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Paramattha Manjusa (vinnana) Translation by Nina van Gorkom


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#1 RobertK

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Posted 13 December 2014 - 10:11 AM

Intro:

Each of the five khandhas includes respectively different ruupas, feelings, perceptions (sa~n~naa), formations (or activities) and cittas, but the Buddha classified them as just five khandhas. One khandha is ruupa-khandha and four khandhas are naama- khandhas. Ruupa does not experience anything whereas naama, citta and cetasika, experience an object. The cetasikas that accompany citta experience the same object, but cetasikas have each their own function while they assist the citta. The citta is the leader in knowing an object. The Visuddhimagga deals with vi~n~naa.nakkhandha first and after that with the other naama-khandhas that include cetasikas. When one has more understanding of citta first one will better understand cetasikas.

 

Visuddhimagga, Ch XIV, 81:

 Among the remaining aggregates, however, whatever has the

characteristic of being felt(34) should be understood, all taken

together, as the feeling aggregate; and whatever has the characteristic

of perceiving, all taken together, as the perception aggregate; and

whatever has the characteristic of forming, all taken together, as the

formations aggregate; and whatever has the characteristic of cognizing,

all taken together, as the consciousness aggregate. Herein, since the

rest are easy to understand when the consciousness aggregate has been

understood, we shall therefore begin with the commentary on the

consciousness aggregate.

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note 34 (N: this is only a summary of the Tiika).  "Has the characteristic of being felt" means that it has as its characteristic what is felt, what is experienced as the "taste (stimulus)" of the object. "Characteristic of perceiving" means that it has as its characteristic the perceiving of an object classed as blue, etc., and the knowing, the apprehending of it by arousing the perception of it as blue, yellow, long, short, and so on. Forming (abhisa.nkhara.na) is accumulating, or it is contriving by becoming interested. And it is because volition is basic in both of these ways that the formations aggregate is said thus to have the 'characteristic of forming'. For in expounding the formations aggregate in the Suttanta-Bhaajaniya of the Vibha.nga, volition was expounded by the

Blessed One thus, "Eye-contact-born volition" (Vbh. 8) and so on. "Has

the characteristic of cognizing" means that it has as its characteristic

that kind of knowing called apprehension of an object in a mode in which

the objective field is apprehended differently from the mode of

perceiving' (Pm.462).

 

Tiika Vis. 81:

English:

As to the expression, whatever (has the characteristic of being felt), he showed the meaning of khandha or heap that was classified in many ways by defining it completely with two expressions. 

 N: He defined it by the words: Whatever feeling. The word <whatever> is all-inclusive. 

 

Tiika: As to the expression, the characteristic of being felt, this means that it has the characteristic of being felt, that it experiences the "taste” of the object.

.....or what was formerly said in the teaching on ruupakkhandha, should be arranged here and connected.

 

N:  Just as all the different ruupas classified in many ways under many aspects were summarized and all taken together as one group or khandha, evenso all the different feelings are taken all together as one khandha. And it is the same with the other khandhas.

 

Tiika: 

As to the expression, all taken together, this means that he, in his wisdom, has summarized all that he has classified as past, etc.

 

N: The khandhas are classified as past, present, future, and in several other ways.

 

Tiika:

Thus this effects the meaning of heap or category.

 

"Characteristic of perceiving" means that it has as its characteristic the perceiving of an object classed as blue, etc., and the knowing, the apprehending of it by arousing the perception of it as blue, yellow, long, short, and so on.

 

N: Saññaa, perception, recognition or remembrance, marks the object that is cognized by citta so that it can be recognized. It accompanies each citta. It accompanies, for example, seeing that sees colour, such as a blue colour, and marks it, but at the moment of seeing it is not yet defined as blue. Only in a mind-door process of cittas arising later on the colour is defined as blue.

 

Tiika:

Forming is accumulating, acquisition of the task, or coordinating,

and because volition is principal in both ways, it is said of the aggregate of formations that it has the characteristic of forming.

 

N: Of the khandha of formations, sankhaarakkhandha, volition is principal <because of its obviousness in the sense of accumulating> (Dispeller of Delusion, p. 22). Volition has its own task and it also coordinates the work of the accompanying dhammas. Abhisa”nkhara designates volition that is kusala kamma or akusala kamma which is accumulated. It is a link in the Dependent Origination. 

 

Tiika:

In the Suttanta division of the Book of Analysis, in the analysis of the khandha of formations, the Blessed One expounded volition thus: <volition born of eye-contact...>

 

 N: We read in the “Dispeller of Delusion”( § 80. p. 20) an explanation of <born of eye-contact>.  It is explained thus: <..the impression which makes eye-sensitivity (etc.) accompanied by impact (sapa.tigha) its basis, and arises due to visible data (etc.) accompanied by impact, is called impact-impression (pa.tighasamphassa)...> Thus, this means that volition arises in dependence on the basis (the eyesense) and the object that impinges on the eye-base, and it is the same in the case of the contacts through the other senses and the mind. It is said: <that which is mind-impression-born can have the heart (hadaya) as basis or no basis. All is volition of the four planes.>

In the aruupa-brahma planes there is no ruupa and thus no physical basis. Volition of the four planes: this refers to the four planes of citta: the plane of the sense sphere, the plane of ruupa-jhaanacitta, aruupa-jhaanacitta and lokuttara citta. 

 

Tiika:

....As to the expression, it has the characteristic of cognizing", this means that it has as its characteristic that kind of knowing called apprehension of an object in a mode in which the objective field is apprehended differently from the mode of perceiving.

 

N: Consciousness is the principal in cognizing the object, and the cognizing of consciousness is different from remembrance or perception (saññaa) which marks or recognizes the object. In Vis XIV, 3, perception has been compared to a child that sees a coin without discretion, and citta has been compared to a villager who knows more about the characteristics of the coin. Whereas paññaa is like a money changer who knows everything, all details, of the coin.

 

Tiika: As to the expression, since the rest, beginning with the aggregate of feeling, is easy to understand (when the consciousness aggregate has been understood), this means that this is so because of its single arising etc, and because it is of the same nature etc. in the classification. 

 

N: Single arising etc., this means: the four naama khandhas arise and fall away together. For them there are the three moments of arising, presence and dissolution (Dispeller, p. 23). The naama-khandhas that arise together are of the same nature (jaati) of kusala, akusala, vipaaka or kiriya. They are of the same plane of citta: sense sphere, ruupa-jhaana, aruupa-jhaana or lokuttara. Thus, if the consciousness aggregate is understood first, the other three naama khandhas will be understood more easily.

 

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#2 RobertK

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Posted 13 December 2014 - 10:12 AM

Intro to Visuddhimagga XIV, 82.:

 

The goal of our study of vi~n~naa.nakkhandha, the khandha of consciousness, should be the understanidng of citta as non-self, anattaa. As the Visuddhimagga states: <Consciousness (vi~n~naa.na); according as it is said, 'It cognizes, friend, that is why "consciousness" is said'.>

The Tiika comments: < ...there truly is no one at all who is a doer, and thus, he said “it cognizes”, in order to explain merely the nature of an action.>

 

We read in the Atthasaalinii (Expositor I, p. 148, 149) a definition of citta:

 

<[Mind or] consciousness is that which thinks of an object... As to its characteristics, etc., cognizing object is its characteristic, forerunning is its function, connecting is its manifestation, a mental and material organism [naama-ruupa) is its proximate cause. >

 

The Atthasaalinii then explains: <But when a ‘door’ is reached at the place where the ‘object’ is evolved, consciousness is the forerunner, the precursor. A visible object seen by the eye is cognized by consciousness, etc.>

Citta is the chief or principal in cognizing an object such as visible object, sound, and so on. The accompanying cetasikas that each perform their own function assist the citta in cognizing an object, but citta is the principal.

 

Connection is the manifestation of citta. The Atthasaalinii states: <The consciousness which arises next does so immediately after the preceding consicousness, forming a connected series.> In our life from birth to death there is an uninterrupted series of cittas arising and falling away in succession. It was like this in past lives and it will be so in future lives. So long as we are in the cycle of birth and death the uninterrupted stream of cittas is without end.

 

As to the proximate cause of citta, in the planes where there are five khandhas, naama and ruupa, cetasikas and ruupa are the proximate cause (immediate occasion) of citta. Citta cannot arise without cetasikas and without ruupa. It needs a physical base and other ruupas that condition it. In the aruupa-brahma planes citta arises without ruupa, there are only four khandhas in those planes.

In the following paragraphs of the Visuddhimagga we shall study all the different types of citta that are accompanied by various types of cetasikas and are of different planes of citta. Thus we shall see that citta is conditioned in many ways. Each citta arises because of its own conditions and there is no self who can cause its arising. 

The Visuddhimagga states that citta is threefold according to kind, namely, (I)

kusala, profitable, (II)akusala, unprofitable, and (III) avyaakata, indeterminate, neither kusala nor akusala.

Before the Tiika elaborates on these three aspects we are reminded of the truth that <there truly is no one at all who is a doer.>

 

Visuddhimagga XIV, 82:

82. 'Whatever has the characteristic of cognizing should be understood,

all taken together, as the consciousness aggregate' was said above. And

what has the characteristic of cognizing (vijaanana)? Consciousness

(vi~n~naa.na); according as it is said, 'It cognizes, friend, that is

why "consciousness" is said' (M.i,292). The words vi~n~naa.na

(consciousness), citta (mind, consciousness), and mano (mind) are one in

meaning.

That same [consciousness], though one in its individual essence with the

characteristic of cognizing, is threefold according to kind, namely, (I)

profitable, (II) unprofitable, and (III) indeterminate.(35)

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Tiika Vis. 82, English:

 

He said of consciousness itself “whatever (has the characteristic of cognizing)”, in order to explain the meaning of having the characteristic of cognizing as stated in the sutta.

He said, <the characteristic of cognizing> with reference to its nature, in order to explain that it occurs merely because of conditions, thus, that it is a dhamma with its own nature.

Apart from a dhamma with its own nature, there truly is no one at all who is a doer, and thus, he said “it cognizes”, in order to explain merely the nature of an action.

 

Tiika:

He made known in accordance with different methods of teaching: consciousness with the meaning of cognizing, citta with the meaning of thinking (of an object) and so on, and mind with the meaning of measuring (an object).

 

N: As we read in the Vis.: <The words vi~n~naa.na (consciousness), citta (mind, consciousness), and mano (mind) are one in meaning. >

The Expositor (I, p.185) deals with synonyms of citta: <...‘consciousness’ (citta) is so called because of its variegated nature (citta also has the meaning of variegated). There is a word association of citta and cinteti, to think. Citta thinks of an object. <‘Mind’ (mano) is so called because it knows the measure of an object.> Here is a word-association of mano and measure. The Expositor adds maanasa that is similar to mano, and heart, hadaya, that is also used for citta. Vi~n~naa.na.m, citta.m and mano are the same in meaning, but these terms are used each in different contexts.

 

Tiika: And to this extent he explained consciousness by way of khandha or by way of other classifications or methods of teaching.

 

N: The Tiika explains that there are many ways of classification, but all cittas can be seen as threefold, as kusala, akusala and avyaakata, indeterminate.

 

Tiika:

Here he taught just the meaning of wholesome, unwholesome and indeterminate...

There kusala has the meaning of wholesome. What does this mean ?

It has the meaning of healthy, blameless, productive of happy results...

 

Nina: Kusala can be translated as wholesome, profitable or moral.

The Tiika now explains word associations of the term kusala, in the same way as the “Expositor” (I, p. 48. 49). Word associations are used as a means to show different aspects of realities. We read that ‘kusala’ causes contemptible things to tremble (this is associated with the stems ku, bad, and tremble, sal). <Or just as the kusa grass cuts a part of the hand with both edges, so also certain things cut off the corrupt part in two portions, either what has arisen, or what has not arisen. Therefore kusalas are so called because they cut off the corruptions like the kusa grass.>

Thus, kusala can prevent the arising of akusala.

 

Tiika:

Kusala is so called because it shakes and obstructs contemptible and blamable dhammas....

 

Nina: The Tiika explains that because of dosa, aversion, and other defilements unwholesome deeds which are greatly blameful such as killing are committed, but that kusala can obstruct these and cause them to be destroyed. 

 

Tiika: Or kusala dhammas are so called because they eradicate, make an end to and destroy contemptible dhammas.

 

pu~n~nakiriyavasena pavattaani saddhaadiini indriyaani, tehi laatabba.m pavattetabbanti kusala.m.

Kusala is so called because it should take up and cause the arising of the faculties of confidence and so on, by means of the meritorious deeds.... 

 

Nina:  The ten meritorious deeds (pu~n~nakiriya vatthu) can also be classified as daana, siila and mental development. Daana includes not only giving away of material things, it is also, for example, giving of knowledge, or the appreciation of other’s kusala. Siila includes not only abstinence from akusala but also helping and paying respect to those who deserve it. Straightening one's views, one of the ten meritorious deeds, can go together with all kinds of kusala. When rectifying our views, we can learn to see the benefit of kusala and the disadvantage of akusala. We can come to understand kusala as non-self.

There are five faculties, indriyas, that should be developed together: confidence, energy or courage (viriya), mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. Confidence is confidence in the Triple Gem, in the Path, in kusala.

 

We read further on in the Tiika about the meaning of akusala. Akusala can be translated as unwholesome, unprofitable or immoral.

 

Tiika:

Akusala is: not kusala, and this means: being the opposite of kusala.

 

Nina: Then the text explains akusala as being the opposite of kusala by being unhealthy, blamable, productive of unhappy results, not skilful. etc.

 

Tiika:

Just as kusala is in direct opposition to akusala, and by nature opposed to illness of cetasikas, and so on, here also akusala is explained by the method of health and so on.

Therefore, he said that akusala is directly opposed to kusala, with the words: <it means being the opposite of kusala.>...

 

N: As to the method of health, this means the method of health and illness, the opposite of health. Kusala citta and its accompanying cetasikas are as it were healthy, and akusala citta and its accompanying cetasikas are as it were ill. Akusala is in all respects the opposite of kusala.

Further on we read about citta that is avyaakata, indeterminate:

 

Tiika text:

Indeterminate (or unmoral) means undeclared. This means that what is indeterminate cannot be declared either kusala or akusala; it is indeterminate. Here what is of the nature of kusala is blameless and has a happy result.

What is of the nature of akusala is blameful and has an unhappy result.

 

As was said here before, “indeterminate has the characteristic of bringing no result”.

 

N: Indeterminate is not kusala nor akusala, and thus it cannot produce any result. The cittas that are indeterminate are kiriyacittas, inoperative cittas, and vipaakacittas, cittas that are the results of kamma.

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Intro to Vis. XIV,83:

 

Nina: There are many factors necessary as conditions for the arising of the first type of kusala citta of the sense-sphere: accompanied by wisdom associated with pleasant feeling and unprompted. A desirable object is one of the conditions for citta to be accompanied by pleasant feeling. It is explained that a desirable object is not necessarily a condition for citta with attachment. Citta can rejoice in the object with wise attention.

 

We read in the <Atthasaalinii> (Expositor I, p. 100): <For this first class of consciousness is accompanied by joy, because a desirable object having arisen, abundance of such factors as faith are reasons for joy. Eleven states also conduce to the production of zest ( or rapture, piiti) as a factor of wisdom, namely, recollection of the Buddha, of the Law (Dhamma), of the Order, of the precepts, of self-sacrifice, of spirits (devas), of peace, avoidance of rough                          (i.e., ill-tempered ) persons, serving meek persons, reflection on a Suttanta which instills faith and a tendency to all this. It is thus that 'accompanied by joy' should be understood.>

 

When there is strong confidence in the Triple Gem and the development of kusala, including right understanding, there are conditions for kusala citta with pa~n~naa that is accompanied by pleasant feeling and enthusiasm (piiti). The Tiika reminds us that pleasant feeling accompanies the citta until it dissolves. Feeling does not last, it falls away immediately, there is no self who can cause feeling to be pleasant.  

We read in the <Atthasaalinii> (Expositor p. 100):

<A person thinking: 'I ought to do meritorious deeds,' has his mind 'determined' for moral acts, 'bent' only on moral acts by inhibiting immoral acts, well 'trained' by constant practice of good.>

As to the word 'bent on' , the Pali has: pari.naamita, bend to, change into. There can be a change from akusala to kusala if one understands the right conditions to be cultivated. An abundance of right reflection is also a condition for kusala. We need good friends who give us stimulating talks. 

We then read that the Tiika refers to the four wheels that are favorable conditions for the arising of kusala citta with right understanding. These four wheels are: living in a suitable place, association with noble persons, right aspiration, and meritorious deeds formerly done. (See AN IV, 4, 1, The Wheel).

Further on the Tiika mentions as conditions for the citta to be accompanied by wisdom: past kamma, maturity of the faculties, that is to say: the faculties of confidence, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom which have to be developed. Another factor is one’s age. The age from forty to fifty is the most favorable age to develop wisdom according to the Visuddhimagga.

Kusala citta accompanied by wisdom needs many conditions, some stemming from the past and others that are of the present.

The Dhammasanga.nii, when dealing with the first type of kusala citta, states: <At the occasion (yasmi.m samaye) when kusala citta belonging to the sense sphere has arisen accompanied by joy and associated with knowledge, unprompted...> and then it enumerates the many cetasikas that assist the citta.

 

The “Expositor” (p. 76 etc.) explains numerous meanings of samaya, such as: time or occasion, concurrence of causes, moment. It explains that the <four wheels> should be classed as the one moment in the sense of occasion, they form the occasion for the production of merit. It states: <It does not occur without there being a concurrence of circumstances, such as existence as a human being, the rise of the Buddha, and the stability of the good Law, etc...>. It shows the extreme shortness of the time in the occurrence of kusala citta and it points out <the extreme rarity of such moments>. It stresses that advice has been given that we should have strenuousness and earnestness in pa.tivedha, realization of the truth, since this is very difficult: <as difficult for the mind as stringing pearls in the dark by a lightning-flash, because of its extremely short duration.>

Samaya can also mean group, and this shows the simultaneous occurrence of many dhammas. The kusala citta is accompanied by many cetasikas, each performing their own function.

By samaya is shown the concurrence of conditions, the mutual contribution towards the production of a common result. The Expositor explains with regard to samaya as condition: <By this word showing thus the condition, the conceit of one who believes that states unconditionally follow one’s own will is subdued.>

When we learn about all the different factors that are necessary conditions for the arising of one moment of kusala citta with paññaa we are reminded that kusala citta does not belong to us and that it falls away immediately. Kusala citta is very rare and even more so kusala citta with paññaa. We have accumulated a great amount of akusala and, thus, there are conditions for its arising very often. This is a pungent reminder to develop all kinds of kusala for which there is an opportunity.

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Vis. XIV, 83



#3 RobertK

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Posted 13 December 2014 - 10:13 AM

Vis. XIV, 83

 

. I. Herein, the 'profitable' is fourfold according to plane, namely,

(A) of the sense sphere, (B) of the fine-material sphere, © of the

immaterial sphere, and (D) supramundane.(36)

I. A. Herein, (1)-(8) that of the 'sense sphere' is eightfold, being

classified according to joy, equanimity, knowledge, and prompting, that

is to say: (1) when accompanied-by-joy it is either

associated-with-knowledge and unprompted, or (2) prompted; or (3) it is

dissociated-from-knowledge and likewise [unprompted, or (4) prompted];

and (5) when accompanied-by-equanimity it is either

associated-with-knowledge and prompted, or (6) unprompted; or (7) it is

dissociated-from-knowledge [453] and likewise [unprompted, or (8)

prompted].

 

Tiika Note 36. ' "Sense sphere" (kaamaavacara): here there are the two kinds

of sense desire (kaama), sense desire as basis (vatthu-kaama) and sense

desire as defilement (kilesa-kaama). Of these, sense desire as

[objective] basis particularized as the five cords of sense desire

(pa~nca-kaama-gu.na = dimensions of sensual desires), is desired

(kaamiyati). Sense desire as defilement, which is craving, desires

(kaameti).

 

Nina: vatthu-kaama is the basis of sense desire. They are the sense objects that are desired by the defilement of sense desire, kilesa kaama. This is called tanhaa, clinging. The Expositor (I, p. 82) explains that the basis of sense desire is the round of the triple plane of existence. Because of clinging one wants to be reborn. The triple plane of existence are the sensuous planes, the fine material planes and the immaterial planes. 

