, or (4) pull both earlobes and rub or massage the limbs with the hands, or (5) getting up from the sitting position, apply water on and rub the eyes, and look into the distance, at the constellations in the starry sky, or (6) reflect on the thought of light, or (7) fix the thought on the ambulatory, aware of the ends of it with the controlling faculties of sense turned inwards and the mind kept in, or (8) sleep conscious of the time of waking and on awaking get up quickly thinking that one will not give oneself to the comforts of lying down, reclining and languor, when all other seven ways fail.

4. Agitation and Worry

Wrong reflection on mental agitation brings about flurry and worry. Mental agitation is inner turbulence. Actually it is flurry and worry, only. Intense wrong reflection on that mental agitation produces flurry and worry. Therefore the Blessed One said that wrong reflection on mental agitation when plentifully done produces fresh flurry and worry and increases and expands flurry and worry already in existence.

The casting out of agitation and worry occurs through right reflection on mental tranquillity called concentration and an abundance of right reflection on mental tranquillity, says the Blessed One, is a condition for the keeping out of fresh mental agitation and worry and the dispelling of agitation and worry already in the mind.

Six things are conducive to the casting out of agitation and worry: Knowledge; questioning; understanding of disciplinary rules; association with those more experienced and older than oneself in the practice of things like virtue; sympathetic and helpful companionship and stimulating talk that helps the rejection of mental agitation and worry.

In explanation it is said as follows: Agitation and worry disappear in him who learns in the spirit and in the letter one, two, three, four or five collections of Scripture. This is how one gets over agitation and worry by knowledge. Questioning means: inquiring much about what is befitting and not, according to the practice of the Sangha. In him who does this, too, agitation and worry disappear. Then these twin evils disappear in him who has got the mastery of the Discipline due to practical application of and conversance with the nature of the Rule of the Sangha. This is the understanding of the disciplinary rules. Association with those more experienced and so forth; the going to the presence of and the conversing with virtuous elders in the Sangha. By such visits mental agitation and worry disappear in one. Sympathetic and helpful companionship: association with experts of the Disciplinary Rules like the Elder Upali, the first of the great masters of the Discipline in the Sangha. In such company mental agitation and worry disappear. Stimulating talk in this connection refers particularly to matters of disciplinary practice by which one comes to know what is befitting and what is not. By this agitation and worry vanish in one. Therefore, is it said that six things lead to the rejection of agitation and worry, but the agitation cast out by these things finally ceases to arise in the future through the attainment of the path of Arahantship, and the worry cast out by these things finally ceases to arise in the future through the attainment of the path of the Non-returner.

In their own state or actually as they are individually, mental agitation and worry are two different things. Still, as worry in the form of repentance or remorse for ill done and good undone is similar to agitation which is characterized by distraction and disquiet of mind, mental agitation is called flurry and worry.

Mental agitation does not overtake the intelligent well-read man who probes into things by way of what is written in books and by way of the significance and import of the things themselves. Therefore, it is said that by way of knowledge not merely of the Disciplinary Rules, but by way of knowledge of the ninefold Buddha-word, beginning with the Discourses, according to the principles of the method already stated, and by the application of the proper remedies mentioned by way of questioning and so forth, remorse and regret for ill done and good undone do not take place.

By associating with elders who are older than oneself in the practice of the precepts of virtue and similar good things, who are restrained, aged, matured seniors, there is brought to one a measure of restraint, matured bearing, dignity and calm, and mental agitation and worry are cast out.

Good companionship refers to association with those versed in the Discipline who are able to dispel worry as regards any doubt concerning what is proper and improper practice.

5. Doubt

Wrong reflection on things which are founded on doubt brings about the arising of doubt. Things which are founded on doubt are known as just doubt owing to the state of being the reason of doubt again and again. Therefore the Blessed One said that wrong reflection on things founded on doubt is the condition for fresh doubt and for the increase and expansion of doubt already arisen. By right reflection on wholesome things, karmically and the like, there is the casting out of doubt. Therefore, the Blessed One said that right reflection on things which are karmically wholesome and not, things blameful and blameless, things to be practiced and not to be practiced, things of low and high value, things dark and fair, the counterparts of bad and good, done intensely, keeps out fresh doubt and casts out doubt that has already come into existence.

There are these six things which help to throw out doubt: The state of being learned in the Buddha's teaching; of inquiring about the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha; of understanding thoroughly the nature of the Discipline; of being decided about the truth of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha; sympathetic and helpful companionship; and stimulating talk that helps to dispel doubt.

The first has been explained earlier. It is the knowledge of the Suttas generally both in the letter and the spirit. The second is obvious. The third indicates a state of mastery of the Discipline through practical application and great conversance with it at first hand. The fourth is the strong inclination towards or reliance on the Triple Gem called the faith that is capable of settling in the object of the virtues of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. The fifth is association with good companions like the Elder Vakkali, bent, inclined, sliding towards faith, mentally. The sixth is stimulating talk on the Triple Gem at all times possible in every state of behaviour. One can cast away doubt by means of these six things, but the doubt cast out by these six things does not ever arise in the future only when it is destroyed by the attainment of the first stage of the Arahant.

Things which are founded on doubt are things which stand or proceed on doubt. Taking doubt itself one sees that the doubt arisen first is the particular reason by way of a common cause of the doubt arisen afterwards.

Surely by the knowledge of the Dhamma and by inquiry all doubts are cast out.

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." In this way the bhikkhu lives contemplating the mental objects, by laying hold of the five hindrances amongst the mental objects of his own mind or amongst the mental objects in another's mind or at one time amongst the mental objects of his own mind, and at another time amongst the mental objects of another's mind.

Here origination and dissolution, only refer to the origination of the five hindrances by way of wrong reflection on sensuously attractive or beautiful objects etc., and the dissolution of the five hindrances by wise reflection on the impurity of the sensuous objects etc.

