1. The Land of the Jambu, Sinhala: Ma Dam, Eugenia
Jambolana, a tree that grows to fairly great proportions and yields a small
roundish fruit with purple pulp enclosing a stone. [Go
2. Fully enlightened ones.
3. Solitarily enlightened ones.
4. "See the story of Kalmasapada and its
evolution in Indian literature, by Watanabe, Journal of the Pali Text Society,
1909, p. 236 foll. Maha Sutasoma Jataka (No. 537); and Jayaddisa Jataka (No.
513). Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, vol. I. pp 528-529. Watanabe's study is
comprehensive. He believes Jataka No. 537 to be older than 513. Some said that
the converting of Speckled Foot was in No. 537. The Maha Vihara teachers said
that it was in No. 513. [Go back]
5. "The ancient Kuru country may be said to
have comprised the Kuruksetra and Thaneswar. The district formerly included
Sonepat Amin Kernal and Panipat, and was situated between the Saraswati (mod.
Sarsuti) on the north and the Drsadvat (mod. Rakshi) on the south." --
Cited from G.De by R. Mehta in the Pre-Buddhist India p. 382, Bombay, 1939. The
kingdom of Kuru ... was divided into three parts, Kuruksetra, the Kurus (i.e.,
the country of the Kurus), and Kurujangala (the forest tract included in the
kingdom." Notes to S. M. Sastri's edition of Cunningham's Ancient Geography
of India, p. 701, Calcutta, 1924. [Go back]
6. Samyutta Nikaya v, pages 168 and 186, P.T.S.
Edition [Go back]
7. Sutta Nipata verse 714.
8. Not found in the Patisambhida Magga.
9. Not found in the Patisambhida Magga; these are
verses 273-275 of the Dhammapada. [Go back]
10. Samyutta Nikaya iii, page 151, P.T.S. Edition.
The verse which precedes this passage here resembles a saying attributed to the
Poranas in Adikaram's Early History of Buddhism in Ceylon, Appendix II.A, page
xxii, quotation 77. [Go back]
11. Sutta Nipata verse 949.
12. Dhammapada verse 288.
13. Samyutta Nikaya I, P. 53. P.T.S. Edition
14. Samyutta Nikaya i, p.54. P.T.S. Edition
15. An almsman, a mendicant, monk, religious, or
recluse. In the Buddhadhamma it indicates generally any person who accepts and
follows earnestly the teaching; but technically it refers to one who has
received the higher ordination in the Holy Life. [Go back]
16. Dhammapada verse 142.
17. Samyutta Nikaya, v. page 115, P.T.S. Edition
18. Samyutta Nikaya, iv, page 207, P.T.S. Edition.
19. In the explanation of the contemplation on
breathing, the passage beginning with "When breathing in long, how does he
understand, 'I breathe in long'" and ending with the words
"non-quaking of the body", consists of extracts from pages 272-277 of
the Visuddhi Magga, Part 1. P.T.S. Edition. [Go back]
20. Nyayacarya S. Abhayasinha says that this
passage is a statement of the Naiyayika theory of perception and that it is
mentioned in the Siddhanta Candrodaya of Sri Krsna Dhurjati Diksita, a
commentary of Tarkasangraha, thus: Atma manasa samyujjate mana
indriyenendriya-marathena tatah pratyaksam. [Go back]
21. In the highest sense, a living being is a
process of consciousness, and consciousness in the highest form is that of the
Arahant, which is not different from the Dhamma and within that consciousness
the Dhamma is included. [Go back]
22. Material phenomena of bodily or social
expression which arise and cease together with the thought that motivates
expression are ignored as too plain to be misunderstood. Only other phenomena of
matter not connected with vocal or bodily expression are mentioned. [Go back]
23. One who realizes that which one experiences.
The person who experiences absorption first, realizes Nibbana afterward. That
person should be understood as of sixfold character counting from the state of
the fruition of stream-winning to the state of the path of arahantship.
Therefore the commentator said: Here a certain person, having experienced by the
body the eight emancipations, lives; in that person the cankers become destroyed
owing to his having seen the emancipations with wisdom. Digha Atthakatha, Part
III, pages 889-890. See P.T.S. Edition. [Go back]
24. Here, it is necessary to explain further how a
course of cognition with moral consequences takes place. Awareness or lack of it
in regard to, for instance, the true nature of a visible object is not due to
the sensory qualities of the eye. Nevertheless when a visible object becomes
clear after existing for the space of a thought-unit in regard to consciousness
of the life-continum without however causing any ruffle in the placid flow of
the continum, there arises once and ceases consciousness as life-continum
movement of one thought-unit's duration and once, too, arises and ceases
consciousness as life-continum stoppage of one thought-unit's duration. Then
completing the function of adverting or turning to the visible object,
consciousness as a barely active mind-process arises once and ceases. After that
in regular order arise and cease one thought-unit of eye-consciousness
completing the function of seeing the object, one thought-unit of consciousness
of a resultant mind-process completing the function of receiving the object, one
thought-unit of resultant non-causal process of mind-consciousness completing
the function of considering the object and one thought-unit of barely active
non-causal mind-consciousness completing the function of determining the object.