 

Tiika Text: The sense sphere (kaamavacara) is where these two operate

(avacaranti) together. But what is that? It is the elevenfold

sense-desire becoming, i.e. hell, asura demons, ghosts, animals, human

beings, and six sensual-sphere heavens.

 

Nina: We have to distinguish planes (bhuumi) of citta and planes of existence. As to plane (bhuumi) of citta there are four planes: cittas of the sense sphere, kaamaavacara cittas, ruupaavacara cittas (ruupa-jhånacittas), aruupaavacara cittas (aruupajhaanacittas) and lokuttara cittas, supramundane cittas experiencing nibbaana. Thus, there are four planes of cittas classified according to the object citta experiences.

As to plane of existence, this is the locality where one is reborn. There are eleven sensuous planes. Sensuousness frequents these sensuous planes, in these planes the basis of sense desire and sense desire prevail. We read in the Expositor : <Thus ‘sensuous universe’ means that this (first class of moral) consciousness frequents this eleven-fold localized sensuousness [the sensuous planes of existence], even though it also frequents the planes of  ‘attenuated ruupa’ and of non-ruupa.... this class of consciousness, though occurring elsewhere, should be known as ‘sensuous’>

Cittas of the sense sphere also arise in ruupa-brahma planes and in aruupa brahma planes; cittas rooted in lobha, for example, arise in ruupa-brahma planes and in aruupa brahma planes.

Seeing and hearing also arise in ruupa-brahma planes, but smelling, tasting and body-consciousness do not arise there. Those born in the ruupa-brahma planes have less conditions for sense impressions.

However, cittas of the sense sphere arise in abundance in the sensuous planes of existence.

We read in the commentary to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Summary of the Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 10, translated by R.P. Wijeratne and R. Gethin): < Herein that which desires (kameti) is desire (kaama) or sensual craving. [Consciousness] where that desire is active (avacarati) in finding its objects belongs to the sphere of sense-desire (kaamaavacara.m).

Alternatively, kaama is that which is desired, [that is,] elevenfold sense-sphere existence; because it is mostly active there, it belongs to the sphere of sense-objects (kaamaavacara.m)- for what is meant is its most common activity, even though [consciousness] that occurs in form and formless existences can still belong to the sphere of sense-desire.

Alternatively, kaama is simply sense-sphere existence and what is active there is sense-sphere activity (kaamaavacaro) >.

 

Tiika Text: So too with the fine-material sphere and the immaterial sphere, taking 'fine-material' as craving for the fine-material too, and 'immaterial' as craving for the immaterial too.

It crosses over (uttarati) from the world (loka), thus it is

supramundane (lokuttara)' (Pm. 464).

 

Nina: The Tiika explains here word derivations. Kaamaavacara is frequenting or traveling to the sense sphere. Craving for rebirth in sensuous planes is called kaamata.nhaa. Craving for rebirth in fine-material existence is called ruupa-ta.nhaa, and craving for rebirth in immaterial existence is called aruupa-ta.nhaa.

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Tiika Vis. 83, continued:

Explanation of the kusala citta that is associated with pleasant feeling.

 

Pleasant feeling (somanassa) is the state of a good mind, it is of a splendid (sobhana) or beautiful mentality, and thus a “happy mind”, 

feeling that is the effect of a happy state of mind.

 

N: The Tiika gives a word derivation of somanassa: su is good and mano is mind. See also Co to the Topics of the Abhidhamma (p. 12).

 

Tiika:

It means that it is accompanied by pleasant feeling, because it has arisen with pleasant feeling by conditions, connected with it, occurring conjoined with it, until it dissolves.

 

Nina: The citta with pleasant feeling arises, is present for an extremely short moment and then it dissolves. Pleasant feeling cannot last, it dissolves together with the citta.

 

Tiika: 

It should be known that the citta is accompanied by pleasant feeling also on account of the object.

Citta is accompanied by pleasant feeling on account of a desirable object.

But is a desirable object not the fundamental cause of greed? How can it be kusala in that case?

This is a specific method of explanation in virtue of the arising of kusala citta that rejoices also in a desirable object.

 

The reasons of the fact that the citta rejoices with right attention are: being possessed of the four wheels of prosperity and so on,

being determined on good deeds, thinking, we ought to do meritorious deeds,

being bent only on wholesome deeds by inhibiting the occurring of akusala, 

being well 'trained' in constant practice.

Because of this the citta is accompanied by non-attachment etc. on account of a desirable object, and not accompanied by attachment etc.

 

Nina: See the Expositor (I, p. 100) and my Intro.

 

Explanation of the citta to be accompanied by wisdom.

 

The Tiika then explains the conditions for the citta to be accompanied by wisdom, ~naa.nasampayutta. Here the text is similar to the Expositor (p. 100):

<...birth as determined by past kamma, maturity of the controlling faculties, and distance from the corruptions.>

 

Nina: Kusala citta accompanied by wisdom in a past life can produce rebirth-consciousness accompanied by wisdom. If wisdom is developed in that life enlightenment can be attained. As to maturity of the faculties, indriyas: the spiritual faculties of confidence, energy, mindfulness concentration and wisdom have to be developed.

 

Tiika:

Who teaches the Dhamma to others,

 

anavajjaani sippaayatanakammaayatanavijja.t.thaanaani sikkhaapetiiti evamaadika.m pa~n~naasa.mvattaniya.m karoti,

and trains them in blameless arts, manual labour and knowledge, and is thus performing things that are leading to wisdom, 

 

tassa kammuupanissayavasena kusalacitta.m uppajjamaana.m ~naa.nasampayutta.m hoti.

for him the kusala citta that arises and is conditioned by such kamma is accompanied by wisdom...

 

Tiika: 

Moreover, when kusala citta arises in dependence on the maturity of the faculties, for him who has arrived at the wisdom-decad, it does so in association with knowledge.

 

N: The wisdom decad is the ten years from forty to fifty. The Visuddhimagga explains the different decads in the life of humans, from babyhood to old age.

 

Tiika:

By whom the defilements are subdued, for him the citta, because of being removed from defilements, is accompanied by wisdom.

 

N: As to subdued, vikkhambhita, this pertains to the temporary elimination of the hindrances by jhaana attainment. This is vikkhambhana pahåna, overcoming by repression. The citta accompanied by wisdom can attain jhaana. 

 

Tiika: As is said (in Dhammapada 282): <Indeed from meditation wisdom arises, without meditation wisdom wanes.>

 

Nina: the Pali uses the expressions: bhavaaya, from mental development and vibhavaaya: without mental development. Mental development, bhaavana, here translated as meditation, includes jhaana, vipassanaa, studying and explaining the Dhamma.

***********

 

Explanation of prompted and unprompted:

 

Nina: The Expositor explains the word sa.nkhaara, prompting, as external plan, effort, instigation by oneself or someone else. A citta that is prompted can arise from self-instigation, or <whether he has been admonished by another pointing out the disadvantage in not doing one’s duty, etc., and the advantage in doing it, or whether he has done his duty by being impelled thereto...>

The Tiika explains that the citta can be prompted by the instigation of oneself or by another, and that when there is not such prompting the citta is unprompted,  asa"nkhaarika.

 

Explanation of the kusala citta being unaccompanied by wisdom:

Tiika: 

~Naa.navippayutta.m means dissociated, exempt from wisdom...

 

Explanation of the kusala citta being associated with indifferent feeling :

 

Tiika:

It is disinterested and thus indifferent feeling, it means that while it feels on account of the object it is indifferent, it has the mode of staying in the middle.  

 

N: The Commentary explains upekkhaa by means of word associations: upekkhati in Pali means, to look on, to be disinterested. Also the word ajjhupekkhati is used, meaning: to be indifferent.

 

Tiika:

Alternatively, indifferent feeling  that is confronted with pleasure and pain experiences it while it looks on and is not obstructed by it.  

 

N: The word ikkhaa is.used. Ikkhati means: to look on.

 

Tiika: Or else, it experiences a desirable or undesirable object and it looks on as it arises in an impartial way and thus it is indifferent feeling, upekkhaa. The citta that is associated with that feeling is called: associated with indifferent feeling.   

 

N: Upekkhaa, indifferent feeling, should not be confused with the sobhana cetasika tatramajjhattataa, equanimity, which can also be denoted as upekkhaa.

The word upekkhaa can stand for different realities depending on the context. (See Vis. IV, 157). Indifferent feeling can arise with kusala citta, akusala citta, vipaakacitta and kiriyacitta.

 

Tiika: All the rest is according to the same method as explained above. 

 

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Vis. 84.

 

Intro Vis. XIV, 84.

As the Visuddhimagga states, there are eight types of kusala cittas of the sense sphere. The Visuddhimagga illustrates, to begin with, the first and the second type. These are: 

1) accompanied by pleasant feeling, connected with wisdom, unprompted

  somanassa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-sampayutta.m, asa”nkhaarikam eka.m

 

2) accompanied by pleasant feeling, connected with wisdom, prompted

  somanassa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-sampayutta.m, sasa”nkhaarikam eka.m

****

These types of citta are not abstract categories, and the Visuddhimagga gives us examples from daily life. The Tiika elaborates on these and gives more explanations of the conditions for these cittas. It mentions again the conditions of the place where one lives, the time when one lives, and these have to be favorable. Moreover, friendship with a noble person is most important. One has to develop the enlightenment factors and the Tiika mentions the enlightenment factor of rapture (piiti) that is a condition for the first type of kusala citta to be accompanied by pleasant feeling, and also the enlightenment factor of <Investigation of Dhamma> (dhammavicaya, pañña) which is a condition for the kusala citta to be accompanied by pañña.

As we have seen (in my Intro to Vis. 83), <Eleven states also conduce to the production of zest ( or rapture) as a factor of wisdom [factor of enlightenment], namely, recollection of the Buddha, of the Law (Dhamma), of the Order, of the precepts, of self-sacrifice, of spirits (devas), of peace, avoidance of rough (i.e., ill-tempered ) persons, serving meek persons, reflection on a Suttanta which instills faith and a tendency to all this. It is thus that 'accompanied by joy' should be understood.>

We read in the “Expositor” (p. 101) about the conditions for the enlightenment factor of Investigation of Dhamma:

<Frequent questionings (on elements, aggregates, etc.), cleansing of things and substances, equalizing of the faculties, avoiding of unintelligent persons, frequenting of wise persons, reflection on teachings of deep knowledge, inclination (of mind) towards this.>

As to cleansing of things and substances, this is personal cleanliness of the body, of clothes and dwelling, as the Commentary to the Satipa.t.thaanasutta explains. Equalizing of the faculties pertains to the balancing of the faculties of confidence, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. Thus we see that also physical factors are conditions for wisdom.

 

We read in the Co. to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (T.A. p. 27):

<...But here the accompaniment of happiness is due to such causes as strong faith, gaining insight, having someone to receive the requisites, and so on...>

 

We read about the kusala citta that is unprompted in the

Co to Abh. Sangaha (T.A. p. 27,28):

<the condition of being unprompted is due to such reasons as a healthy condition of body and mind by virtue of a suitable dwelling place and so forth, and the previous habit of generosity and so forth in the past; the condition of being prompted should be understood as the inverse of these.>

Seeing the value of kusala is stressed time and again as a condition for the arising of kusala citta.

Learning about the different ways of kusala can be a condition for the arising of kusala citta more often. It helps one not to overlook opportunities for kusala as they occur in daily life.  

The Tiika refers to the ten bases of meritorious actions, the ways of kusala that can be performed by one of the eight kusala cittas of the sense sphere. They are mentioned by the Expositor (p. 210, 211): charity, sila (this includes observing precepts, the monk’s sila, etc. and also the guarding of the sense-doors), mental development (including samatha and vipassana), paying respect, dutifulness and helping, sharing of one’s merit, appreciation of others’ kusala, explaining the Dhamma, listening to the Dhamma, rectifying one’s views.

The difference between the first type of kusala citta and the second type which is prompted can remind us that there are different degrees of accumulated sobhana cetasikas. People have different degrees of confidence in kusala, of generosity and of other qualities. We read in the Visuddhimagga that a person may give <hesitantly through lack of free generosity>. This example indicates that there are different degrees of kusala and that these are conditioned by past accumulations. Nobody can direct the citta to be in this way or that way.

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

Text Vis 84:

 (1) When a man is happy on encountering an excellent gift to be

given, or recipient, etc., or some such cause for joy, and by placing

right view foremost that occurs in the way beginning 'There is [merit

in] giving' (M.i,288), he unhesitatingly and unurged by others performs

such merit as giving, etc., then his consciousness is 'accompanied by

joy', 'associated with knowledge', and 'unprompted'. (2) But when a man

is happy and content in the way aforesaid, and, while placing right view

foremost, yet he does it hesitantly through lack of free generosity,

etc., or urged on by others, then his consciousness is of the same kind

as the last but 'prompted'; for in this sense 'prompting' is a term for

a prior effort exerted by himself or others.

 

****

Nina: Recapitulation of the first two types of kusala citta:

1) accompanied by pleasant feeling, connected with wisdom, unprompted

  somanassa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-sampayutta.m, asa”nkhaarikam eka.m

2) accompanied by pleasant feeling, connected with wisdom, prompted

  somanassa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-sampayutta.m, sasa”nkhaarikam eka.m

 

Accompanied by pleasant feeling:

******************************

Vis.:  When a man is happy on encountering an excellent gift to be

given, or recipient, etc., or some such cause for joy...

 

Tiika 84:

After he has explained the eight types of kusala cittas of the sense sphere, he said to begin with <When (a man is happy on encountering an excellent gift to be given)...>, in order to show now the way they are occurring.

In that case, as to the expression, or recipient, etc. (aadi), he summarizes with the word <etc. > the favorable factors of place, time, good friendship and so on.

As to the expression, <or some such cause for joy>, here there are from another point of view the following factors: an abundance of confidence,

purity of view, the fact of having seen the benefit of wholesome deeds,

a rebirth-consciousness with pleasant feeling, eleven factors that are the foundations for the enlightenment factor of rapture, thus is the treatment of these and so on.

 

N: Rebirth-consciousness with pleasant feeling is produced by kusala kamma with pleasant feeling. Throughout life the bhavanga-cittas are of the same type, thus, accompanied by pleasant feeling.

 

Accompanied by wisdom.

***********************

Vis.: and by placing right view foremost that occurs in the way beginning 'There is [merit in] giving' (M.i,288)...

 

Tiika:

As to the expression <that occurs in the way beginning ('There is [merit

in] giving'), here by the word <beginning with>, not all of the nine bases of right view are referred to by the words, there is offering, etc. ,

 and this should be seen also as the treatment of the foundation for the enlightenment factor of investigation of Dhamma.

 

N: The Tiika refers to M. I, 288, where a person has right view of kamma and vipaka: <There is (result of) gift, there is (result of) offering, there is (result of) sacrifice...>

 

Tiika:

As to the expression, by placing (right view) foremost, this means giving precedence to it.

And this has the meaning of association, with reference to precedence of what is conascent, as is said (in the Dhammapada, vs. 1,2), < Mind is the forerunner of dhammas..>

 

N: The Dhammapada explains that mind is the chief in motivating evil and good, and that this brings bad and good results. Citta is the source of good and bad deeds.

When one gives precedence to right view, right view is the forerunner, the chief, that is conascent with the kusala citta. There are many degrees of right view. One may have theoretical understanding of kamma that produces its appropriate result, but through insight there is a deeper understanding of kamma and vipaka as nama that is conditioned, that is non-self.

 

Unprompted.

************

Vis.: ... he unhesitatingly and unurged by others performs such merit as giving, etc.

Tiika:

As to the expression, unhesitatingly, the performing of meritorious deeds does not exhibit any hesitation that could be due to stinginess as to fame, and so on, and in this way he explains unhindered generosity etc...

 

N: There is avarice as to residence, gain, fame etc. Someone may not like to praise others because of stinginess. The person who does not have any stinginess, can without hesitation express his appreciation of someone else’s kusala, which is a form of daana.    

 

Tiika:

As to the expression not urged (by others), this means not prompted in any way.

In this way he shows the practice of meritorious deeds with its essential properties. 

As to the expression, (unurged) by others, by this he explains a natural effort.

 

N: The effort for kusala arises spontaneously, without being prompted. 

 

Tiika:

As to the expression, daana and so on, this means: these are the ten meritorious deeds of generosity, morality up to the rectifying of one’s views,

or daana, siila, mental development and also the other seven kinds are here implied in this way....

For him who is endowed with the intention of what is meritorious.

 

Prompted.

********

Vis. : But when a man is happy and content in the way aforesaid, and, while placing right view foremost, yet he does it hesitantly through lack of free generosity, etc., or urged on by others, then his consciousness is of the same kind as the last but 'prompted'; for in this sense 'prompting' is a term for

a prior effort exerted by himself or others.

 

Tiika: 

 With a mind that looks at the gifts that are to be given with restricted generosity.

By the word (through restricted generosity,) etc., he deals with lack of determination in the undertaking of morality and so on.

 

N: There is some hesitation and indecisiveness with regard to daana, siila and the other kinds of kusala when the kusala citta is prompted. When one observes siila with the second type of kusala citta, the confidence in kusala, respect for the Buddha and metta and respect for one’s fellowmen is not as strong as in the case of the first type of kusala citta that is unprompted. 

 

Tiika:

As to the expression, of the same kind, in a similar way citta is said  to be accompanied by pleasant feeling etc.

 

N: The second type of kusala citta is similar to the first type in as far as it is accompanied by pleasant feeling and connected with wisdom.

 

Tiika:

As to the expression, for in this sense, this means: a citta which is hesitant is called connected with urging on.

With reference to the word “this”, this is a word for prompting.

 

N: The Tiika then explains the meaning of prior urging on or prompting, which should not be taken in the sense of prior in time.

The Commentary to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (p. 13) explains: <Or else with prompting and without prompting are stated entirely with reference to the presence or absence of prompting, not on account of its presence or absence in the [preceding] associated activity [of consciousness]: a consciousness that occurs by virtue of the actual existence of prompting, even when that prompting occurs in a different flow [of consciousness], has prompting and so is with prompting...The opposite of this, because of its absence in the manner stated, is without prompting.>

This explanation indicates the difference in quality between kusala citta that arises spontaneously, without any hesitation, and kusala citta that is more hesitant, that needs prompting. There are many different degrees of kusala and they are dependent on different conditions. Confidence in the benefit of kusala has many degrees. Through satipa.t.thaana confidence in kusala develops.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Intro Vis. 85.

There are eight types of kusala cittas of the sense-sphere in all. This section of the Visuddhimagga, after explaining the first two types, deals with the following six types of kusala cittas:

 

3) accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, unprompted

  somanassa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-vippayutta.m, asa”nkhaarikam eka.m

4) accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wisdom, prompted

  somanassa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-vippayutta.m, sasa”nkhaarikam eka.m

5) accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, unprompted

 upekkhaa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-sampayutta.m, asa”nkhaarikam eka.m

6)accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wisdom, prompted

 upekkhaa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-sampayutta.m, sasa”nkhaarikam eka.m

7) accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, unprompted

 upekkhaa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-vippayutta.m, asa”nkhaarikam eka.m

8)accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wisdom, prompted

 upekkhaa-sahagata.m ñaa.na-vippayutta.m, sasa”nkhaarikam eka.m

 

Kusala cittas of the sense-sphere are these eight types and it depends on different conditions which type arises at a particular moment. There is no person who can direct kusala citta to be such or such.  

Kusala kamma of the sense sphere is performed by any one of these eight types and it produces its result accordingly.

Kamma has been classified in many ways, and in one classification regenerative  kamma, janaka kamma, is mentioned. Janaka kamma produces result in the form of rebirth-consciousness and in the course of life. The Tiika refers to janaka kamma and deals with the results produced by kusala kamma of different degrees.

Kusala kamma performed by kusala citta that is with wisdom, accompanied by pleasant feeling and unprompted does not necessarily produce rebirth-consciousness that is vipaakacitta with wisdom, accompanied by pleasant feeling and unprompted. The reason is that kusala kamma is of different degrees and they all produce their results accordingly. There is excellent kusala kamma and inferior kusala kamma. When kusala citta with wisdom performs kusala kamma, the wisdom or understanding can be of different degrees. There may be understanding that kusala brings its result accordingly, or understanding of the degree of insight that realizes kusala as non-self. Or kusala kamma may be performed without understanding, depending on conditions. The Visuddhimagga gives an example of young children in order to illustrate kusala citta without understanding, but this type arises also in the case of adults. It depends on many conditions what type of kusala citta arises at a particular moment.