Here the mindfulness which lays hold of the hindrances is the Truth of Suffering. Thus the portal of deliverance of the bhikkhu who lays hold of the hindrances should be understood.

The Aggregates

Having expounded the contemplation of mental objects by way of the five hindrances, the Master said, "And, further, o bhikkhus," in order to explain the contemplation of mental objects by way of the fivefold aggregation.

Pańcasu upadanakkhandhesu = "In (the mental objects of) the five aggregates of clinging." The five aggregates of clinging are the groups that grasp life. The congeries of mental objects become the condition of clinging, is the meaning. This is a brief indication of these aggregates. For the statement about the aggregates at length the talk on the aggregates in the Path of Purity should be read.

Iti rupam = "Thus is material form." So far is there material form and no further. In this way the bhikkhu perceives material form according to nature. In regard to feeling and the things that come afterwards the same is the method of exegesis. This is the brief indication of meaning of the matters referred to here. For the lengthy explanation on these things one should read the talk on the aggregates in the Path of Purity.

Iti rupassa samudayo = "Thus is the arising of material form." The arising of material form and the other aggregates should be known according to the fivefold way (mentioned in the Section on the Modes of Deportment) through the arising of ignorance and so forth.

Iti rupassa atthangamo = "Thus is the disappearance of material form." The disappearance of material form and the other aggregates should be known according to the fivefold way (mentioned in the Section on the Modes of Deportment) through the passing away of ignorance and so forth. One should read the talk on the aggregates in the Path of Purity for further explanation.

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." In this way the bhikkhu lives contemplating mental objects by laying hold of the fivefold aggregation of clinging amongst his own mental objects or amongst the mental objects of another or at one time in his own and at another time in another's mental objects.

The origination and dissolution of the fivefold aggregate should be brought forward and connected by way of the fifty characteristics of the five groups, with the extended application of the words: "From the arising of ignorance the arising of material form comes to be."

From here on according to the method already stated by the commentator should the exposition be.

According to nature means: according to the nature of breaking-up, according to the nature of the eye, colour and the like in regard to material form, and according to the nature of experiencing, the nature of pleasure and the like in regard to feeling. In this way all other connected things should be interpreted.

The Sense-bases

After explaining the contemplation of mental objects by way of the aggregates the Master said: "And, further, o bhikkhus," in order to explain the contemplation of mental objects by way of the sense-bases.

Chasu ajjhattika bahiresu ayatanesu = "In (the mental objects of) the six internal and the six external sense-bases." The eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body and the mind are the six internal sense-bases, and material form, mind, smell, tastes, tactual object, and mental object are the six external sense-bases.

Cakkhum pajanati = "(He) understands the eye." He understands the sensory apparatus of the eye, by way of its own distinct function and salient characteristic.

Rupe pajanati = "(He) understands material form (objects) that are visible." He understands material form arising from the four producers of corporeality, namely, karma, consciousness, climate and nutriment [kamma citta utu ahara], by way of their own distinctive function and salient characteristic.

Yam tadubhayam paticcca uppajjati samyojanam = "The fetter that arises dependent on both (eye and forms)." He understands according to distinct function and characteristic the tenfold fetter that arises dependent on both eye and forms -- the tenfold fetter of sense-desire, resentment, pride, speculative theory, doubt, belief in rites and ceremonies, the desire to go on existing, envy, avarice and ignorance.

"How does this tenfold fettering arise?" asks one.

The fetter of sensuality arises for him who by way of sensuous enjoyment takes delight in a pleasant sense-object become visible at the eye-door. For him who is annoyed or angry at the sight of an unpleasant object, the fetter of resentment arises, and the fetter of pride arises in him who thinks: No one but me is able to consider the object wisely. The fetter of speculative theory comes to be in him who takes material form to be permanent and everlasting. The fetter of doubt arises in him who thinks in this way: Is the material form a being or a being's? The fetter of the desire to go on existing arises in him who wishes thus: To be sure, in a favourable state of existence this material form will become easy of access. The fetter of rites and ceremonies arises in him who undertakes to perform rites and ceremonies thinking: In the future it will be possible to obtain such an object as this by taking up the observance of rites and ceremonies. The fetter of envy arises in him who contemplates grudgingly: Should no others get this material form, it would be good, indeed. The fetter of avarice arises in one who stints for another the material form belonging to one.

The fetter of ignorance arises (with all the previously mentioned fetters), with all sensuous passion and the like, by way of the relation of conascent nescience.

Yathaca anupannassa samyojanassa uppado hoti tańca pajanati = "He understands how the arising of the non-arisen (tenfold) fetter comes to be." He understands that the (tenfold) fetter had not arisen earlier owing to some cause of non-occurrence.

Yatha ca uppannassa samyojanassa pahanam hoti tańca pajanati = "He understands how the abandoning of the arisen (tenfold) fetter comes to be." He understands the reason for the abandoning of just the (tenfold) fetter arisen through previous non-abandoning or through occurrence.

Yatha ca pahinassa samojanassa ayatim anuppado hoti tańca pajanati = "He understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned (tenfold) fetter comes to be." He understands the reason for the non-arising in the future of even the (tenfold) fetter abandoned by way of rejection of separate factors through right reflection [tadangavasena] and through absorption [vikkhambhana vasena].

Owing to what reason does the tenfold fettering cease to arise in the future finally?

The path of stream-winning or the first stage of awakening is the reason for final cessation of the five fetters of speculative theory, doubt, rites and ceremonies, envy, and avarice. The path of once-returning or the second stage of awakening is the reason for the final cessation of sensuality and resentment of a gross kind and the residum of these two fetters finally ceases by reason of the statement of the path of never-returning, the third stage of awakening. The fact which makes the fetter of pride, of the desire to go on existing, and of ignorance to cease finally in the future is the path of final purification, arahantship, the fourth state of awakening.

