from "The Manual of Insight"
The Manual of The Factors Leading to Enlightenment
X, Heritage of the Sasana
by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt.
Translated into English by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw of Masoeyein Monastery Mandalay.
Edited by The English Editorial Board
Note to the electronic version:
This electronic version is reproduced directly from the printed version The text is an English
translation from the original Burmese. No attempt has been made to to change any of the English
phraseology. The reason for putting this book into electronic media is that the book is out of print
and the text has been found very a valuable source of inspiration to those practising Vipassana
meditation, despite using English language which is somewhat archaic.
X Heritage of the Sasana
I shall now examine what constitutes sasanadayajja. Sasanadayajja means the act of receiving the
heritage of Sasana.
'Databbanti dayam'. (That which is given as heritage is called daya). Property that should be given
as heritage by parents to their children.
'Dayam adadatiti dayado.' (Fit to receive heritage. hence called dayado.) Children or heirs who are
fit to receive heritage. 'Dayadassa kammam dayajjam.' (The act of receiving the heritage by heirs.
Hence called dayajjam.
'Sasanassa dayajjam sasanadayajjam.' (The act of receiving the heritage of the Sasana. Hence
called sasanadayajjam.) It is also called Buddhadayajja (the act of receiving the heritage of the
First, I shall show the nature of the heritage. In the Sasana there are two kinds of heritages,
namely amisa and Dhamma.
The four requisites of a bhikkhu, namely, alms-food, robes, dwelling place, and medicines, are
called amisa heritage. The three sikkha of sila, samadhi and panna, the seven visuddhi, such as
sila- visuddhi, citta visuddhi, etc., the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, such as the four
satipatthana, the four sammappadhana, etc., are called the Dbamma heritage.
'There are two kinds of Dhamma heritage, namely:
1. lokiya dhamma heritage
2. lokuttara dhamma heritage.
The lokiya-sikkha of sila, samadhi, and panna, the six lokiya- visuddhi, and the thirty-seven
bodhipakkhiya-dhamma associated with the lokiya-visuddhi, are called the lokiya dhamma
heritage. The sikkha associated with the holy Paths and the Fruits, the lokuttara- nanadassanavisuddhi,
and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are called lokuttara dhamma heritage.
Lokiya dhamma heritage may be divided into:
3. vatta nissita dhamma heritage
4. vivatta nissita dhamma heritage.
5. niyata dhamma heritage
6. aniyata dhamma heritage,
The practice of sila, samadhi, and panna directed towards the attainment of worldly positions such
as mentor and teacher of kings, or towards the acquisition of power, retinue, and property, or
towards the the attainment in samsara of rebirth as noble and highly placed humans and devas, is
called vatta nissita dhamma heritage.
There are three forms of rounds of rebirths (vatta), namely, kilesa-vatta, kamma-vatta and vipakavatta.[
149] Vivatta means Nibbana which is the end of these rounds of rebirth. The practice of
sila, samddhi, and panna directed towards the ending of the three forms of rounds of rebirths is
called vivatta nissita dhamma heritage.
The practice of kusala kamma directed towards the ultimate attainment of Nibbana, as of worldly
benefits and pleasant rebirths in the interim before Nibbana is attained, is related to both vatta and
vivatta, and hence is called ubhava-nissita. In the Pali texts, however, only vatta and vivatta are
mentioned. Those who are more inclined to the attainment of vatta results may be said to perform
vatta nissita kamma, and those who are more inclined to the attainment of vivatta results may be
said to perform vivatta nissita kusala kamma.
With reference to the classification of niyata and aniyata, the great realm of sakkaya-ditthi
anusaya that puthujjana (worldlings) possess is like a great, wide and deep ocean of hot burning
embers. The sila, samadhi and panna that occasionally occur to puthujjana may be compared to
droplets of rain falling on that great ocean of burning embers. 'I fulfill sila. I possess sila. I
develop samadhi. I am knowing. I am wise. I am clever. I perceive rupa and nama. I contemplate
rupa and nama' are declarations of acts of sila, samadhi, and panna,which revolve round the
sakkaya-ditthi that is 'I', and thus resemble the droplets of rain falling on the great ocean of
burning embers. Just as the great ocean of burning embers scorch and dry-up the droplets of rain
and cause their disappearance, so does the great kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi cause the
disappearance of such sila, samadhi, and panna. Hence, the sila, samadhi, and panna, appearing in
puthujjana are of the aniyata class. Although puthujjana may possess sila, samadhi, and panna the
possession is tadanga or temporary.