Immediately after that, conscious impulsion impels seven times, that is during
the space of seven thought-units. There, from the state of the life-continum to
that of determining no moral consequences take place. And no very strong moral
consequences take place even in the first seven impulsion that follow
determining. At the close of those seven impulsions consciousness slides into
the life-continum or in other words consciousness becomes the life-continum
taking up as object the karma, the karmical sign or the destiny-sign which
brought about the relinking mind of the present existence. This activity of the
life-continum is repeated very many times and then consciousness regrasps the
visible object that was comprehended earlier in the course of sense-door
cognition and exists for the space of one thought-unit by way of life-continum
movement and for the space of one thought unit, by way of life-continum
stoppage, at the mind-door. After that consciousness arises once and ceases by
way of adverting to the mind-door and arises and ceases seven times by way of
impulsion of mind-door cognition. It is even in the fourth impulsion-set
beginning with sense-door cognition or in the impulsion-set of the third of the
courses of mind-door cognition that very strong moral consequences take place.
Cf. Majjhima Nikaya Atthakatha pp. 75-76 P.T.S. Ed. And the Visuddhi Marga by
Buddhaghosa Thera with commentary of Kalikala Sahityas Sarvagj˝a Pandita
Parakrama Bahu and new explanation by M. Dharmaratne, 1890, Colombo, Part I
p.91. The extract given below is from the Paramattha Ma˝jusa Tika Part I p. 43
edited by M. Dhammananda Thera, 1928, Colombo: ettha ca cakkhu dvare ruparammane
apathagate niyamitadi vasena kusalakusale javane sattakkhattum uppajjitva
bhavangam otinne tadanu rupameva mano dvarika javane tasmim yevarammane
sattakkhattum yeva uppajjitva bhavangam otinne puna tasmim yeva dvare
tadevarammanam nissaya itthi purisoti adina vavatthapentam pasada rajjanadi
vasena sattakkhattum javanam javati. [Go back]
25. "Waking -- the state of being awake;
there, when there is non-occurrence of the process which makes or is made of
action, what is called waking does not exist; the bhikkhu laying hold (of the
matter), thinking, 'waking comes to be when a trace of the process which makes
or is made of action occurs' is called a doer of clear comprehension [jagarite
ti jagarane. Tattha kriyamayapavattassa appavattiya sati jagaritam nama na hoti.
Kriyamayapavattavala˝je pavattante jagaritam nama hotiti parigganhanto bhikkhu
jagarite sampajanakari nama hoti]. Sammoha Vinodani, Jhana Vibhanga, p. 364
P.T.S. Ed. [Go back]
26. Vibhanga, page 250, P.T.S. Edition
27. Cf. Jhana Vibhanga, Sammoha Vinodani, pp. 363-4
P.T.S. Ed. [Go back]
28. The three kinds of wisdom: inclination of mind,
Nibbana, the four fruits of the homeless life (tisso vijja: cittassa adhimutti
nibbanam cattari sama˝˝aphalani] Paramattha Ma˝jusa Tika. [Go back]
29. Anguttara i, 256: the ideas of concentration,
energy and equanimity should be applied to the mind, according as they are
needed, to check idleness, agitation and non-concentration. [Go back]
30. Anguttara iii, 435: the bhikkhu should have
these six states to reach peace: restraint, energy, interest, equanimity,
leaning to the good, love of Nibbana. [Go back]
31. Samyutta v, 112: The bhikkhu should know that
when the mind is indolent it is not the time to cultivate the enlightenment-limb
of calm. [Go back]
32. He, thinking: 'the origination of feeling comes
to be through the origination of ignorance,' in the sense of the origin of
conditions sees the arising of the aggregate of feeling ..... (Patisambhida
Magga P.T.S. Edition Page 55). [Go back]
33. Theragatha Verse 983.
34. Samyutta Nikaya iii, page 120, P.T.S. Edition
and Dhammapada Atthakatha iv, pages 117-119, P.T.S. Edition. [Go back]
35. Vinaya Mahavagga Cammakkhandhaka and Anguttara
Nikaya iii; pages 374-5, P.T.S. Edition. [Go back]
36. Divine messenger