The same is the method of exegesis in sotańca pajanati sadde ca pajanati = "He understands the ear and sounds." Further, in this connection, the talk on the sense-bases in full should be understood as stated by the commentator in the Path of Purity.

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." The bhikkhu lives contemplating the mental objects by laying hold of the internal sense-bases in his own mental objects or in another's or laying hold of the external sense-bases in another's mental objects or in his own or at one time in his own and at another time in another's mental objects.

Origination and dissolution should be brought forward and connected here by the extended application of the method indicated by the words: "From the origin of ignorance the origin of the eye" to the sense-bases of material form in the aggregate of materiality, to the mental sense-base in the aggregate of consciousness, and to the sense-base of the mental object in the other non-material aggregates, according to the method of exegesis already stated by the commentator. The supramundane states should not be taken. From here onward the exposition is according to the method already shown by the commentator.

The two groups of six sense-bases are stated by way of determining the sense-doors and the sense-objects of arising of sixfold consciousness. Of the consciousness or mind aggregate included in a course of cognition of eye-consciousness, just the eye-base is the "door" of origin, and the base of the material form is the object. So it is in the case of the others. But of the sixth sense-base the part of the mind-base called the life-continum, the unconscious mind, is the "door" of origin [chatthassa pana bhavangamanasankhato manayatanekadeso uppatti dvaram]. And in a particular or special way the mind-object base is the object [asadharananca dhammayatanam arammanam].

Dependent on both: The eye becomes a condition by way of decisive support and the material forms, the objects, become a condition by way of objective predominance and objective decisive support [cakkhum upanissaya paccayavasena paccayabhutam rupe arammanadhipati arammanupanissaya vasena paccayabhute ca paticca].

The Factors of Enlightenment

1. Mindfulness

After explaining the contemplation of mental objects by way of the internal and the external sense-bases, the Master said, "And further, o bhikkhus," in order to talk on the contemplation of mental objects, by way of the Factors of Enlightenment, the mental limbs of a being who is awaking from the stupor of the passions that soil or who is penetrating the Real Truths of Suffering, its Cause, its Cessation, and the Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering.

Limbs are members or constituent parts of the awaking mind.

Santam = "Is present". Existing by way of attainment.

The enlightenment factor called mindfulness is the enlightenment factor of mindfulness.

Because in these enlightenment factors, the meditator effectively gets enlightened, the meditator is called "Complete Enlightenment" from the time he begins strenuous contemplation on insight. It is a name for him who stands in the practice starting from the arising of the knowledge of the rise and fall of phenomena.

The sevenfold completeness or harmony, beginning with mindfulness by which he awakes, effectively, rises from the sleep of the defilements, or penetrates the Truths, is "Complete Enlightenment." The components of that "Complete Enlightenment" or of the harmony called "Complete Enlightenment" are the factors of enlightenment.

The instruction of the Discourses is figurative and as this instruction on the Arousing of Mindfulness is set going by way of the mundane eightfold path, it is said by the commentator that the meditator is "Complete Enlightenment". Otherwise he should be a Pure Disciple [ariya savaka]. The meditator is considered the personification of the factors of complete enlightenment by which he can reach Nibbana.

In the other factors of enlightenment the word-meaning should be understood in the same way.

Assantam = "Is absent". Not existing through lack of attainment.

Yatha anuppannassa = "How (the arising) of the non-arisen." First, is the enlightenment factor of mindfulness. There are things which condition the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, and an abundance of right reflection on them is the reason that is conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness and for the increase, the expansion and completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor.

Thus it comes into being: just mindfulness comprises the things which condition the enlightenment factor of mindfulness. Right reflection has just the characteristic already mentioned, and when right reflection occurs plentifully in the things which condition the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, the enlightenment factor of mindfulness arises.

Further, four things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of mindfulness: Mindfulness with clear comprehension, the avoiding of person with confused minds, association with persons who keep mindfulness ready for application, inclination towards mindfulness.

In explanation it is said: Mindfulness arises through mindfulness with clear comprehension in the seven positions beginning with that of "going forwards"; or the mindfulness arousing the knowledge which grasps the purpose of these actions is mindfulness with clear comprehension, and as mindfulness with clear comprehension everywhere is a state which brings about the cultivation of mindfulness, mindfulness with clear comprehension is necessary for the arising of mindfulness. As the abandoning or rejection of contrary things and the practice of suitable things are necessary for the arising of fresh karmically wholesome things, so the eschewing of persons bereft of mindfulness, association with persons who cultivate mindfulness, the state of being not engaged with the first kind and the state of being engaged with the second are necessary for the arising of the enlightenment factor of mindfulness.

Mindfulness arises through the avoiding of persons who are confused in mind like crows that come cawing to food thrown; through association with persons who keep mindfulness ready for application like the Elder Tissadatta who in the Terrace of the Wisdom Tree having got a golden ticket authorizing him to expound the Dhamma [bodhi mande suvanna salakam gahetva] entered the assembly saying: "In which one of the eighteen languages shall I expound the Dhamma?" and the Elder Abhaya who is mentioned as the Elder Dattabhaya by the commentator; and through the state of mind tending for originating mindfulness in all postures, in all kinds of behaviour or disposition of the body. And the bhikkhu knows that the completion by culture of the enlightenment factor of mindfulness brought into being by these four ways takes place by means of the attainment of the path of arahantship.

2. Investigation of Mental Objects

There are karmically good and karmically bad things ..... right and wrong counterparts of bright and dark things, and an abundance of right reflection on them is the reason conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects and for the increase, expansion and the completion of culture of that enlightenment factor when it has arisen.

Here, right reflection is the conscious state that is associated with knowledge and which arises by way of perceiving, according to actuality, the nature, function, characteristic and so forth of the several skillful (or wholesome) states of mind and the like. Because it is correct reflection it is called right (or radical) reflection.