Different opinions of teachers are quoted by Buddhaghosa (Expositor (II, p. 358 and following). He quotes also from three Elders:<But of these three Elders whose doctrine should be accepted? Not anyone's unreservedly. But in the doctrine of all of them what is fitting should be accepted.> He then goes on analysing the different opinions very carefully.

We read in the Commentaries that akusala cittas arising before or after the kusala citta that performs kamma are conditions for the kusala kamma to be inferior and that it thus produces a result that is inferior.

We read in the “Guide to Conditional Relations” by U Narada (p. 202, 203):  

<Suppose that it has been decided to perform an act of charity, and at this time of prior (pubba) volition, there is pleasure in the thought and great determination to carry it out, many faultless [kusala] impulsions [javana-cittas] arise and cease. Then after the deed is performed, and at this time of later (apara) volition, there is great satisfaction at having completed the deed that ought to be done by good men. Such a faultless action, which is preceded and followed by faultless volitions is very strong and, being highly estimable, is known as a higher class faultless action...>

When kusala kamma is performed there are many kusala cittas, arising at three periods of time: before, during and after the kusala kamma. After having performed kusala kamma one can recollect it with kusala cittas.

We read further on: <But if, at the time of prior volition, there is no pleasure but stinginess or dissatisfaction for one reason or another or the deed is going to be performed for gaining fame, this is a faulty [akusala] action preceding the actual deed. Then after the deed is performed, at the time of later volition, there is sorrow and regret at having dome it, this is a faulty action. Such a faultless action, which is preceded and followed by faulty volitions is weak and, being degrading, is known as lower class faultless action...>

 

We read in the Commentary to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 193, 194) that excellent kusala kamma with three roots produces rebirth  with three roots and that inferior kusala kamma with three roots and excellent kusala kamma with two roots produces rebirth with two roots. Inferior kusala kamma with two roots produces rebirth that is ahetuka vipaakacitta. In that case a person is handicapped from the first moment of life.  

Here we see how each cause brings its appropriate result and how intricate the way of kamma is that produces result. It truly is only the field of the Buddhas. 

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Visuddhimagga XIV,85.

 

 (3) But when young children have a natural habit due to seeing the

behavior of relatives and are joyful on seeing bhikkhus and at once give

them whatever they have in their hands or pay homage, then the third

kind of consciousness arises. (4) But when they behave like this on

being urged by their relatives, 'Give; pay homage', then the fourth kind

of consciousness arises. (5)-(8) But when the consciousnesses are devoid

of joy in these four instances through encountering no excellence in the

gift to be given, or in the recipient, etc., or through want of any such

cause for joy, the the remaining four, which are 'accompanied by

equanimity', arise.

 

So sense-sphere profitable [consciousness] should be understood as of

eight kinds, being classed according to joy, equanimity, knowledge, and

prompting.

 

****

Tiika 85.

 

The apprehension of ignorant children is stated in order to explain the non- origination of right view occurring in the way of “There is giving” etc.

 

N: The Tiika refers here to the third type of kusala citta, without right understanding of kamma and vipaka as stated by “There is giving”, namely, giving and its result, as explained in the Middle Length Sayings, no 41.

 

Tiika:There is apprehension at once in order to explain the absence of hesitation and urging.   

 

N: The third type of kusala citta is spontaneous, without prompting. The Tiika explains here the text of the Vis. : <But when young children have a natural habit due to seeing the behavior of relatives and are joyful on seeing bhikkhus and at once give them whatever they have in their hands or pay homage...>

 

Tiika:

The cittas are devoid of pleasant feeling and this refers to the doing of meritorious deeds.

 

N: The four last mentioned types of kusala citta are accompanied by indifferent feeling. The Tiika explains here the text of the Vis. : <But when the consciousnesses are devoid of joy in these four instances through encountering no excellence in the gift to be given, or in the recipient, etc., or through want of any such cause for joy, the the remaining four, which are 'accompanied by

equanimity', arise.

 

Tiika: 

As to the expression, due to the absence of causes for joy, this should be seen merely as an example.

 

N: When the gift to be given is not very beautiful and the recipient is not a worthy person, for example.

 

Tiika:

A mediocre object that conditions the mind in that way etc. is the cause for the kusala citta to be accompanied by indifferent feeling.

As to the word thus, and so on, this is the conclusion.

 

N: The Visuddhimagga concludes: <So sense-sphere profitable [consciousness] should be understood as of eight kinds, being classed according to joy, equanimity, knowledge, and prompting.>

 

N: The Tiika then explains that the eight types of kusala cittas of the sense sphere have six classes of objects, namely as experienced through the sense-doors and through the mind-door. They motivate kusala kamma through the three doorways of body, speech and mind. We then read:

 

Tiika: 

In this case, when the four types of kusala citta that are accompanied by wisdom produce rebirth with three roots, then kamma ripens as sixteen vipaakacittas.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Nina: There are eight types of vipaakacittas with roots and eight types without roots which can arise in the course of one’s life.

Excellent kusala kamma with three beautiful roots, namely, wisdom, non-attachment and non-aversion, produces rebirth with three beautiful roots, and ripens in the course of life as sixteen types of vipaakacittas. There are eight types of sahetuka vipaakacittas: with wisdom or without it, accompanied by pleasant feeling or indifferent feeling, unprompted or prompted. The eight types of sahetuka vipaakacittas arising in a process are the cittas which are retention, tadaaramma.na cittas, after the javana-cittas (kusala cittas or akusala cittas) if a process takes its complete course. The tadaaramma.na-cittas can be of any of the eight types of sahetuka vipaakacittas.

The other eight types of vipaakacittas are ahetuka vipaakacittas arising in a process. They are: the five kinds of sense-cognitions (seeing, etc.), receiving-consciousness (sapa.ticchana-citta) arising after the sense-cognition, and two types of investigation-consciousness (santiira.nacitta) that can arise after the receiving-consciousness. One type of investigation-consciousness  is kusala vipaakacitta with indifferent feeling, and one type is kusala vipaakacitta with pleasant feeling arising in the case of an extraordinarily desirable object.

 

The Tiika then mentions that twelve types of vipaakacittas instead of sixteen types can be the result of kusala kamma. Inferior kusala kamma with three beautiful roots and excellent kusala kamma with two beautiful roots, thus, without wisdom, can produce rebirth with two beautiful roots, and it ripens in the course of life as twelve types of vipaakacittas. Instead of eight types of sahetuka vipaakacittas four types arise in the course of life, since those with wisdom are excluded.

Inferior kusala kamma with two roots produces rebirth that is ahetuka vipaakacitta and ripes in the course of life as ahetuka vipaakacittas, thus, only eight types of ahetuka vipaakacittas arise. In that case a person is handicapped from the first moment of life.

The Tiika explains that even in an unhappy plane of existence, such as in the case of Naagas (serpent or demon) and Supa.n.nas (fairy birds) kusala kamma can produce pleasant results. A pleasant result cannot be produced by akusala kamma, it states.  

 

Pali/English of Tiika text:

 

“Atthi dinnan”ti-aadi (ma. ni. 1.441; 2.95) nayappavattaaya sammaadi.t.thiyaa asambhavadassanattha.m baala-ggaha.na.m.

The apprehension of ignorant children is stated in order to explain the non- origination of right view occurring in the way of “There is giving” etc.

 

Sa.msiidanussaahanaabhaavadassanattha.m sahasaa-gaha.na.m.

There is apprehension at once in order to explain the absence of hesitation and urging.   

 

Somanassarahitaa honti pu~n~na.m karontaati adhippaayo.

The cittas are devoid of pleasant feeling and this refers to the doing of meritorious deeds.

 

Somanassahetuuna.m abhaava.m aagammaati ida.m nidassanamatta.m da.t.thabba.m.

As to the expression, due to the absence of causes for joy, this should be seen merely as an example.

 

Majjhattaaramma.natathaaruupacetosa"nkhaaraadayopi hi upekkhaasahagatataaya kaara.na.m hontiyevaati.

A mediocre object that conditions the mind in that way etc. is the cause for the kusala citta to be accompanied by indifferent feeling.

 

Evanti-aadi nigamana.m...

As to the word thus, and so on, this is the conclusion...

 

Tattha ~naa.nasampayuttaani cattaari yadaa tihetukapa.tisandhi.m uppaadenti,

In this case, when the four types of kusala citta that are accompanied by wisdom produce rebirth with three roots,

 

tadaa so.lasa vipaakacittaani phalanti.

then kamma ripens as sixteen vipaakacittas.

 

 

-----------------------------------------------------------------

 



#4 RobertK

RobertK

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Posted 13 December 2014 - 10:15 AM

Intro to Vis. XIV, 86, 87:

 

In the section on the khandha of consciousness, vi~n~naa.nakkhandha, the Visuddhimagga deals with kusala cittas of the four planes of citta. There are four planes of citta: citta of the sense sphere or kaamaavacaaracitta, ruupaavacara citta (ruupa-jhaanacitta), aruupaavacaaracitta (aruupa-jhaanacitta) and supramundane citta or lokuttara citta. The Tiika summarizes the essence of ruupa jhaana which is not as coarse as the citta of the sense sphere, but less refined as aruupa jhaana-citta, and which, unlike the lokuttara magga-citta, cannot eradicate defilements. The Tiika states: 

<It is with a physical base (vatthu), and this means that it turns away from aruupa-jhaana; it is with intoxicants and this means that it turns away from the path-consciousness; it is without the hindrances, and this means that it turns away from the pair connected with sensory impingement.>

 

Kaamaavacara citta is involved with sense impressions. On account of eyesense and visible object seeing arises; on account of earsense and sound hearing arises; on account of the other pairs connected with sensory impingement the other sense-cognitions arise. The person who develops jhaana sees the disadvantages of being involved with sense impressions and the defilements bound up with them. He has sincerity and determination to fulfill all the different conditions necessary for the attainment of jhaana. At the moment of jhaana-citta there is no experience of sense objects and the hindrances of covetousness, aversion, etc. do not arise.

Kusala kamma of the level of ruupa-jhaana, immaterial jhaana, can lead to rebirth in ruupa-brahma planes where there are less sense impressions. There are no nose, tongue, bodysense or sexuality in those planes. Only seeing, hearing, and the experience of mental objects occur. Neither are there groups of ruupa produced by nutrition (Commentary to the Abhidhamattha Sangaha, Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 251).

However, the development of ruupa-jhaana is dependent on a physical base (vatthu), and that means that the meditation subject is still bound up with ruupa. One has to look at the earth kasina or coloured kasina, for example, until one has a mental image of it. Whereas the meditation subjects of aruupa-jhaana are not bound up with ruupa.

The Tiika states about ruupajhaana: <it is with intoxicants and this means that it turns away from the path-consciousness>. The intoxicants, aasavas, are: the intoxicant of greed of sense desire; the intoxicant of birth, the greed that desires birth in ruupa brahma planes and aruupa brahma planes. Greed for jhaana and greed accompanied by eternalism are included in this intoxicant (Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 259). The intoxicant of wrong view includes sixtytwo kinds of wrong view. The intoxicant of ignorance is ignorance of the four noble Truths and the Dependent Origination.

The jhaanas are with intoxicants (saasava), they proceed along with the intoxicants and can be objects of intoxicants. One may, for example, cling to the jhaanas and the result of the jhaanas. All dhammas, except lokuttara dhammas can be an object of clinging.

The Expositor (I, p. 64) states: <Or, ‘intoxicants’ are those states which fructify or beget the pains of the ocean of births of long duration.> Jhaanacitta, not even the highest stage of aruupajhaana, can lead to the end of the cycle of birth and death. Only the maggacitta can eradicate the intoxicants and it leads to the end of rebirth.

Aaruupa-jhaana is more refined than ruupa-jhaana.

We read in the Commentary to the Abhidammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma, Ch. 3, p.114):

„In the formless world none of the six bases are found because there is no

occurrence of materiality there at all as a result of the strength of

formless beings’ cultivation of dispassion for it.”

The development of the meditation subjects of aruupa-jhaana is not dependent on any base (vatthu). The perceptions of ruupa are completely surmounted with the meditation subjects of Boundless Space, Boundless Consciousness, etc.

The result of aruupa-jhaana is rebirth in the aruupa-brahma planes, where there is no ruupa and no sense impressions at all.

Through the development of jhaana clinging to sense objects is temporarily subdued,but only through the development of vipassanaa clinging can be completely eradicated. The non-returner, anaagaamii, who has attained the third stage of enlightenment has eradicated clinging to sense objects. 

We can learn from the study of ruupa-jhaana and aruupa-jhaana that each kamma produces its appropriate result. Kamma-condition is anattaa, it is beyond control. We are born humans, and this is the result of kaamaavacara kusala kamma. Kaamaavacaara cittas are involved with the sense objects and on account of these clinging arises. On account of the sense objects akusala cittas arise time and again. When they have arisen already it shows that there are conditions for them, but we can develop understanding of them as not “mine” or belonging to a self. We should remember that clinging to sense objects is conditioned, that it is anattaa. Through the development of vipassanaa we learn that whatever appears is only naama or ruupa. Visible object appears through the eyes, and when there can be awareness of it we can learn that it is only a conditioned dhamma. Also clinging to sense objects is a conditioned dhamma and it can and should be the object of right understanding. First the wrong view of self has to be eradicated and finally all other defilements can be eradicated. Renunciation from all defilements is true renunciation.

 

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Visuddhimagga Ch XIV, 86:

The consciousness of the 'fine-material sphere' is fivefold,

being classed according to association with the jhana factors. That is

to say, (9) the first is associated with applied thought, sustained

thought, happiness, bliss, and concentration, (10) the second leaves out

applied thought from that, (11) the third leaves out sustained thought

from that, (12) the fourth makes happiness fade away from that, (13) the

fifth is associated with equanimity and concentration, bliss having

subsided.

 

Tiika 86.

As to the expression “however the consciousness of the fine-material sphere”, the word <pana>, (meaning here) “however”, explains the distinction.

 

N:  The translator of the Vis text did not translate <pana>, however. The consciousness of the fine-material sphere is distinct in several ways from the foregoing kusala cittas of the sense sphere that were explained. In the following lines the Tiika explains the differences, using the word <pana>, to render the distinction. It can be translated as: however.

 

Tiika:

Consciousness of the sense sphere overcomes defilements just by substitution of their opposites, however, this is not so with the fine-material consciousness, this overcomes them by repression.

 

N: In the development of insight the perception of permanence is overcome by the perception of impermanence, and so on. This is overcoming by the opposites (tada”nga pahaana). The jhaanacitta temporarily subdues the hindrances.

 

Tiika: Or, consciousness of the sense sphere is classified as eightfold, according to feeling, wisdom, being prompted, however, this is not so (in the case of consciousness of the fine-material sphere); in saying that this (the consciousness of the fine-material sphere) is otherwise he explained the distinction.

This, the consciousness of the fine-material sphere, however, should be understood as being with a physical base, with intoxicants, and without the hindrances.

It is with a physical base (vatthu), and this means that it turns away from aruupa-jhaana; it is with intoxicants and this means that it turns away from the path-consciousness; it is without the hindrances, and this means that it turns away from the pair connected with sensory impingement.

 

N:  Since its meditation subject is dependent on and involved with ruupa, it is not inclined to aruupa-jhaana, its development does not lead to aruupa-jhaana. For further explanations, see my Intro. 

 

Tiika:

Wherever there are five, four, three, two and again another two jhaana-factors, he classified the consciousness of the 'fine-material sphere' as fivefold,

according to its association with the jhana factors and, in order to explain the meaning of what was said in brief, he said to begin with, “that is to say (the first is associated with applied thought...)”.

What should be said in that case has been said before in the Description of Jhaana (Visuddhimagga, Part II).

Therefore, after there has been the development according to the method that was explained, and the meditation subject beginning with the earth kasina has been taken, kusala cittas connected with understanding arise accordingly,   

and when jhaana is developed in due order, beginning with a limited degree (of absorption) etc. it should be understood that it can produce rebirth in the plane of Brahma’s Retinue and so on, that is to say, in sixteen brahma planes.

 

N: Those who have a limited degree of absortion of the first jhaana will be reborn in the lowest plane of ruupa-brahmans, namely, the  plane of Brahma’s Retinue. Those with a medium and a high degree of absorption of the first jhaana will be reborn accordingly in higher ruupa-brahma planes: the plane of Brahma’s Ministers and the Great Brahmas. Each stage of jhaana can be of a limited, a medium or a high degree of absorption, Each of these degrees produces its result accordingly (Commentary to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha, A.T. P. 108, 109) 

*****

Pali :

 

Tiika 86.

Ruupaavacara.m panaati pana-saddo visesatthajotako.

 

As to the expression “however the consciousness of the fine-material sphere”, the word <pana>, (meaning here) “however”, explains the distinction.

 

Tena yathaa kaamaavacara.m kilesaana.m tada"ngappahaanamattakara.m, na evamida.m, ida.m pana vikkhambhanappahaanakara.m.

 

Consciousness of the sense sphere overcomes defilements just by substitution of their opposites, however, this is not so with the fine-material consciousness, this overcomes them by repression.

 

Yathaa vaa ta.m vedanaa~naa.nasa"nkhaarabhedato a.t.thadhaa bhijjati, na evamida.m, ida.m pana tato a~n~nathaa vaati vakkhamaana.m visesa.m joteti.

 

Or, consciousness of the sense sphere is classified as eightfold, according to feeling, wisdom, being prompted, however, this is not so (in the case of consciousness of the fine-material sphere); in saying that this (the consciousness of the fine-material sphere) is otherwise he explained the distinction.

 

Ta.m paneta.m savatthuka.m, saasava.m, viniivara.na~nca ruupaavacaranti da.t.thabba.m.

 

This, the consciousness of the fine-material sphere, however, should be understood as being with a physical base, with intoxicants, and without the hindrances.

 

“Savatthuka.m evaa”ti hi iminaa aruupaavacara.m nivatteti,  

“saasavan”ti iminaa pa.thamamaggacitta.m, “viniivara.nan”ti iminaa pa.tighasahitadvaya.m.

 

It is with a physical base (vatthu), and this means that it turns away from aruupa-jhaana; it is with intoxicants and this means that it turns away from the path-consciousness; it is without the hindrances, and this means that it turns away from the pair connected with sensory impingement.

 

Katthaci pa~nca jhaana"ngaani, katthaci cattaari, katthaci tii.ni, katthaci dve, katthaci aparaani dveti eva.m jhaana"ngayogabhedato pa~ncavidhanti sa"nkhepato vuttamattha.m vivaritu.m “seyyathidan”ti-aadi aaraddha.m.

 

Wherever there are five, four, three, two and again another two jhaana-factors, he classified the consciousness of the 'fine-material sphere' as fivefold,

according to its association with the jhana factors and, in order to explain the meaning of what was said in brief, he said to begin with, “that is to say (the first is associated with applied thought...)”.

 

Tattha ya.m vattabba.m, ta.m he.t.thaa jhaanakathaaya.m (visuddhi. 1.79 aadayo) vuttameva.

 

What should be said in that case has been said before in the Description of Jhaana (Visuddhimagga, Part II).

 

Tayida.m bhaavanaamayameva hutvaa vuttanayena pathaviikasi.naadika.m aalambitvaa yathaaraha.m ~naa.nasampayuttakusalaanantara.m uppajjati,

 

Therefore, after there has been the development according to the method that was explained, and the meditation subject beginning with the earth kasina has been taken, kusala cittas connected with understanding arise accordingly,   

 

hiinaadibhedabhinna.m paneta.m yathaakkama.m brahmapaarisajjaadiisu so.lasasupi brahmalokesu upapattinipphaadakanti da.t.thabba.m.

 

and when jhaana is developed in due order, beginning with a limited degree (of absorption) etc. it should be understood that it can produce rebirth in the plane of Brahma’s Retinue and so on, that is to say, in sixteen brahma planes.

 

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Vis. Ch XIV, 87. That of the 'immaterial sphere' is fourfold by association with

the four immaterial states; for (14) the first is associated with the

jhana of the base consisting of boundless space in the way aforesaid,

while (15)-(17) the second, third, and fourth, are [respectively]

associated with those of the base consisting of boundless consciousness,

and so on.

 

Tiika 87:

With the complete surmounting of perceptions of matter he must attain immaterial consciousness.

As to the expression, of the four immaterial states, this refers to the four stages of aruupa-jhaana that are reckoned as associated with the factors equanimity and concentration.

 

N: There are four stages of aruupajhaana and all four aruupa-jhaanacittas are accompanied by the same two factors as the fifth ruupa-jhaanacitta, by equanimity and concentration.