The ajivatthamaka lokiya sila of sotapanna, their lokiya samadhi which resides steadily on the
noble and incomparable qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, and their lokiya
panna which perceives the Four Noble Truths are of the niyata class, Like droplets of water falling
on the great lake of Anavatatta, such lokiya sila, samadhi, and panna do not disappear throughout
many lives and many world-cycles.
This shows the nature of lokiya dhamma heritage.
The lokuttara Dhamma of sila, samadhi, kind panna, nadassana- visuddhi, and the thirty-seven
bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, which accompany the eight kinds of lokuttara consciousness are vivatta
nissita. They are niyata. The lokiya sila, samadhi, and panna, which occur to ariya who have
attained lokuttara sila, samadhi, and panna, also reach the niyata stage. In such persons there is no
longer any possibility of their becoming dussila (immoral), asamahita (not composed), dupanna
(unwise), and andhabala (silly).
This shows the heritage of the Sasana.
The Heirs of the Sasana are:
11. sikkhamana (female)
Here, sikkhamana means 'embryo bhikkhuni.'
Of the above seven heirs, the first five are called 'fellow workers' or colleagues within the Sasana.
Men, devas and Brahmas who are not 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana,' but who
are established in the Ti-sarana, are included in upasaka and upasika.
Among the seven heirs, the amisa heritage of the four requisites can be received only by 'fellow
worlkers or colleagues within the Sasana.' The lokiya and lokuttara dhamma heritages, however,
can be received by all the seven. In the receipt of such heritages, there are special considerations
in respect of the heritage of lokiya sila. There are special considerations with respecy- to the
heritages of lokuttara sila, lokiya and lokuttara samadhi, and lokiya and lokuttara panna.
The special considerations with respect to lokiya sila arise because the five 'fellow- workers or
colleagues, within the Sasana' receive the heritages of both the vinaya-sila and suttanta-sila, while
upasaka and upasika receive only the suttanta-sila.
14. in respect of the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana', the sila enumerated
in the Brahamajala Sutta (Digha Nikaya)
15. in respect 'of upasaka and upasika', ajivatthamaka-sila and dasanga-sila. I
Dhutanga-sila, and paccayasannissita-sila are also suttanta sila.
Samma-vaca, samma-kammanta, and samma-ajiva, included in lokuttara-magganga, are called
lokuttara-sila. These sila can be received by the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the
Sasana' as also upasaka and upasika. Hence no special considerations arise respect to lokuttarasila.
The same is the case in the two kinds of heritages of samadhi and panna. The seven visuddhi
and the thirty- seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are included within these sila, samadhi, and panna.
Of the seven heirs of the Sasana, the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana' who are
in the service of the Sasana, are heirs for their own benefit as well as heirs who act as caretakers
of the heritages of the Sasana in order that the Tipitaka and the other requisites of the Sasana may
endure for the duration of 5000 years. The remaining two are heirs of the Sasana only for their
The status of caretakers of the Sasana, on whose shoulders rest the responsibilities of the Sasana,
is much higher than that of the status of being merely Heirs. 'Thus, a householder who has been an
ariya for sixty years has to pay respect,and obeisance to a young puthtijjana samanera of seven
years of age who has been initiated for only a day. Thus also, a bhikkhu who is an arahat has to
pay respect and obesiance to a puthujjana bhikkhu who was ordained just an hour before him.
This shows the heir of the Sasana.
The three sikkha, the seven visuddhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, are practices
that are in consonance with the nine lokuttara dhamma, and hence are called
dhammanudhamma- patipatti. The seven heirs of the Sasana who practise these dhamma well are
called suppatipanna individuals. They are also called ujuppatipanna individuals, nayappatipanna
individuals and samicippatipanna individuals. Although they may be puthujjana, they are
included among the sotapatti-maggatthasekha individuals (persons in training for the sotapatti
magga), who constitute the first group (or the group in the first stage) of the eight ariya. They
constitute dhammanudhammapatipanna ariya. Since they are still puthujjana, they are not yet
paramattha ariya (purified Noble Ones).