Six things lead to the arising of this enlightenment factor: Inquiring about the aggregates and so forth; the purification of the basis (namely, the cleaning of the body, clothes and so forth); imparting evenness to the (five spiritual) controlling faculties; avoiding the ignorant; associating with the wise; reflecting on the profound difference of the hard-to-perceive processes of the aggregates, modes (or elements), sense-bases and so forth; and the inclining (sloping, bending) towards the development of the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects.

Inquiring about the aggregates and so forth means: seeking the meaning of the aggregates, the modes (or elements), sense-bases, controlling faculties, powers, enlightenment factors, way factors, absorption factors, the meditation for quietude, and the meditation for insight by asking for explanation of knotty points regarding these things in the Five Nikayas with the commentaries from teachers of the Dhamma.

Purification of the basis is the cleaning of the personal basis: the body, and of the impersonal basis: clothes and dwelling place. The flame of a lamp is unclear when its wick, oil and container are dirty; the wick splutters, flickers; but the flame of a lamp that has a clean wick, oil and container is clear and the wick does not spit; it burns smoothly. So it is with knowledge. Knowing that arises out of the mind and mental qualities which are in dirty external and internal surroundings is apt to be impure, too, but the knowledge that arises under clean conditions is apt to be pure. In this way cleanliness leads to the growth of this enlightenment factor which comprises knowledge.

Personal cleanliness is impaired by the excessive length of hair of the head, nails, hair of the body, by the excess of humours, and by the dirt of perspiration; cleanliness of impersonal or external things is impaired when robes are worn out, dirty and smelly, and when the house where one lives is dirty, soiled and untidy. So personal cleanliness should be secured by shaving, hair-cutting, nail-paring, the use of pectoral emetics and of purgatives which make the body light, and by shampooing, bathing and doing other necessary things, at the proper time. In similar way external cleanliness should be brought about by darning, washing and dyeing one's robes, and by smearing the floor of one's house with clay and the like to smoothen and clean it, and by doing other necessary things to keep the house clean and tidy.

Imparting evenness to the (five spiritual) controlling faculties is the equalizing of the controlling faculties of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom.

Equalizing is making neither more nor less effective functionally.

When faith outstrips the others through over-activity, the others are thrown out of gear. Then energy finds it impossible to exert; mindfulness, to attend to the object; concentration, to be non-distracted; and wisdom, to see. Therefore that over-activity of faith should be made to wane either by reflection on the phenomenal nature of the things (faith) or by not attending to that thing when thinking of which faith becomes excessive. The story of the Thera Vakkali[34] is the illustration of over-active faith.

Faith outstrips the others because of unclearness of wisdom and the laxity and so forth of energy and the others, through the excessive zeal of the function of faith, in regard to a believable object, an object that generates trust. Energy is unable to do the work of exerting and of supporting the associated mental characteristics and to avoid indolence.

Mindfulness is not able to do the work of attending to the object, of continuing to be at the object, after coming to it.

Concentration is not able to do the work of non-distraction, of rejecting distraction.

To see the object, according to actuality as if one were seeing a physical thing with the eye, wisdom is not able.

These four faculties are unable to do their work because of their being overwhelmed by the faculty of faith acting very strong. Only by the evenness of function can the mental things which exist together with consciousness, and are the principal things amongst conascent mental things, namely, the five spiritual controlling faculties, accomplish their work. Not otherwise.

Reflection on the phenomenal nature of the thing (faith). By examining the object of faith by way of the conditioned and the produced from the conditioned and the like, by scrutiny according to actuality.

The story of the Thera Vakkali. This venerable person who fulfilled his duties through keen faith liked to behold the Master always. The Master admonished him saying, "What shall it profit you to see this impure body. Who sees the Dhamma, sees me," and urged him to practice a subject of meditation. He was unable to apply himself to the practice of the subject of meditation and as he was inclined to destroy himself, he went up to a place that was a steep declivity. Then the Master showed himself by his psychic power as if he were seated before the thera and spoke these words:

The bhikkhu who is full of joy and believes in
The Dispensation of the Buddha
Can reach the peaceful happy state
of the ceasing of activities.

Gladdened by the words of the Master he set up the development of insight, but as his faith was very strong he was not able to enter into the joy of the insight. The Master knowing this gave him the subject of meditation after correcting it with the imparting of evenness of the controlling faculties. The thera after putting himself in the path of practice taught by the Master, and after doing hard work in regular order, reached arahantship.

If however the controlling faculty of energy becomes too powerful then neither will the faculty of faith be able to do its work of arousing faith in a settled way in its object nor will the remaining controlling faculties be able to perform their functions. Therefore, in such a case, energy should be made to lessen its activity by the development of the enlightenment factors of calm, concentration and equanimity. The story of the Thera Sona[35] is given as an illustration of overdone energy.

The story of the Thera Sona. This refers to Sona Thera who was of delicate constitution. After getting a subject of meditation from the Master he was living in Cool Wood, and he thought thus: "My body is delicate and it is not possible to reach happiness with comfort only. Even after being exhausted, the duty of the recluse should be done." Thereupon, he decided, while giving himself up to exertion, to keep to only the two postures of standing and walking. Owing to excessive walking blisters appeared on the soles of his feet and caused him great pain. He continued to make strong effort in spite of the pain but could not produce a state of distinction in meditation with his excessive energy.

The Master visited Sona, instructed him with the simile of the lute, corrected the Thera's subject of meditation showing him the method of applying energy evenly and went to Vulture Peak. Having applied energy evenly according to the method given by the Master, and after working hard for insight, the Thera, developing the practice, established himself in Arahantship.

Even thus should the incapacity of the rest of the spiritual faculties to function effectively when one of them has become over-active and powerful, be understood.