The text of the Vis. uses the expression: catunna.m aaruppaana.m, of the four immaterial states, and we have to note here: aaruppaana.m with two p’s, instead of aruupaana.m and this is a word association with ruppa: what is molested. Of ruupa it is said that it is molested, (ruppati, to molest), by cold, heat, etc. or by change. The four meditation subjects of aruupa-jhaana are not dependent on any materiality, they are not molested.

The Tiika states further on that the aruupajhaanacittas of the four stages are classified according to their meditation subjects and it refers to the Description of the Immaterial jhaanas (Vis. Part II, Ch 10). The Tiika mentions the four stages which have as subjects: Boundless Space, Unbounded Consciousness, Nothingness, Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception. The result is rebirth in four aruupa-brahma planes.

****

Pali Tiika 87:

Ruupasa~n~naasamatikkamaadinaa samadhigantabba.m aruupaavacara.m.

 

With the complete surmounting of perceptions of matter he must attain immaterial consciousness.

 

Catunna.m aruupaananti upekkhaasamaadhisa"nkhaatehi catuuhi aruupajjhaanehi.

 

As to the expression, of the four immaterial states, this refers to the four stages of aruupa-jhaana that are reckoned as associated with the factors equanimity and concentration.

******

 

Nina’s Intro Visuddhimagga Ch XIV, 88.

The Visuddhimagga, in its dealing with the khandha of consciousness, follows the triple division of the Dhammasanga.ni of: kusala dhamma, akusala dhamma and avyaakaata (indeterminate) dhamma. It deals first with kusala citta of the four planes of citta: citta of the sense-sphere, of the fine-material sphere (ruupa-jhaana) of the immaterial sphere (aruupa-jhaana) and supramundane or lokuttara citta. In this section it deals with the lokuttara kusala cittas of the four stages of enlightenment: the stage of the streamwinner, of the once-returner, of the non-returner and of the arahat. At each of these stages defilements are successively eradicated.

The right conditions have to be cultivated so that enlightenment can be attained. The Tiika refers to the six purifications, visuddhis, that have to be reached before the seventh purification, purification by knowledge and vision that is associated with the magga-citta, path-consciousness. The first six are: purification of siila, of citta (concentration), of view (di.t.thi visuddhi, the first stage of tender insight), purification by overcoming doubt (the second stage of tender insight), purification by knowledge and vision of what is and what is not the Path (the third stage of tender insight), purification by knowledge and vision of the way (including all the stages of principal insight). All these purifications have been described further on in the Visuddhimagga.

In the process during which enlightenment is attained the dhamma that appears is seen as impermanent, dukkha or anattaa, and after that nibbaana is experienced.

The Tiika refers to three kinds of liberation, vimokkha, namely: the void liberation, the signless liberation and the desireless liberation.

Nibbaana is called voidness, suññatta, because it is void of all conditioned dhammas. It is called signlessness, animitta, because it is void of “signs”, characteristics of conditioned realities. It is called desirelessness, appa.nihita, because it is without any basis of desire, namely, conditioned realities.

 

As Acharn Sujin wrote in “Survey of Paramattha Dhammas”: <When someone has developed paññaa to the degree that he is about to attain enlightenment, he may penetrate the dhammas which appear at those moments as impermanent, as dukkha, or as anattaa. Only one of these three general characteristics can be realized at a time. When he attains nibbaana his way of emancipation is different depending on which of the three general characteristics of conditioned dhammas he has realized in the process during which enlightenment is attained. When he realizes dhammas which appear as impermanent he becomes liberated (realizes the four noble Truths) by the emancipation of sign-   lessness (animitta vimokkha). When he realizes dhammas as dukkha he becomes liberated by the emancipation of desirelessness (appa.nihita vimokkha). When he realizes dhammas as anattaa, non-self, he becomes liberated by the emancipation of voidness (suññatta vimokkha).>

It is true that when one of the three characteristics is realized, also the other two are understood. But depending on a person’s accumulated inclinations one of the three characteristics will be contemplated more often. We read in the Vis. XXI, 70: <When one who has with great resolution brings [formations] to mind as impermanent, he acquires the signless liberation. When one who has great tranquillity brings [them] to mind as painful [dukkha], he acquires the desireless liberation. When one who has great wisdom brings [them] to mind as not-self, he acquires the void liberation.> ( Path of Discrimination, Treatise on Liberation, Ps. II, 58.)

Enlightenment cannot be attained without the development of insight, stage by stage, beginning with the first stage of tender insight, the realization of the difference between the characteristic of naama, the reality which experiences something, and of ruupa which does not experience anything. In order to realize the difference between the characteristics of naama and of ruupa we have to be mindful of any reality that appears at this moment. There is no other way.

The Visuddhimagga states that profitable consciousness itself is of twenty-one kinds. Thus, summarizing, these are:

eight types of kusala cittas of the sense-sphere,

five types of ruupaavacara kusala cittas,

four types of aruupaavacara kusala cittas,

four types of lokuttara magga-cittas.

All these kusala cittas arise only when there are the appropriate conditions and we cannot cause their arising whenever we want to. However, when we understand what the right conditions for kusala citta are, kusala can be developed.

The Dhammasanga.ni enumerates all dhammas that constitute the first type of kusala citta of the sense-sphere and it ends this section by emphasizing that these are only dhammas devoid of self, stating : <These dhammas are kusala. The section on the Void. The first citta. (suññattavaaro. Pa.thamacitta.m).>  These few words, <The section on the Void. The first citta> at the end of this section, express that the purpose of the enumeration of all these kusala dhammas is explaining their nature of suññatta or anattaa.

The Expositor (I, p. 206) comments: < And here there are only states [dhammas]; no permanent being, no soul is known. These (fifty-six states) are mere states without essence, without a guiding principle. And it is to show the emptiness of this that they are stated here also...There is nothing else whatever, neither a being, nor an individuality, nor a man, nor a person...>

 

As to the Triple Gateway to Liberation, there is another way of formulating,

but we should not forget that insight has to be developed in stages. It

cannot be immediately realized that this or that dhamma is not self, it is a

long process.

We read in the Co. to the Abh. Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 358):

<The contemplation that occurs [thinking], 'This is not self', and which

lets go of the conviction that there is a self in formations {N: conditioned

dhammas], the conviction that holds firmly [to the view] that there is

someone who does kamma and experiences the results, and who is one's self-

[that contemplation] is the gateway to liberation called 'contemplation of

emptiness' since it contemplates [formations] in the form of emptiness of

self....

The contemplation that occurs [seeing] formations as impermanent, which lets go of, which abandons, the sign of distortion understood as the distortions

[N: perversity, vippallasa] of perception, consciousness and view that occur

[seeing] the permanent in what is impermanent, etc.- [that contemplation] is

the gateway to liberation called 'contemplation of the signless,  since it

contemplates [formations] in a manner that is free of the signs of distortion...

The contemplation that occurs [seeing] suffering [dukkha] in formations,

which lets go of, completely abandons by seeing as a form of suffering, the

wish that is craving, the desire that is craving, understood as the craving

for sense-objects and existence which occurs in the form of [thinking] 'this

is mine, this is happiness'- [that contemplation] is called the

contemplation of the wishless, since it contemplates in a manner free of any

wishes.>

 

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Visuddhimagga XIV, 88: The 'supramundane' is fourfold (18)-(21) by association with the four paths.

So firstly, profitable consciousness itself is of twenty-one kinds.

 

 

Tiika 88:

Chavisuddhiparamparaaya samadhigantabba.m lokuttara.m.

 

After the realization of the six Purifications in due order one must attain  supramundane consciousness.

 

Tattha vattabba.m parato aagamissati.

 

What must be said in this connection will come afterwards.

 

Catumaggasampayogatoti sotaapattimaggo yaava arahattamaggoti imehi catuuhi ariyamaggehi sampayogato.

 

As to the expression, by association with the four Paths, this means the Path-consciousness of the streamwinner up to the Path-consciousness of the arahat, and thus it is by association with these four noble Paths.

 

Catubbidhampi ceta.m bhaavanaamayameva hutvaa nibbaana.m aalambitvaa su~n~nato vimokkho, animitto vimokkho, appa.nihito vimokkhoti naamena uppajjati,

 

And also, with regard to this fourfold supramundane consciousness, when one has developed the way and experiences nibbaana as object, the three kinds of liberations arise, namely: the void liberation, the signless liberation, the desireless liberation.  

 

sattabhavaadibhavuupapattinivattakanti da.t.thabba.m.

 

and this should be understood as the turning away from the conditions for rebirth of living beings.

 

Ekaviisatividha.m hoti naatisa"nkhepavitthaaranayenaati adhippaayo.

 

Profitable consciousness is of twentyone kinds and this means that it is according to this method neither too short nor too detailed.

 *****

Tiika 88, English:

 

After the realization of the six Purifications in due order one must attain  supramundane consciousness.

What must be said in this connection will come afterwards.

As to the expression, by association with the four Paths, this means the Path-consciousness of the streamwinner up to the Path-consciousness of the arahat, and thus it is by association with these four noble Paths.

And also, with regard to this fourfold supramundane consciousness, when one has developed the way and experiences nibbana as object, the three kinds of liberations arise, namely: the void liberation, the signless liberation, the desireless liberation.   

And this should be understood as the turning away from the conditions for rebirth of living beings.

Profitable consciousness is of twentyone kinds and this means that it is according to this method neither too short nor too detailed.

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#5 RobertK

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Posted 13 December 2014 - 10:16 AM

Nina’s Intro Vis. Ch XIV, 89.

In the following sections, the Visuddhimagga explains about the akusala cittas which belong only to the plane of citta that is of the sense sphere, kamaavacaara, not to the planes of citta that are fine-material, ruupaavacaara, immaterial, aruupaavacara, or supramundane, lokuttara.

The Tiika begins with an explanation of the word kaamaavacaara, sense sphere. We should return to Vis. XIV, 83 with the explanation of this term.   

 

Recapitulation of Tiika Note 36. ' "Sense sphere" (kaamaavacara): here there are the two kinds of sense desire (kaama), sense desire as basis (vatthu-kaama) and sense desire as defilement (kilesa-kaama). The basis of sense desire are the sense objects that are desired by the defilement of sense desire, kilesa kaama. This is called tanhaa, clinging. The Expositor (I, p. 82) explains that the basis of sense desire is the round of the triple plane of existence. Because of clinging one wants to be reborn. The triple plane of existence are the sensuous planes, the fine material planes and the immaterial planes. 

Plane of existence is the locality where one is reborn. There are eleven sensuous planes. Sensuousness frequents these sensuous planes, in these planes the basis of sense desire and sense desire prevail. We read in the Expositor : <Thus ‘sensuous universe’ means that this (first class of moral) consciousness frequents this eleven-fold localized sensuousness [the sensuous planes of existence], even though it also frequents the planes of  ‘attenuated ruupa’ and of non-ruupa.... this class of consciousness, though occurring elsewhere, should be known as ‘sensuous’>

Cittas of the sense sphere also arise in ruupa-brahma planes and in aruupa brahma planes; cittas rooted in lobha, for example, arise in ruupa-brahma planes and in aruupa brahma planes. Cittas rooted in aversion do not arise there, since there are no condiitons for them in those planes. Seeing and hearing also arise in ruupa-brahma planes, but smelling, tasting and body-consciousness do not arise there. Those born in the ruupa-brahma planes have less conditions for sense impressions.

However, cittas of the sensesphere arise in abundance in the sensuous planes of existence.

 

We read in the Co to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 10): < Herein that which desires (kameti) is desire (kaama) or sensual craving. [Consciousness] where that desire is active (avacarati) in finding its objects belongs to the sphere of sense-desire (kaamaavacara.m).

Alternatively, kaama is that which is desired, [that is,] elevenfold sense-sphere existence; because it is mostly active there, it belongs to the sphere of sense-objects (kaamaavacara.m)- for what is meant is its most common activity, even though [consciousness] that occurs in form and formless existences can still belong to the sphere of sense-desire.

Alternatively, kaama is simply sense-sphere existence and what is active there is sense-sphere activity (kaamaavacaro) >.

The text of the Tiika of Vis. 89 mentions that also in the planes of fine material existence, where someone is born as a result of Mahaggata citta (ruupa-jhaana kusala citta), there are vipaakacittas experiencing ruupadhaatu, elements which are ruupa, and that there are thus also cittas of the sense sphere.

The Tiika mentions the eleven planes of existence of the sense sphere where clinging to sense objects, kaama tanhaa is active, and these are : from the lowest plane that is the aviici hell plane up to the highest sense sphere plane, the plane of the “devas who wield power over the production of others” (paranimmita vasavatti).

The Tiika explains the meanings of “included (pariyaapanna) dhammas”, and “unincluded (apariyaapanna)dhammas”. The unincluded dhammas are the supramundane dhammas. The Tiika states: < they are leading out from the world (lokato utti.n.nataaya lokuttarataa), their excellence should be known by their superior nature.> The dhammas that are called “included” are all mundane dhammas.

We read in the Expositor (I, p. 67):<States [dhammas] which are limited by or included in the round of the triple plane of existence are termed ‘Included’. Those not so limited are termed ‘Unincluded’. States which, cutting the roots of the rounds of repeated births and making Nibbaana their object, go out from the rounds are termed ‘leading out.’ >

The Tiika only summarizes here the three unwholesome roots, akusala hetus: attachment, lobha, aversion, dosa and ignorance, moha. It explains that they are like roots because they cause akusala citta to be firmly established on them.

We can be reminded that roots are very powerful conditions. Just as a tree receives sap through the roots in order to grow, evenso are the akusala cittas dependent on the akusala roots. Many akusala cetasikas accompany akusala cittas, but only three among them are roots, hetus. There are twelve types of akusala cittas and these are classified as three groups in accordance with the accompanying roots. Each akusala citta is rooted in moha, ignorance, and it may have in addition the root of lobha, attachment or of dosa, aversion. Muula is another word for root. Eight types of akusala cittas are called lobha-muula-cittas, two types are called dosa-muula-cittas and two types are called moha-muula-cittas. In the following sections they shall be dealt with. 

 

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Visuddhimagga XIV,  89:

 The 'unprofitable' is one kind according to plane, being only of

the sense sphere. It is of three kinds according to root, as (a) rooted

in greed, (B) rooted in hate, and © rooted in delusion.

 

Pali Vis. 89. akusala.m pana bhuumito ekavidha.m kaamaavacarameva, muulato tividha.m lobhamuula.m dosamuula.m mohamuula~nca.

 

Intro Vis 90:

 

The Visuddhimagga refers to the types of cittas rooted in attachment, classified as eightfold. They are the following:

1)accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wrong view, unprompted

somanassa-sahagata.m di.t.thigata-sampayutta.m, asa"nkhaarika.m eka.m.

2)accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wrong view, prompted

somanassa-sahagata.m di.t.thigata-sampayutta.m, sasa"nkhaarika.m eka.m.

3)accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wrong view, unprompted

somanassa-sahagata.m di.t.thigata-vippayutta.m, asa"nkhaarika.m eka.m.

4)accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wrong view, prompted

somanassa-sahagata.m di.t.thigata-vippayutta.m, sasa"nkhaarika.m eka.m.

5)accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wrong view, unprompted

upekkhaa-sahagata.m di.t.thigata-sampayutta.m, asa"nkhaarika.m eka.m.

6)accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wrong view, prompted

upekkhaa-sahagata.m di.t.thigata-sampayutta.m, sasa"nkhaarika.m eka.m.

7)accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wrong view, unprompted

upekkhaa-sahagata.m di.t.thigata-vippayutta.m, asa"nkhaarika.m eka.m.

8)accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wrong view, prompted

upekkhaa-sahagata.m di.t.thigata-vippayutta.m, sasa"nkhaarika.m eka.m.

****

From this classification we see that one may adhere to wrong view with attachment, or that one may merely enjoy pleasant objects without there be any wrong view about this.

Wrong view is a distorted view of realities. Because of wrong view one sees dhammas as permanent and self. The Tiika emphasizes that wrong view is a kind of adherence and that it therefore arises with the cittas rooted in attachment. It refers to texts about wrong view where it is said: “this alone is truth, all else is falsehood”. We read in M.N. II, no 72, Discourse to Vacchagotta on Fire, that Vacchagotta asks whether the Buddha has wrong view, such as : <The world is eternal, this is indeed the truth, all else is falsehood>. He asked he same about the world not being eternal, the world being finite, infinite, etc.

We read about the conditions for wrong view in the Expositor (II, p. 330):

<...the hearing of evil doctrine, evil friendship, the desire not to see Ariyans, unsystematic thought [N: unwise attention]; ...unskilfulness in the Arian Law [N: Dhamma] of different kinds, such as the four applications of mindfulness, etc.; the absence of discipline or the destruction of restraint with respect to the Ariyan Law (divided into restraint taught in the Paatimokkha, the controlling faculties, mindfulness, knowledge, elimination) and the doctrine of good men; and addiction to tumultuous festivities by means of unsystematic thought developed by the foregoing reasons.>

If one does not develop satipa.t.thaana one will continue to see realities as permanent and self, and wrong view cannot be eradicated. 

As we have seen, friendship with noble persons is an important condition for the development of right understanding and all kinds of kusala. It is helpful for having right attention to the objects that appear through the six doors, so that we can learn that they do not belong to us and are non-self. The Abhidhamma teaches us that the different types of kusala cittas and akusala cittas that arise are conditioned dhammas which are non-self. In order to see the benefit of kusala and the disadvantage of akusala the detailed explanations of the suttas and right understanding of the texts can strengthen our confidence in kusala.

When someone has evil friendship, he will have no confidence in kusala and he will neglect to cultivate the right conditions for kusala. Thus he will be overcome more and more by the three unwholesome roots of attachment, aversion and ignorance. He will continue to accumulate wrong view and this will lead him further astray.

There are three kinds of wrong view that are in particular very harmful: the view that there are no results of deeds, the view that there are no causes (in happening) and the view that there is no kamma. As to the view that there are no causes (ahetuka-di.t.thi), this means that there is no cause for the depravity and purity of beings, that one is bent by fate, chance and nature. If one is firmly convinced about these three views and expresses them to others they are unwholesome courses of action through the mind, and they lead to the commitment of many other kinds of evil deeds.

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Visuddhimagga 90, II:

 (a) Herein, (22)-(29) that 'rooted in greed' is of eight kinds,

being classed according to joy, equanimity, [false] view, and prompting,

that is to say: (22) when accompanied by joy it is either

associated-with-[false-] view and unprompted, or (23) prompted; or (24)

it is dissociated-from-[false-] view and likewise [unprompted or (25)

prompted]; and (26) when accompanied-by-equanimity it is either

associated-with-[false-] view and unprompted, or (27) prompted; or (28)

it is dissociated-from-[false-] view and likewise [unprompted, or (29)

prompted].

 

Pali Vis. 90: tattha lobhamuula.m somanassupekkhaadi.t.thigatasa"nkhaarabhedato a.t.thavidha.m.

seyyathida.m. somanassasahagata.m di.t.thigatasampayutta.m asa"nkhaara.m sasa"nkhaara~nca, tathaa di.t.thigatavippayutta.m. upekkhaasahagata.m di.t.thigatasampayutta.m asa"nkhaara.m sasa"nkhaara~nca, tathaa di.t.thigatavippayutta.m.

 

Tiika Vis. 90

90. Somanassupekkhaadi.t.thigatasa"nkhaarabhedatoti

As to the expression, being classified according to joy, equanimity, [false] view, and prompting,

 

somanassupekkhaabhedato di.t.thigatabhedato sa"nkhaarabhedatoti pacceka.m bhedasaddo yojetabbo.

this notion of classification should be seperately applied to the division of pleasant and indifferent feeling, to that of wrong view and to that of prompting.

 

Nina: As we see in the enumeration of the eight types of cittas rooted in attachment,

four are accompanied by pleasant feeling, four by indifferent feeling, four are with wrong view and four are without wrong view, four are unprompted and four are prompted. 

 

Yadettha vattabba.m, ta.m he.t.thaa vuttanayameva.

What should be said here has been told before.

 

Di.t.thigatasampayuttanti di.t.thiyeva di.t.thigata.m “guuthagata.m, muttagatan”ti (ma. ni. 2.119; a. ni. 9.11) yathaa.

As to the expression accompanied by wrong view, di.t.thigata, this means just di.t.thi, wrong view, even as in the expressions guuthagata, excrement, and  muttagata, urine.