I shall substantiate what I say. In the Sekhapptipada Sutta, Buddha said: 'Imina ariyena
silakkhandhena samannagato hoti,' meaning thereby that the practices which are comprised within
the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, such as ajivatthamaka-sila, constitute ariya sila, ariya samadhi, and
ariya panna. Hence, in the Buddha Sasana, the upasaka and upasika who are permanently
confirmed in the ajivatthamaka-sila and in the Tisarana, are persons who are partly endowed with
the suppatipanna quality, and the samicippatipanna quality and hence are
When these qualities are enumerated coupled with the name of the sangha, such as in:
Sangham saranaram gacchami. Suppatippanno bhagavato savaka
only the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis who are silavanta kalyana puthjjana (worldings who are
morally good and virtuous) should be understood. In the matter of the vinaya, all persons other
than upasampanna sangha (ordained sangha), that is, samanera, samaneri, sikkhamana, upasaka
and upasika, are excluded.
A person who practises the dhammanudhamma-patipatti, which may also be called the
bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, is called samana and brahmana in the Suttanta discourses, although he or
she may be only an upasaka or an upasika.
Thus it is said in the Dhammapada:
Alankato ce pi saman careyya
santo danto niyato brahmacari,
sabbesu bhutesu nidhaya dandam,
sa samano, brahmano, sa bhikkhu.
[Though dressed in gay and festive clothes, if he practises an even mind, if his passions are
subdued, if his senses are controlled, if he is confirmed in the four Paths, if he permanently
observes concduct that is chaste and pure, that person is a recluse (samana), he is an ariya
(brahmana), he is a bhikkhu.]
This passage shows that a person who practises the dhammdnudhamma- patipatti, which are the
bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, and lives with pure mind and body, can be called a bhikkhu even though
he dons the clothes of an ordinary layman. This shows the nobility and high status of the heirs of
In the matter of heritages of the Sasana there are two kinds of heritages, namely, good and bad.
There are also two kinds of heirs, namely, good and bad.
I shall here show the essentials in the Dhamma Dayada Sutta, Mula Pannasa, Majjhiina
Dhamma dayada me bhikkhave bhavattha,
ma amisadayada. Atthi me tumhesu anukampa.
Kinti me savaka dhamma dayada bhaveyyum,
no amisa dayada ti.
(Bhikkhus: Let you be heirs of the Dhamma. Let not you be heirs of the material requisites. I have
compassion and anxiety for you. How do I have this compassion and anxiety? How can my
disciples become heirs of the dhamma? How can they avoid becoming heirs of the material
requisites? It is thus that I have compassion and anxiety for you.)
The meaning of this passage is as follows: The Buddha's heritage consists of the two kinds: amisa
heritage and dhamma heritage. Amisa heritage is of three kinds, namely: paccayamisa, lokamisa,
and vattmisa. The benefts consisting of alms-food, robes, dwelling place and medicines, are called
paccayamisa. World renown, grandeur, dignity, power, worldly positions, such as teachers and
mentors of kings, ministers, persons of wealth and influence, and possession of followers and
retinues, are called lokamisa. Pleasant rebirths such as rebirth in high stations, rebirth in affluent
families, or rebirth in circumstances where one's wants are fulfilled, are called vattamisa. I have
already expounded dhammamisa.
The Buddha foresaw that after his attainment of parinibbana the Sasana would be overwhelmed
by the excessive increase of the three categories of amisa heritage, in just the same way as islands
within the ocean are overwhelmed and submerged by the three waves of rising floods. Hence did
he leave behind the exhortation:
Dhammadayada me bhikkhave bhavatha, ma amisadayada. 'Anukampa' means the anxiety or
concern nurtured by the Buddha. The Buddha's anxiety was that, just as when the flood waters of
the ocean rise, the people inhabiting the islands are submerged and cast adrift, his disciples in the
Sasana would in time be submerged and cast adrift by the rise and expansion of amisa heritage,
thus severing them from the invaluable heritage of the dhamma. Hence did he leave behind the
Kinti me savaka dhammadayada bhaveyyum, No me amisa dayada.
The three amisa heritages are therefore heritages which caused anxiety and concern in the
Buddha, and thus are heritages which the Buddha discouraged. Hence, these three amisa heritages
are bad heritages. On the other hand, the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, such as
satipatthana, are heritages which the Buddha extolled with a clear mind free from anxiety, and
thus are good heritages.
Having shown good and bad heritages, bad and good heirs should also be examined.