Here, the wise specially praise the equalizing of faith and wisdom and of concentration and energy. He who is very strong in faith and feeble in wisdom becomes a person who believes in foolish people who have no virtue, persons who are not trustworthy. He who has very strong wisdom and feeble faith gets crafty-minded and is like a drug-produced disease that cannot be cured. Such a person thinks that wholesome karma arises with just the intention to do good. Going along the wrong way, by a species of thought beyond the limits of reason, and doing neither almsgiving nor other similar good deeds, he is born in a state of woe. By the equalizing of faith and wisdom one believes only in those like the Buddha who are worthy of trust because there is a reason for trusting them.

As concentration naturally inclines towards indolence, when there is too much of concentration and too little of energy, indolence overwhelms the mind. As energy inclines naturally towards restlessness or agitation when there is much energy and little concentration, restlessness overwhelms the mind. When concentration is combined well with energy there will be no falling of the mind into indolence. When energy is combined well with concentration there will be no falling of the mind into restlessness.

Discord of faith and wisdom and discord of concentration and energy through functional unevenness are not conducive to success in meditation.

Faith and wisdom should be made functionally even and harmonious. So, too, concentration and energy. With the making even functionally of these pairs full absorption occurs.

Further, to a worker in concentration -- a man pursuing the path of quietude [samatha] -- faith that is somewhat strong is met. With faith that is (rather) strong, the yogi will, by believing in and fixing the mind on the object, reach full absorption.

If for instance the yogi is meditating on the element of earth he will not think thus: "How can absorption arise by the repetition of the word earth?" He will think that the method of meditation taught by the Supreme Buddha will surely succeed, and he will settle in, and leap on to the object by way of firm belief, having, as it were, forced his way into it.

Concerning concentration and wisdom it is said as follows: For the worker in concentration -- the man pursuing quietude [samatha] -- strong one-pointedness is met by reason of the fact that concentration is the principal thing in absorption. With strong one-pointedness he reaches full absorption. For the man pursuing the path of insight [vipassana] strong wisdom is met; if strong wisdom exists he arrives at the penetration of the characteristics. By the equalizing of the concentration and wisdom of the worker in concentration, the man pursuing quietude, there is just full absorption.

Owing to the very great strength of the concentration of the man pursuing quietude, very great strength of wisdom too should be desired.

Full absorption is mundane full absorption. Supramundane full absorption also is expected through the equalizing of these. Accordingly the Master said: "He develops quietude and insight yoked together."

Strong mindfulness is met everywhere since it protects the mind from falling into restlessness belonging to faith, energy and wisdom and from falling into indolence belonging to concentration. Faith, energy and wisdom have a tendency towards excitement and concentration has a tendency towards sloth.

Therefore, mindfulness is to be desired by the yogi always. It is likened to the salt-flavouring which is in all curries, and the minister-of-all-work wanted in every business of the king.

And because of this (universality of application of mindfulness) the commentator made the following statement: "And indeed, it was said by the Blessed One thus: 'Mindfulness is to be desired everywhere.' Why? Because mindfulness is the mind's help, because mindfulness has just protection as its manifestation, and because without mindfulness there is no exerting or restraining of the mind."

Because it is applied always mindfulness is always useful or desirable; and because in all states of elation and depression it should be developed by the man longing for the factors of enlightenment, it is necessary.

Mind's help: the help of a wholesome or skillful state of consciousness. It is the support of such a state of mind for attaining the yet unattained.

Avoiding the ignorant is keeping away from foolish folk not grounded in the knowledge of the divisions of the aggregates and so forth. Association with wise folk is fellowship with persons possessed of the knowledge of rise and fall through the laying hold of all the fifty characteristics.

Reflecting on the profound differences of the profound process of the aggregates and so forth is the analytic reflection according to wisdom of the movement of the hard-to-perceive aggregates and so forth.

Inclining towards the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is the mental state inclining, tending, and sloping towards the purpose of originating this enlightenment factor in every posture of standing, sitting, walking and lying down.

The yogi understands that the culture of this enlightenment factor arisen thus comes to completion through the path of arahantship.

3. Energy

There is the mode (or element) of energy that is inceptive, the mode of energy that is enduring, and the mode of energy that is strong, powerful, courageous; and an abundance of right reflection on these (modes of energy) is the reason conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of energy, and for the increase, expansion and the completion by culture of that enlightenment factor when it has arisen.

Eleven things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of energy: Reflection on the fearfulness of states-of-woe [apaya bhaya]; the seeing of the benefits of energy; reflection on the path to be trodden; the honouring of alms, reflection on the greatness of the heritage; the reflection on the greatness of the Master; reflection on the greatness of race; reflection on the greatness of fellows in the holy life; the avoiding of lazy folk; the associating with folk who have begun to exert; and the inclination towards the development of the enlightenment factor of energy.

Reflection on the fearfulness of the states-of-woe as stated in the Devaduta[36] and other Suttas produces in the yogi the thought: "Now is the time to rouse energy; it is not possible to be energetic when subject to great suffering."

The seeing of the benefits of energy is the appreciation of the fact that only by one who has begun to exert himself (in the development of the enlightenment factors etc.) could the Supramundane Truth be obtained and not by a lazy person.

"The path trodden by all the Supreme Buddhas, the Paccekabuddhas, and the Great Disciples, has to be trodden by you," says the yogi to himself, "and that path is impossible for an indolent person." That is the reflection on the path to be trodden.

The yogi thinks thus: "Those who support you with alms-food and so forth are not relatives of yours, are not your servants; they do not give you excellent alms thinking: 'We shall (in the future) live depending on you.' But they give expecting from their offerings great fruit. Also the requisites were not allowed to you by the Master so that you may make use of the requisites and live strong-bodied in comfort, but they were allowed to you so that you may do the duty of the recluse and escape the round of suffering whilst using the requisites. The indolent one does not honour the alms; only he who has begun to be energetic honours it." Reflection in this way about honouring the alms permitted by the Buddha produces energy, as in the case of the Thera Maha Mitta (Great Friend).