 

N: This is a word explanation of di.t.thigata, litterally: view-gone. The Expositor (II, p. 330) states: <As regards the phrase ‘associated with opinions,’ di.t.thi (opinions) is the same as di.t.thi-gata.m, like guutagata.m (excrement), muttagata.m (urine). > These expressions occur in A.N. IV, IX, 11. Here, “gata” is untranslated.

 

Tiika: Atha vaa vipariyesaggaahataaya di.t.thiyaa gatameva, na ettha gantabbavatthu tathaa sabhaavanti di.t.thigata.m.

Or also just gone into wrong view, a perverted grasping; here the subjects (of wrong view) should not be taken into account, and thus, its individual characteristic is wrong view.

 

Nina: Elsewhere the subjects or bases of wrong view are taken into account. We read in the Expositor (II, p. 336): <In the exposition of wrong views in the sense of not viewing justly, such views are called di.t.thigata (gone to views), from being included in the sixty-two heretical views.> These are explained in the ‘Net of Views” (Brahmajaala Sutta, Diigha Nikaaya, no 1).

 

Tiika: Tayida.m “idameva sacca.m, moghama~n~nan”ti abhinivesabhaavato lobheneva saddhi.m pavattati, na dosena.

Therefore, as to the words, <this is only truth, all else is falsehood...>, these indicate that because of its nature of adherence it occurs together with attachment, not with aversion.

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Visuddhimagga XIV, 91.

 

Intro:

The Visuddhimagga gives examples of the eight types of cittas rooted in attachment. The first type is associated with wrong view. A person may believe that there is no danger in sense desires and, being enslaved to them, he may indulge in many kinds of evil deeds. The text refers to the “Middle Length Sayings” no 45, “Lesser Discourse on the Ways of Undertaking Dhamma”. The Buddha explains about the undertaking of dhamma that is happiness in the present but results in suffering in the future:<There are, monks, some recluses and brahmans who speak like this and are of these views: ’There is no fault in pleasures of the senses.’ These come to indulgence in pleasures of the senses; these gratify themselves with girl-wanderers who tie their hair into top-knots...> The Buddha explains that they will have an unhappy rebirth.

The Tiika mentions that someone who with a perverted mind indulges in sense pleasures rejects other worlds, that is, an unhappy rebirth in a next life as the result of his misbehaviour.

 

The “Dhammasanga.ni” (§ 381) shows the danger of wrong view (opinion): <The views which on that occasion are a walking in the jungle of opinion, the wilderness of opinion... a by-path, a wrong road.>

The Expositor (II, p. 336) explains that it is like jungle because of the difficulty of getting out of it. It is “like a wilderness infested by thieves and wild beasts, of sand, waterless, without food.” It states that wrong view is the wrong path:<For just as one who is gone astray, although he holds that this is the path to such a village, does not arrive at the village, so a man of false opinions, although he holds that this is the path to a happy destiny, cannot get there... >

The Tiika also mentions that a person who indulges in wrong conduct with wrong view takes this wrong path for the way leading to heaven and salvation.

The Expositor (II, p. 331) states about wrong view : <It has unwise conviction as characteristic;  perversion as function; wrong conviction as manifestation; the desire not to see Ariyans as proximate cause. It should be regarded as the highest fault.>

Because of wrong view we take all realities for self. The belief in a self gives rise to many other kinds of wrong view. So long as wrong view is not eradicated the other defilements cannot be eradicated. When the first stage of enlightenment, the stage of the sotaapanna, is attained, wrong view is eradicated. For him the four types of akusala cittas rooted in attachment that are with wrong view do not arise any more.

The Tiika mentions akusala kamma committed with attachment and wrong view, such as stealing, lying, or slandering. These are of different degrees and they may be less censurable or greatly censurable, depending on the virtue of the persons involved, or the value of the goods, such as in the case of stealing. The Expositor (p. 132) explains in the case of slandering: <It is a smaller or greater offence, according as the virtue of the persons he separates is smaller or greater.> The Tiika mentions as wrong relief the stories of the fight of the Bhaaratas and the abduction of Siitaa. The Expositor (p. 133) explains this as an example of frivolous talk, and adds: < But the offence does not run through the full course of action when others do not accept the story; it does so only when they accept it.>

Just as in the case of the kusala cittas, the akusala cittas rooted in attachment may be unprompted or prompted. The Co. to the “Abhidhamattha Sangaha” (Topics of Abhidhamma p. 15) explains unprompted as <with a mind that is naturally sharp (tikkhi), without effort. > And it explains prompted as <with a mind that is sluggish and with effort>.

It is useful to know that four types are accompanied by pleasant feeling and four types by indifferent feeling. When feeling is indifferent we may think that there is no attachment. We should know that attachment with indifferent feeling arises more often than we ever realize. Immediately after seeing attachment is bound to arise, but when it is accompanied by indifferent feeling we do not notice it.

All classifications of dhammas can remind us to develop understanding of the reality that appears at this moment. 

 

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Text Vis. 91: (22) When a man is happy and content in placing wrong view foremost of the sort beginning 'There is no danger in sense desires' (M.i,307),

and either enjoys sense desires with consciousness that in its own

individual essence is eager without being urged, or believes auspicious

sights, etc., have a [real substantial] core, then the first kind of

unprofitable consciousness arises; (23) when it is with consciousness

that is sluggish and urged on, then it is the second kind. (24) But when

a man is happy and content only, without placing wrong view foremost,

and indulges in sexual intercourse, or covets others' good fortune, or

steals others' goods, with consciousness that in its own individual

essence is eager without being urged on, then it is the third kind. (25)

When it is with consciousness that is sluggish and urged on, then it is

the fourth kind. (26)-(29) But when the consciousnesses are devoid of

joy in these four instances through encountering no excellence in the

sense desires, or through want of any such cause for joy, then the

remaining four, which are accompanied by equanimity, arise.

So that in greed should be understood as of eight kinds, being classed

according to joy, equanimity, [false] view and prompting.

*****

 

The eight types of akusala cittas rooted in attachment:

 

1. accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wrong view, unprompted

************************************************************

Vis. 91  When a man is happy and content in placing wrong view foremost

of the sort beginning 'There is no danger in sense desires' (M.i,307), and either enjoys sense desires with consciousness that in its own individual essence is eager without being urged, or believes auspicious sights, etc., have a [real substantial] core, then the first kind of unprofitable consciousness arises.

 

Tiika Vis. 91:

Yadaahiiti-aadi lobhamuulacittaana.m pavatti-aakaaradassana.m.

When ( a man is happy...), this points out the meaning of the way cittas rooted in attachment occur.

 

Micchaadi.t.thinti ucchedadi.t.thi-aadimicchaadi.t.thi.m.

As to the expression wrong view, this refers to the wrong view of annihilation view and so on.

 

N: This includes the belief that after death there will not be rebirth. 

 

Tiika: Taaya hi vipallatthacittaa sattaa “etaavako jiivavisayo yaava indriyagocaro”ti paraloka.m pa.tikkhipitvaa “natthi kaamesu aadiinavo”ti yathaa tathaa kaamesu paatabyata.m aapajjanti.

.... Having rejected another world, he indulges with perverted mind in sense pleasures since he thinks that there is no danger in them.

 

 N: The Tiika then explains the words of the Vis.: beginning with... and gives examples of wrong conduct of someone who takes this for the way to heaven and salvation. It speaks about the different kinds of akusala kamma that someone may commit with wrong view.

 

Tiika:

Bhaaratayuddhasiitaahara.naadikathaa paapavuupasamaaya hotiiti evamaadike micchaagaahe sa"nga.nhaati.

The stories of the fight of the Bhaaratas and the abduction of Siitaa are of wrong relief and thus he treats in this way wrong obsessions.

 

Di.t.thama"ngalaadiiniiti di.t.thasutamutama"ngalaani.

As to the expression, (he believes) auspicious sights, etc.,( have a [real substantial] core), this refers to good omens that are seen, heard or experienced through the other senses.

 

Sabhaavatikkhenaati lobhassa, micchaabhinivesassa vaa vasena saraseneva tikhi.nena kuruurena.

As to the expression, (consciousness that) in its own individual essence is eager,

this refers to the citta that as to its essential property is keen and sharp because of attachment and wrong adherence.

 

 

2. accompanied by pleasant feeling, with wrong view, prompted

************************************************************

Vis: When it is with consciousness that is sluggish and urged on, then it is the second kind.

 Tiika:

Mandenaati dandhena atikhi.nena. Taadisa.m pana attano, parassa vaa samussaahanena pavattatiiti aaha ‘samussaahitenaa”ti.

As to the expression (with citta that is) sluggish, this means slow, not keen. Such citta occurs being urged on by oneself or by someone else, and thus he said, “(with a citta that is) urged on”.

 

3. accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wrong view, unprompted

************************************************************

Vis. But when a man is happy and content only, without placing wrong view foremost, and indulges in sexual intercourse, or covets others' good fortune, or

steals others' goods, with consciousness that in its own individual essence is eager without being urged on, then it is the third kind.

 

Tiika : Parabha.n.da.m vaa haratiiti vaa-saddena tathaapavattanakamusaavaadaadiinampi sa"ngaho da.t.thabbo.

As to the expression, or steals others' goods, the word “or” should be understood as dealing also with lying and so on that occurs in that way.

 

4. accompanied by pleasant feeling, without wrong view, uprompted

************************************************************

Vis. When it is with consciousness that is sluggish and urged on, then it is

the fourth kind.

 

5)accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wrong view, unprompted

**************************************************************

6)accompanied by indifferent feeling, with wrong view, prompted

**********************************************************

7)accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wrong view, unprompted

****************************************************************

8)accompanied by indifferent feeling, without wrong view, prompted

**************************************************************

Vis.: But when the consciousnesses are devoid of joy in these four instances through encountering no excellence in the sense desires, or through want of any such cause for joy, then the remaining four, which are accompanied by equanimity, arise.

 

Tiika: Kaamaana.m vaa anubhuyyamaanaana.m.

Or (no excellence) in the sense desires that are experienced....

 

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Intro Vis. 92.

There are two types of akusala cittas rooted in aversion:

1)accompanied by unpleasant feeling, arising with anger, unprompted

domanassa-sahagata.m, pa.tigha-sampayuttam, asa.nkhaarikam eka.m.

 

2) accompanied by unpleasant feeling, arising with anger, prompted

domanassa-sahagata.m, pa.tigha-sampayuttam, sasa.nkhaarikam eka.m.

 

Domanassa is derived from dummano, an unhappy mind. Pa.tigha literally means: striking against. It is used in general for sensory impingement, but here it is used for repulsion. In this context it is another word for dosa. We read in the Co. to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma p. 16): <because of its violent nature it occurs as if striking against an object.>

We read in the Dhammasanga.ni, § 418: <What on that occasion is hate?

The hate, hating, hatred, which on that occasion is a disordered temper, the getting upset, opposition, hostility, churlishness, abruptness, disgust of heart- this is the hate that there then is.>

There are many shades of dosa, aversion, it may be very slight or strong. There are many synonyms of dosa that express different degrees. It can be fear, anxiety, annoyance, distress, sorrow, anger, hate, malignity, hostility or violence. 

The Expositor (II, p. 342) explains that dosa ruins everything that is good and beautiful, thereby showing its danger: <By it the mind reaches the putrid state:- this is ‘malignity’, or, it ruins the practice of the Vinaya, the attainment of beauty, of benefit, of bliss, etc. - this is ill-will.>

 

There are nine bases of dosa. We read in the Gradual Sayings Book of the Nines, Ch III, § 9, IV, 406):

 “Monks, there are these nine bases of strife. What nine?

(The thought): He has done me harm-stirs up strife; so also the thoughts: he is doing me harm; he will do me harm; he has done harm to a dear and loved one of mine; he is doing harm to such an one; he will do harm to him; he has done good to one who is not dear or loved by me; he is doing good to such an one; he will do good to him...”

 

The Dhammasanga.ni gives the same nine bases, but adds the cases that dosa arises groundlessly, when there is too much or too little rain, when the sun is too hot or not hot enough, etc. We are inclined to believe that the causes of dosa are outside ourselves, with other people or the circumstances. The real cause is within ourselves: we cling to pleasant objects and when we do not obtain them we have aversion. The circumstances or other people are not as we would like them to be.

The nine bases of dosa refer to the past, the present and the future.

 

The Tiika explains shortly why it is said that the citta rooted in dosa, aversion, is accompanied by unpleasant feeling, domanassa and associated-with-repulsion.

This is in order to distinguish the character of this type of citta that is associated with dhammas that are not universal.

The Commentary to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (T.A. p. 16) explains that unpleasant feeling is not universal to all cittas. Unpleasant feeling is not universal to all cittas such as for example contact that arises with every citta. Neither is it universal to all akusala cittas. It cannot arise with the citta rooted in attachment. Unpleasant feeling arises only together with akusala citta rooted in dosa. It is stated that the citta rooted in dosa is accompanied by unpleasant feeling and associated-with-repulsion in order to stress that dosa and unpleasant feeling always arise together. Whenever the feeling is unpleasant, it shows that there is aversion at that moment.

When we have even a very slight unpleasant feeling we can notice that there is dosa. We are so used to having a slight amount of uneasiness, some moodiness, irritation, worry or fear that we do not realize that dosa performs its function at that moment. When dosa is strong it also conditions the accompanying feeling to be strong. We dislike unpleasant feeling and keep on thinking of it with aversion. Dosa and its accompanying feeling only last for one extremely short moment and then they fall away with the citta. Dosa may arise again, but that is no longer the same dosa. Because of our accumulated wrong view we take dosa and unpleasant feeling for permanent and for self.

Dosa is different from unpleasant feeling but since they arise together it is difficult to distinguish them from each other. Only insight that has been developed can know precisely their different characteristics. There can be awareness of them, one at a time, without having to name them.

One type of citta rooted in dosa is unprompted and one is prompted. We read in the Expositor (II, p. 344): < The tenth, because it is induced ‘by external aid’, arises in one urged by others, one who remembers the offence of anothers, one who by himself keeps remembering others’ offences and gets angry.>

Listening to useless talk can give arise to many kinds of akusala cittas. When we hear about other people’s unwholesome deeds we may have aversion, but then the cause is within ourselves. When there can be awareness of just sound or hearing, we do not pay attention to the tales of others and then the six doorways are guarded by satipa.t.thaana.

 

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Visuddhimagga XIV, 92:

That 'rooted in hate' is of two kinds: (30)-(31) being

'accompanied-by-grief and associated-with-resentment', it is either

'prompted' or 'unprompted'. It should be understood to occur at the

times when [consciousness] is either keen [if unprompted] or sluggish

[if prompted] in the killing of living things, and so on.

 

Pali Vis. 92: dosamuula.m pana domanassasahagata.m pa.tighasampayutta.m asa"nkhaara.m sasa"nkhaaranti duvidhameva hoti, tassa paa.naatipaataadiisu tikkhamandappavattikaale pavatti veditabbaa.

 

Tiika Vis. 92:

Duvidhameva hoti sampayuttadhammavasena bhedaabhaavato.

It is just of two kinds by this classification in accordance with the accompanying dhammas.

 

Yadi eva.m, kasmaa “domanassasahagata.m pa.tighasampayuttan”ti vuttanti?

If it is thus, why is it said, accompanied by-grief [N: unpleasant feeling] and associated-with-resentment?

 

Asaadhaara.nadhammehi tassa cittassa upalakkha.nattha.m.

In order to characterize this type of citta that is associated with dhammas that are not universal.

 

Paa.naatipaataadiisuuti paa.naatipaatanaadiisu.

In the destruction of life, and so on, this refers to the killing of living beings and so on.

 

Aadi-saddena adinnaadaanamusaavaadapesu~n~napharusasamphappalaapabyaapaade sa"nga.nhaati.

With the expression, and so on, he deals with stealing, lying, slandering, harsh  speech, idle speech and ill-will.

 

N: These are the courses of unwholesome action, akusala kamma, motivated by aversion or anger. Ill-will is akusala kamma through the mind when one has the intention to harm someone else.  

 

Tiika: Sabhaavatikkha.m hutvaa pavattamaana.m citta.m asa"nkhaarameva hoti,

itara.m sasa"nkhaaranti adhippaayenaaha “tikkhamandappavattikaale”ti.

He said that at the time when [consciousness] occurs it is either keen or sluggish, meaning that the citta that is by its nature keen when it occurs is just unprompted, and that the other one is prompted. 

 

Manda.m pana hutvaa pavattamaana.m eka.msena sasa"nkhaaramevaati na sakkaa vi~n~naatu.m.

However, when it occurs as sluggish it cannot be definitely known as prompted. 

 

Ya.m sasa"nkhaarena sappayogena pavattati, ta.m mandameva hotiiti katvaa tathaavuttanti da.t.thabba.m.

When it occurs with the application of prompting, it should be known that it is called sluggish in that case.

 

N: When it is prompted it is said to be sluggish, but it is not certain whenever it is sluggish that it is always prompted.

 

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Question: How does it happen that we identify with anger, bewilderment and suffering?

Nina: We identify with all objects, the latent tendency of wrong view is so strong. It will condition the arising of akusala cittas with wrong perception or remembrance of self, attaa sa~n~naa. We take our dosa for something lasting, for my dosa. There are so many cittas succeeding one another, and in between the cittas rooted in dosa there are cittas rooted in lobha which may also be associated with wrong view, taking the dosa for lasting and self.

Dosa and unpleasant feeling are cetasikas accompanying citta. They arise with citta at the same base (heartbase), experience the same object and fall away together with the citta. They are very momentary. Dosa arises again, but it is not the same anymore. We make it into something very important, we have aversion about our aversion, how we dislike it. We think about it for a long time with aversion. But it is very insignificant. Our bewilderment about it is based on a mere nothing.

Only the non-returner can eradicate it, through the development of insight.

In samatha the hindrance of dosa is suppressed, but the latent tendency is not eradicated. It is there, under the surface, bubbling and boiling like a volcano that can erupt at any time. At a moment of unawareness it conditions quite suddenly the arising of dosa, even a violent form of it. Dosa can be destructive like a jungle fire, according to the Expositor.

We should see the danger and disadvantage of the latent tendencies and develop the pañña that can eradicate them. This means attending to the characteristic of dosa when it appears and developing more understanding of it. It begins with intellectual understanding about dosa and its conditions.   

The non-returner has eradicated dosa, he has no more clinging to sense objects. This clinging conditions dosa. Things are not as we want them to be. When we do not get the desirable worldly conditions of gain (the obtainment of pleasant sense objects), praise, honour and bodily well-being, we are like impatient children who cry bitterly when they do not get what they want to have.

It is good to know that there are many shades of dosa. Then we see how often it arises in a day. When I am almost stumbling, when I try out the water of the shower: just too hot or too cold, when I have a slight worry: how will this be, what should I do, there is already dosa. It is surprising how often it arises. A very slight pain in the hand caused by the pushing of the computer keys. Some tiredness in the head, there is already a mild degree of dosa. Or we are slightly in a hurry to do something, to finish a task, then there is dosa already. There is an endless list. But we are so used to it, we do not notice it.

When dosa is strong, also the unpleasant feeling is strong, they condition one another. We find it so important how we feel, we want pleasant feeling all the time.

Each citta and thus also the accompanying dosa and unpleasant feeling experience one object at a time. We are reminded of this by countless suttas, where the Buddha explains about cittas experiencing only one object at a time, and that is, through the eys, the ears, the nose, the tongue, the body, the mind-door. This reminds us of the momentariness of citta and accompanying cetasikas, and thus also of dosa. We can learn to see it as only a conditioned naama, not long lasting, completely unimportant. And so it is with the accompanying feeling, completely unimportant. Even bewilderment about it is only a conditioned naama, not lasting, unimportant. We can learn to see all those naamas as impersonal elements so that we will be less overcome by them. 

Quuestion: Also, is there any more to dukkha than grief and resentment?

Nina: And how! Desire is the cause of dukkha. Not getting what one wants is dukkha. But the greatest dukkha is being in the cycle, being a prey to the three unwholesome roots of lobha, dosa and moha that overcome us time and again. When we see the danger of being in the cycle and all the akusala that arises, there will be a sense of urgency arising naturally, to develop the Path that is leading out.

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Nina’s Intro to Vis. 93.

 

There are two types of cittas rooted in ignorance, moha-muula-cittas. They have moha as their only root. They are:

1) accompanied by indifferent feeling, associated with doubt upekkhaasahagata.m vicikicchaasampayutta.m

2) accompanied by indifferent feeling, associated with restlessness

upekkhaasahagata.m uddhaccasampayutta.m

 

Vicikicchaa is doubt about ultimate realities, about naama and ruupa, about cause and result, the four noble Truths, the Dependent origination. It is doubt about the Triple Gem, doubt about it whether enlightenment can be attained.