In particular, it must be remembered that there are certain heritages in the amisa category which
the Buddha extolled. They are pindiyalopa (morsel) alms-food, pamsukula robes (robes made out
of rags and cast away cloth such as from dust heaps), rukkhamala dwelling place (dwelling place
constructed in a lonely place at the foot of a tree), and putimutta medicine (strong smelling urine
of cattle used as medicine). These fourtre called Buddhadayajja. They are the four great heritages
which the Buddha approved.
If that is the case, it needs to be explained why the Buddha permitted the acceptance of atireka
labha (surplus acquisition) amisa given by lay donors, as when he said:
Atireka lobho viharo addhayogo, etc,.
(Surplus monastery, dwelling place, etc.)
The pariyatti sasana  consisting of the Tipitaka is the base-- the foundation--of the patipatti
(practice of the Dhamma) and the pativedha (realization) Sasana. Only when the pariyatti sasana
stands firmly established can the other two Sasana be also firmly established. The burden of
preserving the pariyatti sasana for 5000 years is indeed great, since these are times of a waning
kappa (world-cycle) when the life-span of men is also on the wane. The physical and mental
strength of the members of the Sangha, who are the servants and caretakers of the Sasana, are as a
result on the wane too. The Buddha thus foresaw that it would not be possible for these servants
and caretakers, in the future, to shoulder the burden of preserving the pariyatti and at the same
time live in lonely places under trees--without the concession of atireka labha. This is one reason.
In the cases of those persons whose parami are yet immature, the Buddha foresaw that the
opportunity afforded them of practising the works consisting of acquiring the pariyatti,
performing dana, observing sila, and giving paccayanuggaha (assistance in kind) extensively,
would secure for them escape from the apaya loka in the next birth, and enable them to obtain
release from worldly ills during the next Buddha Sasana. This is another reason.
It may be argued here that if what has been said above is true, it would amount to the Buddha
himself having contrived to submerge beings and cast them adrift in amisa heritage. In this
particular, it may be pointed out that the Buddha prescribed and left behind the practice of
paccavekkhana-suddhi (purity of contemplation or purity of review), such 'patisankhayoniso
civaram patisevati', which should be observed and practised with proper attention and care, in
order that the servants and the caretakers of the pariyatti sasana who have to associate themselves
unavoidably with paccayaisa and lokamsa may not be overwhelmed and submerged in amisa
tanha. Hence, if such persons ride the ship which consists of the wisdom arising out of
paccayasannissita sila cetana according to the prescription in paccavekkhana suddhi that is free
from the association of two kinds of amisa tanha, they cannot become submerged and be adrift in
the ocean of amisa although they are obliged to live in association with amisa tanha.
The meanings of the expressions 'submerged' and 'adrift' are as follows: The non-appearance of
adinava-nana (awareness of blemishes) in the three amisa of paccayamisa, luamisa, vattamisa, is
what is meant by 'submerged'. To be non-aware of blemishes for a lengthy period, and to derive
joy and pleasure in the three amisa throughout the whole of life, is what is meant by 'adrift'.
Hence, in order to prevent being so 'submerged' and 'adrift', the Buddha said in the Dhammapada:
Tinnam annataram yamam
Dhammapada, verse 157.
(The wise man should purify himself during one of the three periods of life.)
This means that if one is 'submerged' and be'adrift' in the first period of life, one should attempt to
purify oneself during the second period. If, however, one continues to remain 'submerged'
and'adrift' during the second period of life, one should attempt to purify oneself in the third
Here, 'purifying oneself' means establishing oneself in the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma after ridding
oneself of the attachments to amisa heritages. It means establishing oneself well in the four
ariyavamsa dhamma (practices of the noble family of ariya), which are:
Civarasantosa-being easily contented in robes
Pindapatasantosa-being easily contented in alms-food
Senasanasantosa-being easily contented in dwelling place
Bhavanarama-deriving joy in meditation.
The Buddha said that if one remains 'submerged' and 'adrift' within the amisa heritages during the
whole of the three periods of life, one will be cast into the apaya loka. Thus in the Dhammapada,
Ayasava malam samutthaya
tadutthaya tameva khadati.
tani kammani nayanti duggatim.
--Dhammapada, verse 240.
(Just as rust springs from iron and eats away that self-same iron, the deeds arising out of amisa
tanha of a person who lives without reflection lead him to the apaya loka.)