The Thera lived in Kassaka Lena (Cultivator's or Farmer's Cave). In the village to which he resorted for alms there was a certain Maha Upasika (elderly or great female lay devotee) who taking him as a child of hers looked after him.

One day she was preparing to go to the forest, and spoke to her daughter thus: "Here is old rice; here, milk; here, ghee; and here, treacle. When your brother the venerable Mitta comes cook the rice and give it to him with milk, ghee, and treacle. You, too, eat of it. I have eaten the cold rice cooked yesterday with gruel." "Mother, what will you take at noon?" "Cook a sour gruel with herbs and broken rice and put it by (for me)."

Just as the Thera was taking out the bowl (from the bowl-bag), after he had robed himself to go out for alms, he heard that talk of the mother and daughter through his clairaudient power, at the door of his cave, and thought as follows: "The great lay devotee has eaten stale rice with gruel and will take sour gruel at noon. For you she has given old rice, milk, ghee and treacle. She does not expect field or food or cloth from you. Only expecting the three good attainments of the human, divine and supramundane planes does she give (alms to you). Will you be able to bestow on her those attainments? Indeed her alms is not fit to be taken by you with (heart of) lust, hatred and ignorance." Then, he put back the bowl into the bowl-bag, loosened the robe-knot, refrained from going for alms, and returning to the Cultivator's Cave put the bowl under his bed, the robe on the robe pole and sat down resolved on endeavour thinking, "I will not go from here without attaining arahantship.)

This recluse who had been earnest for a long time, after developing insight, reached the fruit of arahantship even before meal-time, and the great destroyer of the corruptions smiling like an opening lotus went out of the cave.

To him the guardian deity of the tree near the cave said this:

Hail to thee man-steed of finest strain,
Hail to thee the best of mortal kind,
Gone are thy cankers, Sorrowless One, and so
Worthy art thou to take a gift of faith.

Having uttered this appreciation, the tree deity said: "Venerable Sir, after giving alms to an arahant like you wandering for alms, the elderly woman will escape suffering."

When the Thera got up and opened the door to observe what the time was he found that it was still quite early. So he took his bowl and robe and entered the village.

The young girl, having prepared the rice, sat looking towards the door of her house thinking, "Now my brother will come."

And when the Thera arrived she took the bowl, filled it with milk-rice alms mixed with ghee and treacle and placed it in his hands, and he departed after giving thanks with the words: "May there be happiness," and the girl stood there looking at the departing one. The colour of the Elder at that time was exceedingly clear, and his controlling faculties especially pure and his face was shining like a ripe palm-fruit freed from the foot-stalk.

The mother of the girl on returning from the forest inquired: "Dear, did your brother come?" The daughter told her everything. The Maha Upasika knowing that her son's renunciation work had that day reached its acme, said, "Dear, your brother delights in the Dispensation of the Buddha. He is not dissatisfied."

There is reflection on the greatness of the heritage when one thinks thus: "Great, indeed, is the heritage of the Teacher, namely the Seven Real Treasures [Sutta Ariya Dhanani]. These are not to be got by the slothful. The indolent man is like a son disowned by his parents. He does not get this parents' wealth when they pass away. So too it is with the Seven Real Treasures. Only the man of energy gets these."

Reflection on the greatness of the Master consists in recalling the great events in the teacher's life, and admonishing oneself thus: "Does it befit you to be slack after entering the Dispensation of such a Teacher?"

Reflection on the greatness of race is carried out by way of the fact that in entering the Buddha's Dispensation one has become the Conqueror's son [spiritually], and that for such a one slacking is not fit.

Reflection on the greatness of fellows in the holy life consists of admonishing oneself thus: "Sariputta, Maha Moggallana, and the great disciples penetrated the supramundane after much endeavour. Are you following their way of life?"

The avoiding of lazy folk is the avoiding of people without physical and mental energy who are like a rock-snake lying inert after a full feed. And the association with folk who have begun to exert themselves is mixing with those whose minds are turned towards and who are endeavouring for the attainment of Nibbana. Inclination towards the development of this enlightenment factor is the inclining, sloping and bending of the mind towards right exertion in all postures of sitting, standing and so forth. The enlightenment factor that arises in this way comes to completion by culture through the path of arahantship.

4. Joy

There are things which condition the enlightenment factor of joy and an abundance of right reflection on these is the reason that is conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of joy and for the increase, expansion and completion by culture of the enlightenment factor when it has arisen.

Eleven things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of joy: recollection of the Buddha, recollection of the Dhamma, recollection of the Sangha, recollection of virtue, of liberality, of the shining ones [devas], and the recollection of peace [upasama], the avoiding of bad people, association with good people, reflection on the discourses inspiring confidence, and the inclination towards joy.

By recollection of the Buddha's qualities, of the qualities of the Dhamma, and of the Sangha, joy arises.

Joy arises also for one who having kept the precepts of fourfold purity unbroken for a long time reflects on one's virtue; to laymen who reflect on their virtue through observing the ten and the five precepts; to one reflecting on liberality and recollecting one's gift of excellent food to one's fellows in the holy life during a time of scarcity and the like; to laymen recollecting their liberality in giving alms to virtuous folk; to one reflecting on one's possession of qualities by which beings have reached the state of shining ones (devas); to one reflecting thus by way of peace: "The passions suppressed by the higher attainments do not occur for sixty or seventy years."

The avoiding of bad people is the keeping away from rough people who are like dirt on a mule's back, who show a callous nature through irreverence, owing to lack of faith-inspired affection for the Buddha and the like, in worshipping shrines or elders. Good people are those who have much faith in the Buddha and the like and are gentle of mind. Discourses which illumine the qualities of and inspire confidence in the Triple Gem are discourses inspiring confidence. The inclination towards joy refers to the mind sloping towards this enlightenment factor in all postures of sitting and the like. The completion by culture of this enlightenment factor is through the path of awakening.