 

The Expositor (II, p. 344) states: <Here doubt means exclusion from the cure [of knowledge]. Or, one investigating the intrinsic nature by means of it suffers pain and fatigue (kicchati)-thus it is doubt. It has shifting about as characteristic, mental wavering as function, indecision or uncertainty in grasp as manifestation, unsystematic thought [unwise attention] as proximate cause and it should be regarded as a danger to attainment.>

There is a word association between vicikiccha, doubt, and kicchati, to be wearied. It is tiring to wonder: is it this, or is it that? Is this true or not? It arises only with citta rooted in moha; ignorance conditions doubt. It may seem that doubt arises with unpleasant feeling, but it can condition dosa with unpleasant feeling, and this arises later on. It merely seems that doubt and dosa arise at the same time because cittas succeed one another so fast.

Doubt is exclusion from the cure of knowledge, but understanding can cure it. So long as we have not reached the first stage of insight which clearly discerns the difference between nama and rupa, we have doubt about their characteristics. Hearing, which is naama, and sound, which is ruupa, are different dhammas and sati can be aware of only one dhamma at a time. When sati does not arise we are confused about naama and ruupa and we have doubts. When there is direct understanding of realities there is no doubt, one can directly prove the truth. By insight doubt will wear out and the sotaapanna has eradicated it completely.

As to restlessness or agitation, this is a translation of uddhacca. Uddhacca is not what we mean by the conventional term agitation, or excitement. Rest- lessness arises with each akusala citta and at that moment there is forgetfulness of kusala, there is not the steadiness and calm of kusala. Unwise attention is its proximate cause. The Tiika explains that when uddhacca arises with the citta rooted in moha it is predominant among the associated dhammas. Therefore, the second type of citta rooted in ignorance is classified as associated with restlessness, and here restlessness is mentioned expressively.

We read in the Expositor (II, p. 346) about restlessness that is translated here as distraction: <‘Distraction’ is the mode of mind when excited, flurried. ‘Disquietude’ is unquiet. ‘Agitation’ is a throwing about of mind...>

When we read the conventional terms excitement or agitation that describe uddhacca, we should remember that when it arises with the second type of citta rooted in ignorance there is only indifferent feeling that accompanies it.

It is said in the Tiika that both types of citta are extremely deluded. We read in the Co. to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma p. 18): <They are deluded by delusion, they are extremely deluded as there is no other root, [and this] is the sense of deluded.> They are always accompanied by indifferent feeling, there is no like and dislike with the two types of citta rooted in ignorance. It is difficult to know when there is the second type of citta rooted in ignorance, associated with restlessness and accompanied by indifferent feeling. However, it arises very often in between the cittas rooted in attachment and those rooted in aversion. When akusala kamma is committed motivated by attachment and aversion, there are also many moments of the second type of citta rooted in ignorance in between. The Tiika explains that this type of citta, although it cannot produce vipaaka in the form of an unhapppy rebirth, does produce vipaaka in the course of life by way of unpleasant experiences through the senses.

There are twelve types of akusala cittas in all: eight types of akusala cittas rooted in attachment, two types of akusala cittas rooted in aversion and two types of akusala cittas rooted in ignorance. The akusala cittas rooted in attachment have two roots: ignorance and attachment; those rooted in aversion also have two roots: ignorance and aversion; those rooted in ignorance have ignorance as their only root.

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Text Vis. 93.

That 'rooted in delusion' is of two kinds: (32)-(33) being

'accompanied-by-equanimity', it is either 'associated-with-uncertainty'

or 'associated-with-agitation'. It should be understood to occur at the

time of indecision or of distraction.

So unprofitable consciousness is of twelve kinds.

 

Pali: mohamuula.m upekkhaasahagata.m vicikicchaasampayutta.m uddhaccasampayutta~ncaati duvidha.m. tassa sanni.t.thaanavikkhepakaale pavatti veditabbaati eva.m akusalavi~n~naa.na.m dvaadasavidha.m hoti.

 

Tiika Vis. 93:

Mohekahetuka.m citta.m muulantaravirahato atimuu.lha.m,

The citta that has ignorance as its only root and is without another root is utterly confused,

 

vicikicchuddhaccayogato ca~ncala~ncaati upekkhaasahagatameva hoti,

connected with doubt and restlessness it is unsteady and only accompanied by indifferent feeling,

 

na tassa kadaacipi sabhaavatikkhataa atthi.

and also, it never has a keen nature.

 

Aaramma.ne hi sa.msappanavasena, vikkhipanavasena ca pavattamaanassa cittadvayassa kiidise kicce sabhaavatikkhataaya,

Since these two cittas when they occur are slow with regard to the object, and disturbed with regard to keenness in whatever kind of function,

 

ussaahetabbataaya vaa bhavitabba.m, tasmaa na tattha sa"nkhaarabhedo atthi.

or they are not by nature instigated by energy, therefore there is no classification with regard to prompting.

 

N: Unprompted means: without hesitation, keen, but this cannot be said of the two types of citta rooted in ignorance.

 

Tiika:

A~n~nesu akusalacittesu labbhamaanampi uddhacca.m visesato ettheva balava.m,

Restlessness that is taken here specifically is strong, although it is also present in the other akusala cittas, 

 

tato eva sampayuttadhammesu padhaana.m hutvaa pavattatiiti idameva uddhaccena visesetvaa vutta.m “uddhaccasampayuttan”ti.

and therefore, while it occurs here as dominant among the accompanying dhammas, he differentiated it and said, “accompanied by restlessness.”

 

Tathaa hi paa.liya.m (dha. sa. 427) idha saruupato uddhacca.m aagata.m,

Therefore, restlessness has been handed down down (by tradition) in the texts (Dhsg. § 427) here likewise, 

 

eva.m asaadhaara.napadhaanadhammavasena mohamuula.m “vicikicchaasampayutta.m, uddhaccasampayuttan”ti duvidha.m vuttanti da.t.thabba.m.

and here it is taken as not universal since it is predominant, and thus the cittas rooted in ignorance should be understood as of two kinds, with the words, “accompanied by doubt, and accompanied by restlessness.”

 

N: As explained in the Intro, restlessness is universal to all akusala cittas. But in the second type of citta rooted in ignorance, it takes a predominant part and it is here specifically mentioned. It is differentiated from the first type of citta rooted in ignorance.

 

Tiika:

Asanni.t.thaana.m sa.msayo.

As to the word, indecision, this means doubt.

 

N: In the Dhammasanga.ni (§425) the term sa.msayo is used for doubt.

The Expositor explains this as fluctuation, < the inability to establish anything in one mode, thus, ‘Is this state [dhamma] permanent or is it impermanent?’>

 

Tiika:

Vikkhepo avuupasamo, bhantataati attho.

As to the word, distraction, this means lack of calm, confusion.

 

N: This is said of uddhacca, restlessness.

 

Tiika: Tayida.m dvaadasavidhampi akusalacitta.m chasu aaramma.nesu ya.m vaa ta.m vaa aalambitvaa upekkhaasahagataahetukakiriyaamanovi~n~naa.nadhaataanantara.m

Therefore, it should be understood that the twelve kinds of akusala cittas also take any object among the six objects and arise immediately after the mind-consciousness-element that is the rootless kiriyacitta accompanied by indifferent feeling,

 

kaayadvaaraadiihi tiihi dvaarehi kaayakammaadivasena yathaaraha.m paa.naatipaataadikammapathavasena ceva kammavasena ca uppajjatiiti veditabba.m.

and that they arise committing kamma, performing deeds through the three doors of body etc. as the occasion presents itself, such as the course of action that is killing and so on.

 

N: The twelve types of akusala cittas arise after the mind-door adverting-consciousness which is a rootless kiriyacitta (the mind-consciousness-element, mano-vinnñaa.na-dhaatu).

They can perform kamma through the three doors of body, speech and mind.

  

Tiika:

Tattha .thapetvaa uddhaccasahagata.m sesa.m ekaadasavidhampi catuusupi apaayesu pa.tisandhi.m deti, pavattivipaaka.m sugatiyampi.

Excluding here the consciousness rooted in ignorance and accompanied by restlessness, the other eleven types of unwholesome consciousness produce rebirth-consciousness in the four unhappy planes and they produce also result in the course of life in a happy plane.   

 

Uddhaccasahagata.m pana pavattivipaakamevaati.

However, consciousness rooted in ignorance and accompanied by restlessness produces result only in the course of life.

 

Etthaahañ ki.m pana kaara.na.m sabbadubbala.m vicikicchaasampayutta.m pa.tisandhi.m deti,

But in this case, what is the reason that the (kamma) accompanied by doubt that is the weakest of all, produces rebirth,

 

adhimokkhasabbhaavato tato balavantampi uddhaccasahagata.m na detiiti?

whereas the (kamma) accompanied by restlessness, which is associated with determination and thus stronger than that, does not produce rebirth?

 

N: The cetasika determination, adhimokkha, does not accompany doubt, therefore the citta with doubt is called the weakest of all. Determination  accompanies the second type of citta rooted in ignorance and thus this is stronger than the first type.

 

Dassanena pahaatabbesu avuttattaa.

Because it is not said that it is to be abandoned by insight.

 

N: The defilements that are abandoned by seeing or insight (dassana) are those eradicated by the streamwinner. His path-consciousness is called seeing, since there is the seeing of nibbana for the first time. The defilements abandoned by cultivation (bhaavanaa) are those abandoned by arahatship. Only the arahat has eradicated restlessness completely. The streamwinner has no more conditions to be reborn in an unhappy plane. But since he still has not eradicated restlessness it is said in the commentary that restlessness has no intrinsic capacity to produce rebirth.

It is explained that if restlessness could produce an unhappy rebirth, then ariyans who are not arahats could be reborn in an unhappy plane, but this is impossible. Restlessness can produce only result in the course of life.

 

Tiika:

Ida.m hi pa.tisandhi.m denta.m apaayesu dadeyya, apaayagamaniiya~nca dassanapahaatabbanti tattha vucceyya, na ca vutta.m.

If this citta would produce rebirth it would do so in unhappy planes, and he would say in that case that since it would lead to unhappy planes it would have to be abandoned by seeing, but this was not stated.

 

Tasmaa pa.tisandhi.m na deti, pavattivipaakadaana.m panassa na sakkaa pa.tikkhipitu.m.

Therefore, this does not produce rebirth, but it cannot be denied that it produces result in the course of life.

 

Pa.tisambhidaavibha"nge uddhaccasahagate ~naa.na.m dhammapa.tisambhidaa,

In the Book of Analysis (Vibhanga, p. 393), in the section on the analytical knowledges (discriminations, pa.tisambhidaa), it is said that the knowledge of the citta accompanied by restlessness, is the analytical knowledge of origin (dhammapa.tisambhidaa),

 

tassa vipaake ~naa.na.m atthapa.tisambhidaa”ti vacanato.

and that the knowledge of its result is the analytical knowledge of consequence (atthapa.tisambhidaa).

N: In this context dhamma stands for cause and attha, litterally “meaning”, stands for result or consequence. As explained before in the Visuddhimagga (XIV, 21, 22), there are four Discriminations (Pa.tisambhidas), of which the first two are: Discrimination of Meaning or Consequence, and Discrimination of Dhamma or Condition.

As is stated in the Book of Analysis, the citta rooted in ignorance accompanied by restlessness can produce result, but it does so in the course of life.

After this passage the Tiika then elaborates further on this issue by way of question and answer. 



#6 RobertK

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Posted 13 December 2014 - 10:18 AM

Intro to Vis. 94, 95

 

Thus far the Visuddhimagga has dealt with kusala dhamma, all kusala cittas, and akusala dhamma, all akusala cittas. Now follows the explanation about the cittas that are indeterminate dhamma, avyaakata dhamma, neither kusala nor akusala. The Tiika explains that there are four dhammas that are avyaakata dhamma: resultant cittas (vipaakacittas), inoperative cittas (kiriyacittas), ruupa and nibbaana. But in this section the Visuddhimagga deals with the khandha of consciousness, viññaa.nakkhandha, and therefore it only explains about the cittas that are indeterminate: the resultant cittas (vipaakacittas), and the inoperative cittas (kiriyacittas).

First vipaakacittas are summarized. These can be kusala vipaaka, the result of kusala kamma, or akusala vipaaka, the result of akusala kamma. Kusala vipaakacittas can be of all four planes of citta: of the sense sphere, of the fine-material sphere (ruupa-jhaana), of the immaterial sphere (aruupa-jhaana), and supramundane (lokuttara).

Akusala vcipaakacittas are only of the sense-sphere.

As we have seen under the section of kusala citta (Tiika to Vis. XIV, 85), kusala kamma can produce as result: eight kinds of sahetukavipaakacittas, with roots, which arise as rebirth-consciousness, bhavanga-citta (life-continuum), dying-consciousness and during a process after the javana-cittas (kusala cittas or akusala cittas) as retention, tadaaramma.na cittas, if that process takes its complete course.

Kusala kamma also produces eight kinds of ahetuka vipaakacittas, without roots, which arise in a process of cittas. They are: the five kinds of sense-cognitions (seeing, etc.), receiving-consciousness (sapa.ticchana-citta) arising after the sense-cognition, and two types of investigation-consciousness (santiira.na-citta) that arise after the receiving-consciousness. 

Akusala kamma can produce seven kinds of ahetuka vipaakacittas. It does not produce sahetuka vipaakacittas.

We see and hear time and again and we take seeing and hearing for self, but they are conditioned dhammas, produced by kamma. Kamma produces rebirth-consciousness, and then throughout our life kamma produces sense-cognitions arising in processes. Nobody can prevent their arising or exert control over them.

In the following sections the Visuddhimagga deals first with kusala vipaakacittas.

The Tiika explains that sahetuka vipaakacittas are accompanied by the cetasikas that are roots, such as non-attachment, but that this does not mean that these roots are active, that they produce effects. These roots are merely results, they accompany vipaakacitta produced by kusala kamma with roots.

 

When we read the texts about vipaakacittas it may seem that there is a mere summing up, but we should not forget that these cittas arise all the time, from birth to death. Seeing is ahetuka vipaakacitta and it may be the result of kusala kamma or of akusala kamma. It arises and falls away and then it is gone before we can find out whether it is kusala vipaaka or akusala vipaaka. It is followed by receiving-consciousness sampa.ticchana-citta, which is also called mind element, mano-dhaatu. This citta does not see, it merely receives visible object and then it is succeeded by investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta, which investigates the object. The Tiika explains that these functions are not very prominent. They just follow the sense cognitions and perform their functions of receiving the object and investigating it. 

The Expositor (II, p. 350) refers to the Dhammasanga.ni (§ 454) and explains about receiving-consciousness that is also called mind-element, mano-dhaatu: <In the exposition of the mind-element, ‘mind’ (mano) in the sense of intrinsic nature, emptiness, absence of a living entity, and ‘element’ make up this compound [of mind-element]. It has the characteristic of knowing visible or other objects immediately after visual or other cognition respectively, the function of receiving visible and other objects...>

We should not forget that it is an element, a dhamma devoid of self. We have heard the term element many times, but through insight the characteristics of dhammas can be directly known so that they are realized as elements, devoid of self.

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Visuddhimagga XIV, 94:

94. The 'indeterminate' is of two kinds:  resultant and

functional. Herein,  'resultant' is of four kinds according to

plane; namely,  of the sense sphere,  of the fine-material sphere,

of the immaterial sphere, and supramundane.

Herein, that of the 'sense sphere' is of two kinds, namely,

 profitable result and  unprofitable result.

And the 'profitable resultant' is of two kinds, namely, without root-cause andwith root-cause.

 

Tiika 94:

454. “Vi~n~naa.nan”ti pada.m apekkhitvaa “abyaakata.m vipaakan”ti aadiko napu.msakaniddeso,

With reference to the word vi~n~naa.na.m, consciousness, the expression indeterminate resultant to begin with, has the neuter gender, 

 

tato eva adhikataabyaakataapekkhaaya duvidhanti vutta.m.

and therefore it is said in particular with reference to indeterminate dhamma, to be merely twofold.

 

 N: Here it is dealt with under the classification of consciousness, vi~n~naa.na.m, which has the neuter gender in Pali. Indeterminate is twofold (vipaaka and kiriya), because here only citta, viññaa.nakkhandha, is dealt with.

 

Tiika: A~n~nathaa ruupanibbaanaanampi abyaakatabhaavato ta.m catubbidhanti vattabba.m siyaa.

Elsewhere indeterminate should be said to be fourfold because materiality and nibbaana are also indeterminate dhamma.

 

Vipaakassa kaamaavacaraadibhaavo kusale vuttanayeneva veditabbo.

The nature of resultant of the sense sphere etc. should be understood just as in the aforesaid method concerning kusala. 

 

N: Kusala citta is of four planes of citta: of the sense-sphere, of  fine material jhaana, of immaterial jhaana or lokuttara, supramundane. Evenso, kusala vipaaka can be of these four planes of citta. Akusala vipaaka can only be of the sense-sphere.

 

Tiika: Ahetukataa sahetukataa viya sampayuttahetuvasena, na nibbattakahetuvasena.

Resultants are as it were without root-cause or with root-cause, with reference to the accompanying roots, not to producing root-causes.

 

N: Vipaakacitta can be sahetuka, accompanied by roots, but these roots are merely result of kamma with roots.

 

Tiika: Vipaakassa hi sahetukataa sahetukakammavasena sijjhamaanaapi sampayuttahetuvaseneva vuccati,

Resultant with root-cause, sahetuka, is also provided with roots because of kamma with rootcauses, and it is called with rootcause merely because of the accompanying roots. 

 

a~n~nathaa ahetukaanampi sahetukataa aapajjeyyaati.

Elsewhere also resultant that is without roots is produced by kamma that is with roots.

 

Kasmaa pana sahetukassa ahetuko vipaako hotiiti?

Why is there result without roots from kamma with roots?

 

Tattha kaara.na.m vuttameva.

Herein, the cause has been explained.

 

N: Vipaakacittas that are without roots are the results of kamma with roots, such as seeing and other cittas arising in processes.

 

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Vis. 95. Herein, that 'without root-cause' is that devoid

of non-greed, etc., as the cause of result. It is of eight kinds as(34)

eye-consciousness, (35)-(38) ear-, nose-, tongue-, and

body-consciousness, (39) mind-element with the function of receiving,

(40)-(41) the two mind-consciousness-elements with the functions of

investigating, and so on [455].

 

Tiika 95

Ki~nca aaramma.naabhinipaatamattesu pa~ncasu vi~n~naa.nesu yathaa alobhaadisampayogo na sambhavati,

Just as result accompanied by non-greed etc. is not produced in the case of the five sense-cognitions that experience whatever object presents itself, 

 

eva.m mandataramandakiccesu sampa.ticchanasantiira.nesuuti hetuuna.m uppattiyaa asambhavatopi nesa.m ahetukataa da.t.thabbaa.

 

evenso it should be understood that the receiving-consciousness and the investigating-consciousness with functions that are not very prominent, 

are without roots ....

 

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Nina’s Intro Vis. 96.

Seeing experiences only visible object, it cannot experience any other object, it cannot define the object or think about it. Evenso hearing experiences only sound. Each of the sense-cognitions arises because of its appropriate conditions, they have their own base, the sense-base, and their own object.

Seeing-consciousness is vipaakacitta, it is produced by kamma. Depending on the kamma that produces it, it is kusala vipaakacitta or akusala vipaakacitta.

The Tiika mentions different types of conditions for seeing-consciousness. The ruupa that is eyesense must arise before seeing. Ruupa lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta, but it is weak at its arising moment and therefore it cannot be a condition for citta at that moment. The same is true for the ruupa that is visible object, it must arise before seeing.

The Tiika mentions that eyesense is a condition for seeing by way of dependence or support (nissaya), of prenascence (purejaata), of faculty (indriya), dissociation (vippayutta), presence (atthi) and non-disappearance (avigata). The eye is the physical base for seeing, thus it is dependence-condition. The eye is a faculty, indriya. A faculty is a leader in its own field, thus the eye is the leader in the field of seeing. There could not be seeing without the eye. The eye is ruupa and thus it conditions naama by way of dissociation. Citta which is naama is associated with cetasika, another naama, but it could never be associated with ruupa. Presence and non-disappearance are similar. Eyesense has arisen before seeing, but it is still present when seeing arises so that it can be a condition for seeing.