This discourse was delivered by the Buddha in connection with a bhikkhu who died in the
Jetavana Monastery, and who was reborn as a louse in his erstwhile bhikhhu's robes, because he
harboured an attachment to those robes just before he died. lf the attachment to a set of robes can
cast one in the apaya loka, what more need be said on greater attachments?
The robes were received as a share from sanghika property (property belonging to the order of the
Sangha), and hence were dhammika property (righteous or lawful property). The bhikkhu in
question was also one who scrupulously observed the 227 sikkha of the Vinaya. Thus it may be
said that a set of lawful robes cast a bhikkhu endowed with the 227 sikkha into the apaya loka.
What more need be said about properties acquired with lust and greed by ordinary layfolk
endowed with only five sikkha? It is thus that one should contemplate and acquire agitation
(samvega). I shall now give an illustration.
There was a wealthy man who possessed many crores worth of silver, many crores worth of gold,
and many crores worth of pearls. In order that these properties might not be lost during bad times,
he buried the bulk of them in the ground, and kept only sixty-thousand worth of money, rice,
paddy, wearing apparel, and ornaments for immediate and ready use.
This wealthy man had six sons. On his death, the six heirs divided the properties among
themselves in six equal shares. The properties buried beneath the earth were also similarly
allocated. These buried properties could be secured by the heirs only if the owners personally dug
them out the ground.
One of the sons was full of greed. he was not content with the property he could immediately use.
He was satiated with the desire for the buried property and could not bear to wait long in order to
get it. He therefore exerted himself and dug up the property, thus becoming a wealthy man.
One of the sons was full of energy. He did not look on the prospect of having to exert himself for
days and months as burdensome. He therefore put forth effort and applied himself to the work of
unearthing the buried treasure, thus becoming a wealthy man.
One of the sons was strong in his attachment. From the moment he received the heritage, his mind
ways always on the property. Sleep and food were of no consequence, so greatly was his mind
attached to the property. He thus put forth effort and dug up the buried property, becoming a
One of the sons was clever and ingenious. He contrived to construct machinery and dug up the
buried property, thus becoming a wealthy man.
One of the sons lacked greed. He imagined himself to be well-off with even ten thousand worth of
property. He had no desire to acquire the buried property. He was satisfied with the property that
he received for his imediate use.
One of the sons was a spendthrift. He squandered all the property, not even leaving the price of a
spade for the exhumation of the buried property. He sank into bad ways and was eventually
banished from his native place.
In this illustration, the Buddha resembles the wealthy father. Sila-visuddhi and the pariyatti
dhamma resemble the treasure available for immediate use. Jhana and abhhinna, which constitute
citta-visuddhi, resemble the buried silver treasure. The four lokiya panna-visuddhi, such as ditthivisuddhi,
resemble the buried gold treasure. The lokuttara-nana-dassana-visuddhi resembles the
buried pearl treasure. The layfolk and bhikkhus of the Buddha Sasana resemble the six heirs.
Those persons within the Sasana who are filled with the iddhipada of chanda (desire) resemble the
first son who was filled with greed. Persons filled with the iddipada of chanda are not satisfied
with the mere acquisition of sila-visuddhi and the pariyatti dhamma. They do not think that by
such acquisition they have encountered the Buddha Sasana, or that they have become heirs of the
Sasana. They nurture great desire for attaining the higher visuddhi and will not rest until they are
Those persons who possess the iddhipada of viriya (effort) resemble the second son who was full
of effort. Such persons are happy and easy in mind only when they are engaged in the attempt to
acquire the higher achievements which they do not as yet possess.
Those persons who possess the iddhipada of citta (attachment) resemble the third son who
possessed strong attachment. Whenever such persons come to know of work productive of great
benefits, they invoke great attachment for it, and their minds do not wander to any other matter.