5. Calm

There are things which condition the enlightenment factor of calm of the body (the aggregates of feeling, perception and the conformations) and of the mind (the aggregate of consciousness) and an abundance of right reflection on these things is conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of calm and for the increase, expansion, and completion by culture of this enlightenment factor when it has arisen.

Seven things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of calm: The resorting to fine food, comfortable weather, and comfortable postures; judgment according to the middle way; the avoiding of people who are physically restless; the association with people who are physically calm and the inclination towards the development of the enlightenment factor of calm.

The resorting to fine food is the resorting to excellent, beneficial food that is suitable to one. The resorting to comfortable weather and postures means the resorting to weather and postures suitable to one. By resorting to this threefold suitability, well-being of mind comes into existence by way of the basis of bodily well-being and there proceeds then the reason for twofold calm.

Judgment according to the middle way is reflection on one's own deed as one's own property and another's deed as that of other's property.

This is the judgment of things based on the acknowledgment of the law of moral causation avoiding first the extreme view that the suffering and happiness experienced by living beings are causeless and then the other extreme view of ascribing these to a fictive cause like that of a Creator God, and the knowing of all suffering and happiness as one's own action.

But he who has the nature of a great man is patient of all kinds of weather and postures. Not concerning such a person has the above been said.

The avoiding of people who are physically restless is the keeping away from restless people who go about harassing others with clod and stick. People who are physically calm are those who are quiet because they are restrained on hand and foot. The inclination towards the development of this enlightenment factor is the inclining, sloping, and bending of the mind towards calm in all postures. By the arahant's path the completion by culture of this enlightenment factor takes place.

6. Concentration

There is the sign of quietude, and the sign of non-confusion, and an abundance of right reflection on these is the reason conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the increase, expansion and completion by culture of the enlightenment factor of concentration when it has arisen.

The first stage of tranquillity which arises when an object is being grasped by way of bearing it in mind, the composed manner, is the characteristic sign of quietude.

There the sign of quietude is just the quietude by way of the composed manner. And in the sense of non-distraction is the sign of non-confusion to be taken.

Confusion is the state of mind which, because of the whirling in a multiplicity of objects, is jumping from thing to thing, diverse of aim, and not one-pointed. Distraction is the same in character. Unsteadiness is its salient feature, and deviation is its manifestation. By one-pointedness of mind confusion is thrown out.

Eleven things lead to the arising of concentration. Purification of the basis; the imparting of evenness to the spiritual controlling faculties; skill in taking up the sign of the object of meditation; the inciting of the mind on occasion, the restraining of the mind on occasion, the gladdening of the mind on occasion and the regarding of the mind without interfering on occasion; the avoiding of people who are not collected in mind; association with people who are collected in mind; reflection on the absorptions and the emancipations; and the inclination towards the development of the enlightenment factor of concentration.

Skill in the taking up of the sign which is the cause for the arising of absorption is skill in taking up the sign.

The inciting of the mind on occasion is the applying of the mind vigorously by bringing into being the enlightenment factors of the investigation of mental objects, energy and joy, when there is excessive laxity of energy and of the application of wisdom, and a deficiency of delight in the meditation.

The restraining of the mind refers to the checking of the mind that is becoming excessively energetic, too strong, in the application of wisdom and elated with delight, by bringing into being the enlightenment factors of calm, concentration and equanimity.

The gladdening of the mind means: The enlivening with confidence of the mind becomes dissatisfied either through weak application of wisdom or the non-attainment of the bliss of restfulness (or of the subsidence of the passions even temporarily). This enlivening is done through reflection on the eight reasons for the upsurge of spiritual feeling, namely, birth, decay, disease, death, the suffering of the four states of woe, the samsaric round of suffering in the past, and the suffering rooted in the search for nutriment in the present life, and through contemplation on the qualities of the Triple Gem.

The regarding of the mind without interfering is the absence of the work of inciting, retraining and gladdening the mind which has got to right practice and which proceeds well in the object, free from sloth, free from restlessness, and free from dissatisfaction. It is comparable to the state of a charioteer who looks on uninterfering when the horses are going well.

The keeping away from persons who have not reached partial or full absorption and are distracted of mind is the avoiding of people who are not collected in mind. Association with persons who have reached those states of absorption is association with people who are collected in mind. The mind inclining, sloping, and bending towards concentration-production in all postures of standing, sitting and the like constitutes the inclination for this factor. The completion by culture of the enlightenment factor of concentration is through the path of arahantship.

Excessive laxity .... Of application of wisdom means feeble working of wisdom. As the principal thing in liberality is non-greed, and in virtue non-hate, so in meditation it is wisdom (non-ignorance) that is the principal thing. Therefore, if wisdom is not very strong in the development of concentration there will be no causing of contemplative attainment (or distinction). As unprepared food gives no pleasure to a man, so, without the application of wisdom, the object of meditation does not give satisfaction to the yogi's mind. To the yogi then there is the pointing out of the remedy for that lack of satisfaction in the stirring up of spiritual feeling and confidence.

7. Equanimity

There are things which condition the enlightenment factor of equanimity and an abundance of right reflection on these is the reason that is conducive to the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity and for the increase, expansion and the completion by culture of the enlightenment factor when it has risen.

Five things lead to the arising of the enlightenment factor of equanimity: The detached attitude towards beings; the detached attitude towards things; the avoiding of persons who are egotistical in regard to living beings and things; association with people who are neutral (impartial) in regard to living beings and things; and the inclination for developing the enlightenment factor of equanimity.

The detached attitude towards beings is brought about by reflection on beings as possessors of their own deeds, and by reflection in the highest sense.

Reflection on beings as possessors of their own deeds is there when a person thinks thus: "You have been born here by your own deeds in the past and will depart from here and fare according to your own deeds. Who then is the being you are attached to?"