The proximate cause of seeing is the five-sense-door-adverting-consciousness, which adverts to visible object. It is a kiriyacitta, inoperative or functional consciousness; it is not kusala, akusala or vipaaka. It is called mind-element, mano-dhaatu. It is the first citta of the sense-door process after the stream of bhavangacittas has been interrupted. When this citta falls away it conditions the arising of the succeeding citta. Cittas succeed one another without interval. The Tiika mentions that it conditons the following citta, in this case seeing, by way of proximity-condition (anantara-paccaya) and contiguity-condition, samanatara-paccaya. Contiguity-condition is similar to proximity-condition, but with contiguity-condition it is stressed that the next citta, seeing, must follow upon the eye-door adverting-consciousness, it cannot be otherwise. There is a fixed order in the process of cittas and nobody can alter this. The sense-door adverting-consciousness is also a condition for seeing by way of non-presence and by way of absence. It has fallen away, it is no longer present when seeing arises.

The Visuddhimagga and the Tiika emphasize that seeing can only experience visible object and hearing can only experience sound. Seeing is dependent on the ruupas of eyesense and visible object. Hearing is dependent on the ruupas of earsense and sound. When visible object or sound appear, there are also the naamas that experience those objects, but nama and ruupa have different characteristics. When we read about the specific conditions for naama and ruupa we are reminded to be aware of them so that they can be realized as only conditioned dhammas devoid of self.

 

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text Vis. 96:

96. Herein, (34) 'eye-consciousness' has the characteristic of being

supported by the eye and cognizing visible data. Its function is to have

only visible data as its object. It is manifested as occupation with

visible data. Its proximate cause is the departure of (70) the

functional mind-element that has visible data as its object.

 

(35)-(38) 'Ear-, nose-, tongue-, and body-consciousness' [respectively]

have the characteristic of being supported by the ear, etc., and

cognizing sounds, and so on. Their functions are to have only sounds,

etc., as their [respective] objects. They are manifested as occupation

with [respectively] sounds, and so on. Their proximate cause is the

departure of (70) the functional mind-element that has [respectively]

sounds, etc., as its object.

****

 

Tiika 96:

Cakkhusannissita.m hutvaa ruupassa vijaanana.m lakkha.na.m etassaati cakkhusannissitaruupavijaananalakkha.na.m.

Supported by the eye it cognizes visible object, that is its characteristic.

 

Tattha cakkhusannissitavacanena ruupaaramma.na.m a~n~na.m vi~n~naa.na.m nivatteti.

Herein, with the words supported by the eye, another consciousness is excluded.

 

Vijaananaggaha.nena cakkhusannissite phassaadike nivatteti.

With reference to cognizing (an object), another consciousness is excluded because of contact supported by the eye to begin with.

 

N: Contact that accompanies seeing can only be eye-contact, it cannot contact another object but visible object. It is said, contact to begin with, and this means that evenso the other “universals”, cetasikas arising with each citta (feeling, remembrance, volition, concentration, life-faculty and attention) can only experience visible object.

 

Cakkhuruupaggaha.nena nissayato, aaramma.nato ca vi~n~naa.na.m vibhaaveti ubhayaadhiinavuttikattaa.

By mentioning both etc. , namely, in taking the eye and visible object as support and with reference to the object, he explains this consciousness.

 

Yadi hi cakkhu naama na siyaa, andhaapi ruupa.m passeyyu.m, na ca passanti.

If there would be no eye (as a condition), also the blind could see visible object, but they do not see it ....

 

....Tenaaha bhagavaa “cakkhu~nca pa.ticca ruupe ca uppajjati cakkhuvi~n~naa.nan”ti-aadi (sa.m. ni. 4, 32)....

Therefore the Blessed One said: “Dependent on the eye and visible object arises eye-consciousness.” ...

 

Ya.m pana “ruupaayatana.m cakkhuvi~n~naa.nadhaatuyaa ta.msampayuttakaana~nca dhammaana.m aaramma.napaccayena paccayo”ti (pa.t.thaa. 1.1.2) vutta.m, ta.m kathanti?

What is the meaning of the saying: “visible object is a condition for the element of eye-consciousness as well as for the dhammas that accompany it by way of object condition”?

 

Tampi yaadisa.m ruupaayatana.m cakkhuvi~n~naa.nassa aaramma.napaccayena paccayo hoti, taadisameva sandhaaya vutta.m. ..

In as far as visible object is a condition for eye-consciousness by way of object-condition, evenso is this said in reference to this....

 

N: The accompanying cetasikas such as contact, experience the same object as the citta. The Tiika refers to the Conditional Relations, Object-condition: “Visible object-base is related to eye-consciousness element and its associated states (dhammas) by object condition.”

 

Vis. text: Its function is to have only visible data as its object.

Tiika:

Ruupamattaaramma.narasanti ruupaayatanamattasseva aaramma.nakara.narasa.m.

As to the expression, its function is to have only visible data as its object, this means that its function is causing only visible data to be its object. 

 

Mattasaddena yathaa aaramma.nantara.m nivatteti, eva.m ruupaayatanepi labbhamaane ekacce visese nivatteti.

By the word “only” another object is excluded, and thus this is also excluded   because the visual data is its single, specific object.

 

Na hi cakkhuvi~n~naa.na.m va.n.namattato a~n~na.m ki~nci visesa.m tattha gahetu.m sakkoti.

Herein, eye-consciousness cannot take any other specific object but colour.

 

Tenaaha bhagavaa “pa~ncahi vi~n~naa.nehi na ki~nci dhamma.m pa.tivijaanaati a~n~natra abhinipaatamattaa”ti.

Therefore, the Blessed One said: “No other dhamma can be known by the five sense-cognitions apart from just what they fall upon.”

 

N: The “Book of Analysis” (§ 763, p. 418) explains: < “Do not experience each other’s object” means: Ear-consciousness does not experience the object of eye-consciousness; eye-consciousness does not experience the object or ear-consciousness either...> Only one citta arises at a time and it experiences its own object according to the appropriate conditions. There is no person who sees, hears or experiences other objects or who can see and hear at the same time. 

 

Vis.: It is manifested as occupation with visible data.

 

Tiika: Cakkhuvi~n~naa.na.m uppajjamaana.m ruupaaramma.ne eva uppajjanato tadabhimukhabhaavena gayhatiiti vutta.m “ruupaabhimukhabhaavapaccupa.t.thaanan”ti.

Eye-consciousness that arises is to be apprehended as facing merely visible object that has arisen and thus he said, “it is manifested as facing visible object.”

 

Vis.:  Its proximate cause is the departure of the functional mind-element that has visible data as its object.

 

N: The Tiika explains that a previously arisen naama-dhamma conditions a following one by the conditions of proximity, contiguity, non-presence and absence, and gives it thus the opportunity to arise in the process. We read:

 

Tiika:

aasannakaara.nanti dassento aaha

he explained the near cause saying,

 

 “ruupaaramma.naaya kiriyamanodhaatuyaa apagamapada.t.thaanan”ti.

Its proximate cause is the departure of the functional mind-element that has visible data as its object.

 

Sotavi~n~naa.naadiisupi vuttanayeneva attho veditabbo.

Also in the case of ear-consciousness etc. the meaning should be understood in the same way.

 

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Intro to Vis. 97:

 

It is useful to remember which cittas are cause, namely kusala cittas and akusala cittas, which cittas are results, vipaakacittas and which cittas are inoperative, neither cause nor result, kiriyacittas. Thus, there are four jaatis: kusala, akusala, vipaaka and kiriya. If we, for example, do not know when vipaakacittas such as seeing or hearing arises and when akusala citta which is likely to arise on account of a desirable or undesirable object experienced through the senses, our life is very confused. Because of ignorance we accumulate more akusala and we do not know the way to cultivate conditions for right understanding and for different kinds of kusala.

After the Visuddhimagga has dealt with kusala and akusala, it deals with indeterminate dhamma, following the Tripartite division of kusala dhamma, akusala dhamma and indeterminate (avyaakata) dhamma. The cittas which are indeterminate include vipaakacittas and kiriyacittas.

When seeing arises it does so in a series or process of cittas which also experience visible object while they perform each their own function. Before seeing arises, the eye-door adverting-consciousness adverts to the visible object through the eye-door, and it is the same in the case of the other sense-door processes.

The first citta arising in a sense-door process is the kiriyacitta which is the five-door adverting-consciousness, pañca-dvaaraavajjana-citta. It arises after the life-continuum and it is the first attention to the sense object that impinges on one of the five sense-doors. It is also called mind-element, mano-dhaatu.

It is succeeded by the relevant sense-cognition, such as seeing, which is vipaakacitta, and this is succeeded by receiving-consciousness, sampa.ticchana-citta.

 

Receiving-consciousness, sampa.ticchana-citta.

*****************************************

This is also called mind-element, mano-dhaatu. One type is kusala vipaaka and one type is akusala vipaaka. Thus, three cittas are mind-element, mano-dhaatu, namely: the kiriyacitta which is the five-door adverting-consciousness and the two types of vipaakacittas which are receiving-consciousness, sampa.ticchana-citta, one being kusala vipaakacitta and one akusala vipaakacitta. In this section and the following ones the Visuddhimagga deals first with kusala vipaaka.

The receiving-consciousness is succeeded by investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta which may be kusala vipaaka or akusala vipaaka. In this section the Visuddhimagga deals with kusala vipaaka.

 

Investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta.

****************************************

The santiira.na-citta that is kusala vipaaka is twofold: depending on whether the object is moderately pleasant or very pleasant it is respectively accompanied by indifferent feeling or pleasant feeling. This shall be explained further later on.

The translator has a note to the Vis. text explaining that the function of receiving-consciousness is to receive visible data, and so on and that its manifestation is the state [of receiving] corresponding to that [last-mentioned function]. He explains the term < tathaa bhaava> that is translated here as a state. Tathaabhaava means being of such nature, of such condition. The Expositor (p. 84) explains the term manifestation, recurring phenomenon, as mode of manifestation or effect. Manifestation can be effect or fruit. The function of receiving-consciousness is receiving and this is also its manifestation or effect. 

The santiira.na-citta experiences the five sense objects, but it can also experience six objects, and that is, other kinds of objects apart from the five sense objects. The reason is that at different moments this type of citta can perform different functions, as will be elaborated on in the next section. 

The Tiika mentions as functions of investigating-consciousness: investigating, retention, rebirth-consciousness, life-continuum (bhavanga) and dying. The investigating-consciousness can also perform the function of retention after the javana-cittas. Moreover, the rebirth-consciousness may be ahetuka vipaakacitta, resultant without wholesome roots and in that case it is of the same type as the santiira.na-citta. The life-continuum and the dying-consciousness are the same type of citta as the  rebirth-consciousness.

 

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Vis. XIV, 97:

 

Receiving-consciousness, sampa.ticchana-citta.

*****************************************

[The resultant] 'mind-element' has the characteristic of

cognizing [respectively] visible data, etc., immediately next to

(eye consciousness, and so on. Its function is to receive

visible data, and so on. It is manifested as the state [of receiving]

corresponding to that [last-mentioned function].37) Its proximate cause

is the departure of eye-consciousness, and so on.

 

Investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta.

****************************************

Also the twofold resultant 'mind-consciousness-element without

root cause' with the function of investigating, etc., has as its

characteristic the cognizing of the six kinds of objects. Its function

is that of investigating, and so on. It is manifested as the state [of

investigating] corresponding to that [last-mentioned function]. Its

proximate cause is the heart-basis.

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Tiika to Visuddhimagga 97:

 

Receiving-consciousness, sampa.ticchana-citta.

*****************************************

Vis.: [The resultant] 'mind-element' has the characteristic of

cognizing [respectively] visible data, etc., immediately next to

eye consciousness, and so on. Its function is to receive

visible data, and so on.

 

Tiika: Cakkhuvi~n~naa.naadigahita.m ruupaadi-aaramma.na.m tadanantarameva aparipatanta.m katvaa sampa.ticchantii ga.nhantii viya hotiiti vutta.m “ruupaadisampa.ticchanarasaa”ti.

 

With regard to the receiving-consciousness that arises immediately after eye-consciousness etc., that cognizes respectively visible object etc. , and that as it were takes it in the way of receiving, without coming into contact with eye-consciousness, he said that its function is receiving visible object etc.

 

N: Seeing has fallen away when receiving-consciousness arises, they do not meet each other. There is only one citta arising at a time and each citta has its own conditions for its arising. Receiving-consciousness receives as it were visible object, sound etc. from the preceding sense-cognition. 

 

Vis.: It is manifested as the state [of receiving] corresponding to that [last-mentioned function].

 

Tiika:

Tathaabhaavena sampa.ticchanabhaavena paccupati.t.thatiiti tathaabhaavapaccupa.t.thaanaa.

 

By being of such nature, by the state of reception, it manifests itself, thus, this state is its manifestation.  

 

N: See Intro. Its manifestation or effect is the reception of the visible object, etc. and this corresponds to its function of receiving. 

 

Investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta.

****************************************

Vis.: Also the twofold resultant 'mind-consciousness-element without root cause' with the function of investigating, etc., has as its characteristic the cognizing of the six kinds of objects.

 

Tiika: Chasu aaramma.nesu kadaaci pa~ncanna.m, tato vaa katipayaana.m vijaananasabhaavaapi cha.laaramma.navijaananalakkha.naa vuttaa ta.msabhaavaanativattanato, chasveva vaa itaresa.m aaramma.naana.m antogadhattaa.

 

With regard to six objects, its characteristic is to know sometimes five objects or several kinds of objects, and thus it is said that its characteristic is cognizing six kinds of objects...

 

N: Investigating-consciousness experiences several functions and thus it can experience also six kinds of objects. By stating six objects, all kinds of objects are included, but there are not more than these six. It can perform the function of retention after the javana-cittas. It experiences also other kinds of objects without being dependent on any doorway, when it performs the functions of  rebirth-consciousness, life-continuum (bhavanga) and dying. The rebirth-consciousness experiences the same object as the last javana-cittas of the previous life, and these are of several kinds.

 

Vis.:  Its function is that of investigating, and so on.

 

Tiika: Santiira.naadikiccaati santiira.natadaaramma.nakiccaa vaa,

As regards the expression, the function of investigation and so on, this means the functions of investigation and retention,

 

santiira.natadaaramma.napa.tisandhibhava"ngacutikiccaa vaati adhippaayo.

or the meaning is: the functions of investigating, retention, rebirth-consciousness, life-continuum (bhavanga) and dying.

 

Vis.: It is manifested as the state [of investigating] corresponding to that [last-mentioned function].

 

N: This is according to the same method as the manifestation of receiving-consciousness.

 

Vis.Its proximate cause is the heart-basis.

 

Tiika:

“Hadayavatthupada.t.thaanaa”ti ida.m imaasa.m dvinna.m manovi~n~naa.nadhaatuuna.m ekanteneva hadayavatthusannissayataaya vutta.m.

 

As to the expression, its proximate cause is the heartbase, he said this since these two kinds of mind-consciousness elements are surely supported by the heart-base.

 

He.t.thaa vuttanayena pana ta.mta.manantaraatiitavi~n~naa.naapagamapada.t.thaanaatipi vattu.m va.t.tatiyeva.

 

It is proper that its proximate cause is also the departure of whatever past consciousness it immediately succeeds, according to the same method as said before.

 

N: It is said of the receiving-consciousness: Its proximate cause

is the departure of eye-consciousness, and so on. Evenso the same can be said of the investigating-consciousness that succeeds the receiving-consciousness: the departure of the receiving-consciousness is the proximate cause of the investigating-consciousness.

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Nina’s Intro Vis. 98.

This is all about investigation-consciousness, santiira.na-citta, that has as function to investigate the sense-object that impinged on a sense-door. This is only a mere passing moment, thus we should not misunderstand the term investigating, it is not like investigating as used in conventional language. See below.

**************

> "The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 98, states that

>

it is classified according to its association with joy or with equanimity.

Here the Vis. deals with the two types of investigating-consciousness that are kusala vipaakacitta, not yet with the type that is akusala vipaakacitta (and that is accompanied by indifferent feeling). When the sense object is very pleasant investigating-consciousness is accompanied by pleasant feeling, when it is moderately pleasant by indifferent feeling.

It all depends on kamma what type of vipaakacitta arises, nobody can control this.

 

Text Visuddhimagga XIV, 98:

 But it is classed according to its association with joy or with

equanimity, and according to its being divisible into that with two

positions and that with five positions [in the cognitive series]. For of

these, (40) one is 'associated-with-joy' because of its presence when

entirely desirable objects occur; and it has two positions [in the

cognitive series] because it occurs as investigating at the five doors

and as registration at the end of impulsion. (41) The other kind is

'associated-with-equanimity' because of its presence when

desirable-neutral objects occur, and it has five positions since it

occurs as investigation, registration, rebirth-linking, life-continuum,

and death.

 

Nina: The Vis. speaks about two positions and five positions. In Pali it is said: .thaana: meaning: place, occasion, condition. The position is actually the function it can perform. The santiira.nacitta does not only perform the function of investigating when it succeeds the receiving-consciousness (and this succeeded a sense-cognition such as seeing), it can at other moments also perform other functions. The meaning is that it is the same type of citta as the santiira.nacitta, and accompanied by the same kinds of cetasikas. Thus, after the javana-cittas it can perform the function of retention (or registration), tadaaramma.na. This is also vipaakacitta, and it hangs on once more to the  sense object that impinged on a sense-door.

Only in the case of cittas of the sensuous plane and in the sensuous planes of existence kamma produces retention consciousness, tadaaramma.na-citta. Thus not in the case of jhanacittas or lokuttara cittas, and not in the higher planes of existence. Those who are reborn there are have developed detachment from sense objects.

Two positions, because here the Vis. deals with the santiira.na-citta that is accompanied by pleasant feeling.

The santiira.na-citta accompanied by equanimity can perform five functions. In addition to investigation and retention, it can perform the functions of  rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and death. The last three cannot be performed by the santiira.na-citta accompanied by pleasant feeling. The last three functions are door freed or process freed, because these are not performed in a process of cittas that experience an object that impinges on one of the sense-doors.

When a human is reborn with the vipaakacitta that is santira.na-citta, he is handicapped from birth and his capacities to develop understanding are very limited. This is conditioned by kamma. We can see that it is beyond control with what kind of vipaakacitta one is reborn. All bhavanga-cittas in that life are of the same type of citta.

 

The Tiika deals in detail with the occasion or position of santiira.na-citta, depending on its function, be it within a process or as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and death. It indicates which citta precedes it and which citta succeeds it, and with what function it occurs in the interval between the preceding and the succeeding citta. When santiira.na-citta performs the functions of rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and death, it arises on many occasions. As bhavangacitta it arises in between the processes, for example. It arises throughout life.

 

When we consider the different functions of cittas which are dependent on conditions it helps us to see cittas as elements devoid of self.

Elements are classified in different ways and one way is the classification by way of eighteen elements, including: the ruupas which are the five senses and the five classes of sense objects, the five pairs of sense-cognitions (seeing, etc) which are pañca-viññaa.na-dhaatu, mano dhaatu (adverting-consciousness and two types of receiving-consciousness), dhamma-dhaatu (cetasikas, subtle ruupas and nibbaana) and mano-viññaa.na-dhaatu (all cittas except pañca-viññaa.na-dhaatu and  mano dhaatu).

 

I quote from Dispeller of Delusion (Co to the Book of Analysis, I, p.93):

<Furthermore they are stated as eighteen for the purpose of abolishing the [wrong] perception of those who perceive a soul (jiiva) in consciousness which has the nature of cognizing. For there are beings who perceive a soul in consciousness which has the nature of cognizing. In making evident to them consciousness' multiplicity since it is divided up into eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-consciousness [elements], mind and mind-consciousness elements, and its impermanence which is due to its dependence on eye-cum-visible-data, etc. as conditions, the eighteen elements have been expounded by the Blessed One who was desirous of abolishing the long-inherent perception of a soul.>

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Intro Visuddhimagga XIV, 99.

 

The Vis. deals here with the eight rootless profitable resultants (ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas). They are: the five sense-cognitions that are kusala vipaakacitta (seeing, etc.), receiving-consciousness (sampa.ticchana-citta) that is kusala vipaakacitta, and two types of investigating-consciousness (santiira.na-citta), one accompanied by pleasant feeling (when the object is extraordinarily pleasant) and one accompanied by indifferent feeling.