Those persons who possess iddhipada of panna (wisdom) resemble the fourth son who was clever
and ingenious. Such persons attain happiness and ease of mind only when they are engaged in the
attempt to acquire great knowledge that is difficult of acquisition, deep, and productive of great
Those persons who do not possess any of the iddhipada, who possess only inferior chanda, viriya,
citta, and panna, resemble the fifth son who was easily satisfied with the unburied property. Such
persons who lack saddha and chanda do not even possess the idea that the higher attainments of
the visuddhi are the heritages which they can acquire in this very life. Because they lack viriya,
they are reluctant to put forth effort that requires the encountering of privations. They are liable to
reject such effort as impossible. Because they are weak in their volitions, their minds are not fixed
on such kinds of work. They change their minds whenever they listen to various theories and lack
knowledge and wisdom, they reject such work as beyond their capabilities. It is because the
Buddha had such persons in view that he said:
In these words the Buddha urged all beings to strengthen their weak iddhipada, such as chanda,
etc. Then only can new desires and new thoughts arise.
In the Buddha Sasana, layfolk and bhikkhus who are defective in their moral conduct resemble
the sixth son. Among layfolk, those persons who are defective in the establishment of the Tisarana,
and the nicca-sila of panca-sila and ajivatthamaka-sila, do not possess the qualities of an
upasaka or an upasika, who only are the heirs of the Sasana. Among bhikkhus and samaneras,
those who commit the parajika offences do not possess the qualities of a good bhikkhu or a
good samanera, who only are the heirs of the Sasana. If layfolk vow that they would keep the
panca-sila or the ajivatthamaka-sila from today, they can immediately become upasakas and
upasikas who are heirs of the Sasana.
This illustration shows how of the many persons who are truly in the line of heritage of the one
father (the Buddha), only those who possess one or other of the four iddhipada as a foundation
can enjoy the full benefits of the heritages. Persons who do not possess one or other of the four
iddhipada get the opportunity to enjoy only some of the superficial benefits of the heritages. They
do not get the opportunity to enjoy the real essence of the heritages. Some persons do not get the
opportunity of enjoying even the superficial benefits because they squander their heritages and
thus become severed from the Buddha's and the Sasana's heritages.
The heirs of the Sasana may also be classified into:
16. niyata heirs
17. aniyata heirs
People who have never once obtained anicca-nana and anatta-nana within themselves are called
aniyata heirs. Aniyata means that they may be the disciples of the sabbannuta Buddha
(Omniscient Buddha)--or the heirs of the sabbannuta Buddha--today, but they may become the
disciples and heirs of another teacher tomorrow. They may even scorn and destroy the Sasana of
the sabannuta Buddha. Even in the present world there are persons who have changed their faith
from the Buddha Sasana to Christianity, and who scorn and undermine the Buddha Sasana. How
easily they can change after death in another birth can be imagined.
One can be a disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha this month, and the disciple of another, teacher
next month. One can be the disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha this year, and the disciple of
another teacher the next. One can be the disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha in the first period of
life and the disciple of another teacher in the second. One can be the disciple of the sabbannuta
Buddha in the second period of life and the disciple of another in the third. One can be the
disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha in this life and the disciple and the disciple of another teacher
in the next.
Thus in the Patisambhidha-Magga, the Buddha said: Nanasattaranam mukham ullokentiti
puthujjana. (A puthujjana is so called because he looks up to the faces of various teachers).
The meaning of this passage is that in the infinite past samsara, puthujjana have never been
constant in the choice of the teachers in whom they have taken refuge. It has been one teacher
today and another tomorrow. One teacher this month and another the next. One teacher this year
and another the next. One teacher this life and another the next. The number of occasions on
which they have approached and taken refuge in the Sabbannuta Buddha during the infinite past
samsara is very few indeed. Sometimes, they have taken refuge in the Brahma, sometimes in the
Sakka, sometimes in the various devas, sometimes in the sun, sometimes in the moon sometimes
in the planets, sometimes in the spirits of the earth, and sometimes in the ogres, and they have
done so as if these refuges were almighty.
In the world, the number of false teachers is very numerous. The number of existences in which
puthujjana have approached and taken refuge in these false teachers is also very numerous.
Sometimes they have taken refuge in the nagas, sometimes in garudas, sometimes in rivers,
sometimes in mountains, sometimes in forests, sometimes in trees, sometimes in hillocks,
sometimes in fire, and sometimes in water. Thus, in nature, the number and kinds of teachers
which puthujjana afflicted with sakkaya-ditthi have approached and taken refuge in are extremely
numerous. The more they approach and take refuge in these false teachers, the more do they sink
into the apaya and niraya loka.