Reflection in the highest sense is thinking in the following way: "Really no living being exists. To whom then, can you be attached?"

The detached attitude towards things is brought about by reflection on ownerlessness and temporariness.

A person thinks thus: "This robe will fade, get old, become a foot-cleaning rag and be after that fit only to be taken up at the end of a stick and flung away. Surely, should there be an owner of this he would not let it come to ruin in this way?" This is the reflection on ownerlessness. To think that this robe cannot last long and that its duration is short, is to reflect on the temporariness of it. These two reflections are applicable in a similar way to the bowl and other things.

Persons who are egotistical in regard to living beings are laymen who cherish their own sons and daughters and the like, and recluses who cherish their resident pupils, mates, preceptors and the like. And these persons, if for instance, they are recluses do with their own hands for them whom they cherish, hair-cutting, sewing, robe-washing, robe-dyeing, bowl-lacquering, and so forth. If even for a short time they do not see their cherished ones they look here and there like bewildered deer, and ask, "Where is such and such novice?" or "Where is such and such a young bhikkhu." And if these recluses are requested by others to send a novice or a young bhikkhu to do some work for them, such as hair-cutting, they don't send the novice or young bhikkhu, on the pretense that he is not made to do even his own work, and that if he is made to do the work of others he would get tired. Persons egotistical in this way should be avoided.

A person who is egotistical in regard to things is he who cherishes robes, bowls, beakers, walking sticks, staffs and so forth and does not let another even touch these. When asked for a loan of some article he would say: "Even I do not use it; how can I give it?" Persons egotistical in that way, too, should be avoided.

A person who is neutral, indifferent, as regards both living beings and things is a person who is detached as regards both living beings and things. The company of such a person should be sought.

Inclination for developing this enlightenment factor is the inclining, sloping, and bending of the mind towards equanimity, in all postures of standing and so forth.

The completion by culture of the enlightenment factor of equanimity is wrought by the path of awakening.

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus internally." The yogi lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects (that is, contemplating mental objects only and nothing else) by laying hold of his own enlightenment factors or another's enlightenment factors or at one time his own enlightenment factors and at another time another's enlightenment factors.

Here, origination and dissolution should be known by way of the origination and dissolution of the enlightenment factors.

From here on the exposition is just according to the manner already stated.

The cause of the enlightenment factor of equanimity is the impartial state, the middle state, free from attraction and repulsion. If that freedom from attraction and repulsion exists then there is equanimity; when it does not exist there is no equanimity. This state of freedom from attraction and repulsion is twofold by way of scope: detachment in regard to beings and detachment in regard to things.

Repulsion is thrown away even by the development of the enlightenment factor of calm and in order to show just the way of casting out attraction is the instruction beginning with detachment in regard to beings taught.

Specially, equanimity is an enemy of lust and so the commentator said: Equanimity is the path of purity of one who is full of lust.

The detached attitude towards beings is developed by reflection on the individual nature of moral causation and by reflection on soullessness. By reflection on ownerlessness, the state of not belonging to a soul is brought out and by reflection on temporariness, the impermanence of things is brought out to produce the detached attitude towards inanimate things.

The Four Truths

Having explained thus the contemplation of mental objects by way of the seven factors of enlightenment, the Master said, "And further," and so forth, in order to explain the meditation by way of the Four Truths.

Idam dukkhanti yathabhutam Pajanati = "A bhikkhu understands: 'this is suffering,' according to reality." He puts aside craving, and understands all things of the three planes of becoming as suffering, according to nature. He understands according to nature the previous craving that produces and makes to arise that very suffering. He understands the non-occurrence of both suffering and its origin, according to nature, as Nibbana. He understands, according to nature, the Noble Path which penetrates suffering, abandons origination, and realizes cessation.

The rest of the explanation of the Noble Truths is in the Path of Purity [Visuddhi Magga].

Iti ajjhattam = "Thus, internally." He lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, having laid hold of his own four truths or the four truths of another or at one time his own four truths and at another time another's four truths.

In this explanation of the truths, the origination and dissolution of the four truths should be understood according to nature by way of arising and stopping.

From here on the explanation is according to the manner already stated.

With this have been stated the following twenty-one subjects of meditation: Breathing, Modes of Deportments, the Method of the Thirty-two Parts of the Body, the Determination of the Four Modes of Materiality (or the Four Elements), the Nine Cemetery Contemplations, Contemplation of Feeling, Contemplation of Consciousness, the Laying Hold on the Hindrances, the Laying Hold on the Aggregates, the Laying Hold on the Sense-bases, the Laying Hold on the Enlightenment Factors, and the Laying Hold on the Truths. The Cemetery Contemplations are counted separately.

The Contemplation on Breathing, the Thirty-two Parts and the Nine Cemetery Contemplations, these eleven, are subjects of meditation which produce full absorption. The Digha-bhanaka (Reciter of the Long Collection of Discourses) Maha Siva, however, says that the Nine Cemetery Contemplations are here stated by way of the contemplation of Misery. Therefore according to his view only two subjects, Breathing and the Thirty-two Parts, produce full absorption; the rest produce only partial absorption.

Yo hi koci bhikkhave ime cattaro satipatthane evam bhaveyya = "O bhikkhus, if anyone develops the Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner." If any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni or upasaka or upasika cultivates mindfulness from the beginning according to the method taught here.

Titthantu bhikkhave = "O bhikkhus, let alone." This together with what follows, was said by way of the average person capable of being trained.

But concerning the person of keen intelligence it was stated as follows: Instructed in the morning, he will attain in the evening; instructed in the evening, he will attain in the morning.

The Blessed One pointed out the teaching thus: "Bhikkhus, my Dispensation leads to Deliverance in this way," closed the instruction that is crowned with Arahantship in twenty-one places and uttered the following words: "This is the only way, o bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely the Four Arousings of Mindfulness."

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