If further, beginning with this life, they continue to wander and drift in samsara replete with false
attachments of sakkaya-dittlii, they will continue to change the teachers whom they approach and
take refuge in. How frightful, terrible, and nasty is the state of a puthujjana. This is the meaning.
of the passage, 'nanasattaranam mukham ullokentiti puthujjana.'
On every occasion a puthujjana changes his teachers and refuges, a change also occurs in the
doctrines and principles that he depends on for his guidance. Sometimes puthujjana have
depended on the adhisadhisila-dhamma (purified morality) expounded by the sabbannuta Buddha;
sometimes on gosila govata dhamma or the practices of cattle; sometimes on the practices of
dogs; sometimes on the practices of horses; and sometimes on the practices of elephants. Thus the
moral practices which they have adopted and depended on are also very numerous. In the matter
of ditthi (views), the number of existences in which they have adopted and depended on sammaditthi
(right views) are extremely few. On the other hand, the number of existences in which they
have adopted and depended on miccha-ditthi (wrong views) are extremely numerous. The more
they have adopted and depended on these wrong views and practices, the more have they sunk--
deeper and deeper-- into the apaya and niriya loka.
Of the countless and infinite number of errors and perversities possessed by puthujjana wandering
and drifting in samsara, the error of seeking refuge in wrong protectors (teachers) is one of the
greatest errors conducive of causing them great harm. This is because the error of seeking refuge
in wrong teachers leads to wrong moral principles and practices, and the difficult achievement of
rebirth as human beings (manusatta dullabha), which may be compared to a great padesa tree
producing the fruits of good rebirths, becomes in its entirety a tree producing the evil fruits of
rebirths in the niriya regions. This shows the future path of aniyata heirs of the Sasana.
Those persons who perceive the anicca and anatta characteristics in themselves are freed from the
kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi. They become the niyata heirs of the Sasana. Niyata means that they
are freed from the susceptibility of approaching and seeking refuge in erroneous teachers
throughout future infinite samSara. They become the true children of the sabbannuta Buddha
throughout the future succession of rebirth. They become members of the 'bon-sin-san' family,
and though they may pass through many rebirths and many world-cycles in samsara, their views
of the unbounded and incomparable qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha,
become clearer and brighter from one rebirth to another.
The three sasana of sila, samadhi, and panna, the seven visuddhi, such as sila-visuddhi, and the
thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma of satipatthana, sammappadhana, iddhipada, indriya, bala,
bojjhanga, and magganga, are dhamma heritages that prosper and increase in their minds from
one rebirth to another. The three sasana of the pariyatti, patipatti, and the pativedha become
permanently established in them throughout the succession of rebirths and the succession of
Although they continue to wander in samsara enjoying the joys and pleasures of humans, devas,
and Brahmas, they are no longer beings of the world who change their teachers and refuges from
one existence to another. They continue to wander in samsara as beings of the lokuttara, or the
region of the ariya. They are no longer beings of samsara liable to the miseries inherent in the
round of rebirths, and who thus are subject to being submerged, suffocated, exhausted, and cast
adrift in samsara's great whirlpool. They have become the true beings of the first stage of Nibbana
called sa-upadisesa-nibbana. They are beings who will invariably ascend to anupadisesa-nibbana
through the joys and pleasure of 'bon-sin-san' existences.
In infinite samsara, all wise humans, devas, Brahmas, desire to become niyata beings who only
are the true children of the sabbannuta Buddhas, and thus they hope and look forward to
encountering the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. Thev have to perform many acts of dana
and establish the wish that such acts may lead to such an encounter. They have to perform many
acts of sila and establish the wish that such acts may lead to such an encounter. They have to
perform many acts of bhavana and establish the wish that such acts may lead to such an
encounter. This shows the undeviating path of the niyata heir of the Sasana.
It is to reveal this path that the Buddha, in several places of the Suttanta and Abhidhamma Pitakas
Tinnam samyojanam parikkhaya sotapanno hoti,
avinipata dhammo niyato sambodhiparayano. 
(Because the three samyojana cease, the person becomes a sotapanna. He becomes free from
rebirth in states of suffering. He becomes confirmed as heir of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. He
finds rest and support in the higher Paths and Fruits.
[Note: The three samyojana are sakkaya-ditthi, vicikiccha, and silabbataparamasa. Of these,
sakkaya-ditthi is the essential or ruling factor.]
This ends the part showing the aniyata and niyata heirs.
Good and virtuous persons who perceive what constitutes good heritage and bad heritage, what is
fixed or niyata heritage, and what unstable or aniyata heritage, what are good heirs and bad heirs,
what are heirs of fixed heritage and heirs of unstable heritage, these good and virtuous persons did
not put forth effort in past successive existences and successive worlds because they desired to
become heirs of bad heritages of the Buddha Sasana. They put forth effort because it was their
desire to become heirs of the good heritages. They did not practise dana, sila, and bhavana
because they desired to become heirs of the unstable temporary heritages, but because it was their
desire to become heirs of the niyata heritages.
Taking these facts into account, and taking heed of the fact that the Buddha disapproved of the
bad heritages of the Sasana, those persons who have in this existence become the disciples and
heirs of the Buddha should not permit themselves to become bad heirs. They should not permit
themselves to become temporary, unstable heirs. They should attempt to become heirs of the good
heritages which are the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. They should attempt to become stable heirs.
In the lengthy period of the series of rebirths known as samsara, whenever acts of dana, sila and
bhavana are performed, it is usually because beings desire that by virtue of these good acts they
may in a future existence as a human being encounter a Buddha and attain release from worldly
ills, or attain the Path Knowledge, the Fruit Knowledge, and Nibbana. Thus it is usual for them to
wish for the heritages of the Dhamma. It is not usual for them to desire that by virtue of these
good acts they may in future existence encounter a Buddha and attain worldly riches and worldly
positions. It is not usual for them to wish for these amisa heritages. It is not usual for them to
desire the gaining of opportunities for the performance of good acts leading to bhava-sampatti,
bhoga-sampatti, and issariya-sampatti.
But, at the present day, the bad heritages of paccayamisa-tanha lokamisa-tanha, and vattamisatanha
constitute to be ruling factors. Modern men and women do not like to hear the mention of
the four ariya-vamsa which are the antitheses of the three tanha mentioned. The four ariya-vamsadhamma
which are, as has already been mentioned previously, being easily satisfied with almsfood,
robes, and dwelling place, and deriving joy and pleasure in the work of bhavana. They are
called ariya-vamsa-dhamma because they are dhamma on which Buddhas, the disciples of
Buddhas, and the heirs of Buddhas, should not release their hold. This is a reminder to those
persons who possess wisdom.
As regards persons deficient in wisdom, the mere performance of many good and meritorious acts
has to be extolled as good.
Those persons who are endowed with wisdom, however, should, if they desire to become heirs of
the niyata dhamma heritages either in this life or in the next in the deva loka, establish the
ajivatthamaka- sila, set up kayagatai-sati, and try (for at least three hours a day) to achieve
perception of the three characteristics of existence in the five aggregates of the body. If they
perceive either of the three characteristics in the five aggregates, they can become niyata heirs and
achieve the status of a 'bon-sin-san'.
For this piirpose, see my Lakkhana Dipani, Vijjamagga Dipani, Ahara Dipani, and Kammatthana
Dipani. For the path of niyata 'bon- sin-san' inclivicluals, see my Catusacca Dipani, and the
chapter on Nibbana my Paramattha Sankhitta.
149. 1.Round of defilements, 2.Round of kamma, 3.Round of results.
150. See the Light of the Dhamma, Vol. III, No.2, and the Brahmajala
Sutta published by the Union Buddha Sasana Council.
151. Four magga, four phala and Nibbana.
152. See Nanamoli's Visuddhimagga, p. 236 et. seq.
153. Samyutta Nikaya, Maha-vagga Samyutta Pali, 1. Magga Samyutta,
3. Sekha Sutta, p. 12, 6th Syn Edn.
154 1. Wulapariyaya-vagga, 3. Dhammadayada Sutta, p. 15 6th Syn. Edn.
155. Learning of the Doctrine
156. Dhammapada Atthakatha, 3. Tissa Thera Vatthu, p. 218, 6th Syn
157. Dread caused by the contemplation on the miseries of this world.
See The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. VII, No. 3, p. 17.
158. Offences which entail loss of monkhood.
159. Patisambhida-Magga Atthakatha, 9. Sankharupakkha-nanadassanavannana,
p. 245, 6th Syn Edn.
160. Cf. Dhammapada, verse 188.
161. 'Wishing Tree'
162. Abhidhamma Pitaka, Puggalapannatti Pali, P. 120, 6th Syn Edn.