These ahetuka vipaakacittas can be classified as twofold: with an invariable  object and with a variable object. As the Vis. explains in this section, the five sense-cognitions have each an invariable (fixed, in Pali: nyaata) object. Thus, seeing experiences only visible object, hearing experiences only sound, etc. The receiving-consciousness receives the object experienced by the preceding sense-cognition, thus, this is any of the five sense-objects. Therefore, its object is variable, not fixed (in Pali: anyaata). The two types of investigating-consciousness experience six kinds of objects and therefore, their object is also variable.

When these eight kusala vipaakacittas are classified with regard to the accompanying feelings, they can, as the case demands, be accompanied by happy feeling, by indifferent feeling and by bodily pleasant feeling.

The Vis states: <It is of three kinds as classed according to [bodily] pleasure,

[mental] joy, and equanimity. >

One type of investigating-consciousness is accompanied by pleasant feeling, and this type has two positions: it can perform the function of investigating, santiira.na, in a sense-door process, and also the function of retention, tadaaramma.na after the javana-cittas.

The body-consciousness that is kusala vipaakacitta is accompanied by pleasant bodily feeling (sukhasampayutta).

The Tiika explains that when a pleasant tangible object strikes the bodysense, the impact is strong, and that it is therefore accompanied by bodily pleasant feeling. Whereas when visible object that is a derived ruupa impinges on the eyesense, the impact is weak, and therefore it is accompanied by indifferent feeling. The same is true for the sense-cognitions of hearing, smelling and tasting.

Ruupas are classified as the four Great Elements and the derived ruupas which are twentyfour ruupas. Tangible object are three of the four Great Elements or principal ruupas, namely, solidity (appearing as hardness or softness), heat (appearing as heat or cold) and motion (appearing as motion or pressure).

The bodysense is a ruupa that is all over the body. The Vis. (XIV, 52) states: <The body [sensitivity] is to be found everywhere, like a liquid that soaks a layer of cotton, in this physical body where there is matter that is clung to.>

The Vis. (XIV, 41) states about the bodysense:  <The body's characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that is ready for the impact of tangible data; or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to touch. Its function is to pick up [an object] among tangible data. It is manifested as the footing of body-consciousness. Its proximate cause

is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to touch.>

The great Elements are the support of the bodysense.

 

The Expositor (II, p. 349) explains that in the case of the eye-door, ear-door, nose-door and tongue-door, derived ruupa strikes on derived ruupa. <When this takes place, the resisting friction is not strong; there is just the mere touch, as when four lumps of cotton placed on four anvils are struck by cotton lumps. Feeling takes up the middle (neutral) position. But in the door of the bodily surface the external great essential itself [the great Element] as the object strikes the internal sentient organism and impinges on the [internal] great essentials which are the cause of the [internal] sensory stimulation. As when the cotton lump, placed on top of the anvil, is struck with a hammer, the hammer breaks through the cotton and “takes” the anvil, and the friction is strong, so the friction of the impact is strong.>

 

Whenever we touch things or walk, elements are impinging on elements, and the body-consciousness that is vipaakacitta is accompanied by pleasant bodily feeling or unpleasant bodily feeling. When we touch something we may believe that the bodily feeling is indifferent, but this is not so. Bodily feeling is merely result and it is very ephemeral, only lasting for one moment. Bodily pleasant feeling has nothing to do with happy feeling accompanying citta rooted in attachment, which is akusala and arises because of different conditions. It may arise very shortly after the body-consciousness and then one may confuse the two kinds of feeling, one being vipaaka and one being akusala. When the javana-cittas in a process are akusala, there are seven of the same type succeeding one another, accompanied by the same type of feeling. 

Summarizing the three feelings dealt with in this section: of the eight cittas that are ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas, one is accompanied by happy feeling, one is accompanied by pleasant bodily feeling, and the other six are accompanied by indifferent feeling.

The different classifications by way of variable or invariable object, which depends on the position or occasion of the cittas involved, or the classification by way of feeling, have as objective to show different aspects and different conditions of realities. This will help us to have more understanding of the fact that they are elements which are beyond control, anattaa. 

*****

Text Vis. XIV, 99.

 

99. And this eightfold resultant consciousness without root-cause is of

two kinds as well because of having an invariable object and a variable

object. It is of three kinds as classed according to [bodily] pleasure,

[mental] joy, and equanimity. For (34)-(38) the five consciousnesses

have each an invariable object since they occur respectively only with

respect to visible data, and so on. The others (39)-(41) have a variable

object. For here (39) the mind-element occurs with respect to the five

beginning with visible data, and (40)-(41) the two

mind-consciousness-elements occur with respect to [all] six. Here,

however, body-consciousness is associated with [bodily] pleasure. The

mind-consciousness-element (40) with two positions is associated with

[mental] joy; the other (41) is associated with equanimity.

 

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Intro Vis. 100.

Kusala kamma can produce eight types of ahetuka (rootless) kusala vipaakacittas and eight types of sahetuka (with roots) kusala vipaakacittas.

In this section the Vis. deals with the eight types of sahetuka kusala vipaakacittas.

 

Text Vis. XIV, 100:

100. III. i. A. (a) 2. But that 'with root-cause' is (42)-(49) that

associated with non-greed, etc., as the cause of the result. It is of

eight kinds because it is classed according to joy, etc., like the

profitable of the sense sphere (1)-(8). But it does not occur with

respect to the six objects through giving, etc., as the profitable

does; for it occurs only with respect to the six objects that are

included among limited states, as rebirth-linking, life-continuum,

death, and registration. But the prompted and unprompted states should

be understood here as due to the source it has come from, and so on.

[456] And while there is no difference in the associated states, the

resultant should be understood as passive like the reflection of a face

in a looking-glass while the profitable is active like the face.

 

*******

As the Vis. states: But that 'with root-cause' is (42)-(49) that associated with non-greed, etc., as the cause of the result. It is of eight kinds because it is classed according to joy, etc., like the profitable of the sense sphere.

 

N: They are results of kusala kamma. As we have seen, of the eight types of kusala citta of the sense-sphere four types are accompanied by wisdom, four are without wisdom, four types are accompanied by pleasant feeling, four types are accompanied by indifferent feeling, four types are unprompted and four types are prompted. The sahetuka vipaakacittas that are the results of kusala kamma are classified in the same way, but they do not perform wholesome deeds like giving, etc.

=========================================

Vis text: But it does not occur with respect to the six objects through giving, etc., as the profitable does; for it occurs only with respect to the six objects that are included among limited states, as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, death, and registration. 

*********

Nina: The Tiika explains that the sahetuka vipaakacittas can be accompanied by the same three roots as the kusala cittas, but that these three roots are vipaaka, result. The sahetuka vipaakacittas have been taught as eightfold, in a similar way as the kusala cittas, they are kamaavacara cittas (of the sense-sphere) and they experience <limited> objects.

Kaamaavacara cittas experience sense objects and these are limited (paritta, meaning inferior) or low (hiina); they are different from the jhaanacittas that do not experience sense objects but <exalted objects> and lokuttara cittas that experience nibbaana. Thus, the sahetuka vipaakacittas that are the results of kusala kamma of the sense sphere also experience sense objects. They can perform the functions of rebirth-linking, life-continuum, death, and registration. The function of registration only occurs in the case of cittas of the sense sphere and in the sensuous planes of existence. Thus, its object is inferior, a sense object. The vipaakacittas that are rebirth-consciousness, bhavanga-citta (arising throughout life in between the processes of citta) and dying-consciousness do not experience objects that impinge on the six doorways, but they experience the same object as the last javanacittas of the previous life.

The Tiika uses the term mahaa-vipaaka, and this term denotes the sahetuka vipaakacittas of the sense-sphere (with wholesome roots, sobhana hetus). Mahaa means great. They experience six classes of objects, thus, many kinds of objects. Kusala citta of the sense-sphere is called mahaa-kusala citta, it is accompanied by alobha and adosa and it may be accompanied by amoha or paññaa.

The Tiika explains that though the sahetuka vipaakacittas are similar to the mahaa-kusala cittas because of the accompanying cetasikas, their way of occurring (pavatti-aakaara) is different. The kusala citta performs kusala through body, speech or mind, but the vipaakacitta does not. The vipaakacitta does not produce bodily intimation or speech intimation.

 

N: The vipaakacittas do not perform deeds of generosity, etc. Bodily intimation and speech intimation are ruupas produced by citta which intends to convey a meaning through body or speech. Cittas can convey a meaning or intention in an unwholesome way or in a wholesome way. Speech can be wrong speech or right speech. 

 

Vis text: But the prompted and unprompted states should

be understood here as due to the source it has come from, and so on.

 

N: In a footnote the Tiika text is rendered by the translator of the Vis. :

<The source it has come from, and so on, means the source it

has come from and its condition (paccaya). Here, in the opinion of certain

teachers the result of the unprompted profitable is unprompted and the

result of the prompted is prompted, like the movement of the face's

reflexion in a looking-glass when the face moves; thus it is 'due to the

source it has come from.' But in the opinion of other teachers the

unprompted arises due to powerful kamma as condition and the prompted

does so due to weak kamma; thus it is due to its condition (paccaya)>

 

N: Kusala kamma that is unprompted, not induced, is stronger than kusala kamma that is induced, performed by a citta that has some hesitation. As we have seen in the section on kusala citta: <There is some hesitation and indecisiveness with regard to daana, siila and the other kinds of kusala when the kusala citta is prompted. When one observes siila with the second type of kusala citta [prompted], the confidence in kusala, respect for the Buddha and metta and respect for one’s fellowmen is not as strong as in the case of the first type of kusala citta that is unprompted. >

But it is not so that unprompted kusala kamma must necessarily produce sahetuka vipaakacitta that is unprompted. 

We read in the Commentary to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 193, 194) that excellent kusala kamma with three roots produces rebirth with three roots and that inferior kusala kamma with three roots and excellent kusala kamma with two roots produces rebirth with two roots. 

Different opinions of teachers are quoted by Buddhaghosa (Expositor (II, p. 358 and following).

 

Vis. text: And while there is no difference in the associated states, the

resultant should be understood as passive like the reflection of a face

in a looking-glass while the profitable is active like the face.

 

N: The Tiika explains the difference between active (ussaaha or with effort) and passive (nirussaaha, without effort). We read: <Activity (ussaaho) is so named because it is reckoned as the capacity to produce vipaaka, so long as ignorance, clinging and conceit in the succession of cittas have not been eradicated (anupacchinnaavijjaata.nhaamaanasantaane). As to vipaakacitta, this does not have such activity, it is passive (nirussaaha).>

The Tiika states that also because kusala cittas are powerful while they occur, they have the meaning of being active.

 

The arahat has completely eradicated ignorance, clinging and conceit which were present in the succession of cittas as latent tendencies. For him there are no more cittas which can cause the arising of vipaakacittas. He has no more rebirth.

Kusala kamma can condition rebirth in seven sensuous planes of existence: one human plane and six classes of deva planes. These are the seven happy sensuous planes of existence. So long as defilements have not been eradicated completely, we run the risk of an unhappy rebirth after our life term has come to an end. This should not discourage us, it can encourage us to develop right understanding at this moment, so that ignorance, the first link in the Dependent Origination can weaken and eventually be eradicated.

 

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#7 RobertK

RobertK

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Posted 13 December 2014 - 10:20 AM

Intro Vis. 101:

 

The five sense-cognitions of seeing etc., receiving-consciousness (sampa.ticchana-citta) and investigating-consciousness (santiira.na-citta) can be kusala vipaakacitta or akusala vipaakacitta, depending on the kamma that produces them. In this section the Vis. deals with the types of citta that are akusala vipaakacittas.

==========

Vis. 101:

 'Unprofitable resultant', though is without

root-cause only. It is of seven kinds as (50) eye-consciousness,

(51)-(54) ear-, nose-, tongue-, and body-consciousness, (55)

mind-element with the function of receiving, and (56)

mind-consciousness-element with the function of investigating, etc., and

having five positions. It should be understood as to characteristic,

etc., in the same way as the profitable resultant without root-cause

(34)-(41).

 

===========

N: There are seven types of akusala vipaakacitta, whereas in the case of ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas, there are eight types. The reason is that there are two types of investigating-consciousness which are kusala vipaaka: one type accompanied by pleasant feeling (when the object is very pleasant) and one type by indifferent feeling. There is only one type of investigating-consciousness that is akusala vipaaka, and it is accompanied by indifferent feeling.

There are five positions (.thaana) of santiira.na-citta which is akusala vipaakacitta, and this means that this type of citta can perform the functions of investigating (santiira.na), of retention (tadaaramma.na), of rebirth, of bhavanga and of dying.

 

As the Vis. text states: It should be understood as to characteristic, etc., in the same way as the profitable resultant without root-cause.

===========

N: Akusala vipaakacitta is never accompanied by roots, it is ahetuka, rootless.

The Tiika states that it is said that akusala vipaaka is rootless, because the nature of vipaaka is not reprehensible; it cannot have the roots of lobha, etc. that are the causes of unwise attention (ayoniso manasikaara), and also because it is akusala vipaaka it cannot be associated with the roots of alobha etc., the cause of what is profitable.

Thus, akusala vipaakacitta is not called ahetuka akusala vipaakacitta; the word ahetuka, rootless, is superfluous because it is always without roots. It is without the akusala roots of lobha, dosa, moha, and without the beautiful roots (sobhana hetus) of alobha, adosa and amoha. It is not reprehensible, unprofitable, nor blameless, profitable.

In the case of kusala vipaakacittas, the differentiation of sahetuka and ahetuka has to be made, since kusala kamma can produce eight sahetuka vipaakacittas that can be accompanied by the two roots of alobha and adosa, or by three roots, by alobha, adosa and paññaa, and also eight rootless, ahetuka, kusala vipaakacittas.

  

When seeing arises it may be kusala vipaakacitta or akusala vipaakacitta. It is conditioned by kusala kamma or by akusala kamma. It is not beneficial to try to find out whether seeing is kusala vipaakacitta or akusala vipaakacitta. It is only one moment and it falls away immediately. After it has fallen away javanacittas which are kusala cittas or akusala cittas arise. When there is wise attention to visible object kusala cittas arise, and when there is unwise attention, akusala cittas arise, depending on conditions. Kusala citta is of the jaati that is kusala and akusala citta is of the jaati that is akusala, whereas kusala vipaakacitta and akusala vipaakacitta are only of one jaati, the jaati of vipaaka. As we have seen in the section of kusala vipaakacitta, the Tiika explains that vipaaka is passive, it does not produce any result. Whereas kusala and akusala are active. We read: <Activity (ussaaho) is so named because it is reckoned as the capacity to produce vipaaka, so long as ignorance, clinging and conceit in the succession of cittas have not been eradicated (anupacchinnaavijjaata.nhaamaanasantaane).>

The investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta that is akusala vipaakacitta can perform the function of rebirth, bhavanga and cuti (dying). It can be the result of akusala kamma, motivated by one of eleven types of akusala cittas :    

eight akusala cittas rooted in attachment (lobha-muula-cittas), two akusala cittas rooted in aversion (dosa-muulacittas) and one akusala citta rooted in ignorance (moha-muula-citta) accompanied by doubt. The moha-muula-citta accompanied by restlessness (uddhacca) produces result only in the course of life.

Thus, eleven types can motivate akusala kamma that produces an unhappy rebirth. In that case the rebirth-consciousness is akusala vipaakacitta which is the same type as the the investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta. As we have seen, this type of citta can perform the functions of investigating (santiira.na), of retention (tadaaramma.na), of rebirth, of bhavanga and of dying.

Only one type of akusala vipaakacitta, the santiira.na-citta that is akusala vipaakacitta, can perform the function of rebirth in unhappy planes, but it has many intensities. There are four classes of unhappy planes: the Hell planes, the plane of demons (asuras), the plane of Petas (ghosts) and the animal world. Nobody can escape the result of kamma. Even kamma of many lives ago may have an opportunity to produce an unhappy rebirth.

 

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Intro Vis. 102.

In this section the Visuddhimagga deals with the feelings that accompany the akusala vipaakacittas, namely indifferent feeling and unpleasant bodily feeling.

=================

Text Vis. 102.

 102. Profitable resultant, though, has desirable or desirable-neutral

objects only, while these have undesirable or undesirable-neutral

objects only. The former are of three kinds, being classed according to

equanimity, bodily pleasure, and mental joy, while these are of two

kinds, being classed according to bodily pain and equanimity. For here

it is only body-consciousness that is accompanied by bodily pain; the

rest are accompanied by equanimity. And the equanimity in these is

inferior, and not very sharp as the pain is; while in the former it is

superior, and not very sharp as the pleasure is.

So with these seven kinds of unprofitable resultant and the previous

sixteen kinds of profitable resultant, sense-sphere resultant

consciousness is of twenty-three kinds.

**********

Explanation of this text:

 Profitable resultant, though, has desirable or desirable-neutral

objects only, while these have undesirable or undesirable-neutral

objects only.

N: The ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas experience a desirable or a moderately desirable object, whereas the akusala vipaakacittas experience an undesirable or a moderately undesirable object.

The Tiika explains why there are two types of investigating-consciousness (mind-consciousness-element) which are kusala vipaaka: one type is accompanied by pleasant feeling, when the object is very pleasant and one type by indifferent feeling, when the object is moderately pleasant. There is only one type of investigating-consciousness that is akusala vipaaka, and this is accompanied by indifferent feeling, no matter whether the object is very unpleasant or moderately unpleasant. Therefore, the akusala vipaakacittas are classified as sevenfold, whereas ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas are classified as eightfold.

The Tiika explains that there is no unpleasant feeling, domanassa, on account of a very unpleasant object since unpleasant feeling cannot arise without aversion (pa.tigha).

 N. As we have seen, the two akusala cittas rooted in aversion, dosa-muula-cittas, are the only two cittas that are accompanied by unpleasant feeling. Akusala vipaakacittas cannot be accompanied by unpleasant feeling, they are not akusala cittas with aversion, dosa, but merely results.   

======================

 Text Vis.:

The former are of three kinds, being classed according to

equanimity, bodily pleasure, and mental joy, while these are of two

kinds, being classed according to bodily pain and equanimity. For here

it is only body-consciousness that is accompanied by bodily pain; the

rest are accompanied by equanimity.

============

N: The ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas are classified by way of three feelings, as was explained above. The akusala vipaakacittas are classified by way of two feelings, bodily pain and indifferent feeling.

 

The Tiika explains that the painful feeling accompanying body-consciousness that is akusala vipaakacitta should be understood in the way opposite to what has been said about pleasant bodily feeling that is kusala vipaaka. The whole day we are touching things and there is impingement of tangible object on the bodysense which is all over the body. We may believe that the bodily feeling is indifferent, but this is not so. Bodily feeling is merely result and it is very ephemeral, only lasting for one moment. Moreover, bodily unpleasant feeling has nothing to do with unhappy feeling accompanying citta rooted in aversion which is akusala and arises because of different conditions. Unhappy feeling that is akusala may arise very shortly after the body-consciousness and then one may take unhappy feeling for bodily unpleasant feeling.

========================

Text Vis.:

And the equanimity in these is inferior, and not very sharp as the pain is; while in the former it is superior, and not very sharp as the pleasure is.

===========

N. Bodily pleasant feeling and painful feeling are keen, because the impact of tangible object on the bodysense is more violent than the impact of the other sense objects on the relevant sense-bases.

The sense-cognitions other than body-consciousness, seeing, hearing, etc., are accompanied by indifferent feeling, upekkhaa. The indifferent feeling that is kusala vipaaka is superior, whereas the indifferent feeling that is akusala vipaaka is inferior.

The Tiika explains that since akusala vipaaka is the result of what is surely inferior also indifferent feeling accompanying the akusala vipaakacitta is inferior because it is of a nature of affliction (dukkhasabhaavatta). It states: <Therefore he said, ‘it is like pain but not as acute’ ( “dukkha.m viya naatitikhi.naa”ti.)>

N: Upekkhaa that is akusala vipaaka is inferior, it should be seen as a kind of suffering or affliction, although it is not as acute as bodily pain.

 

The Tiika states: <bodily pain is very acute and sharp, and this (indifferent feeling) is not like that, but here it also occurs as having the nature of affliction.

The result of akusala is not devoid of suffering (na hi akusalassa vipaako adukkho hoti).The nature of upekkhaa should be seen as the indifference of a weak man who is oppressed by a strong man and who is unable to strike  back.>

N: This shows the passive nature of indifferent feeling that accompanies akusala vipaaka. It is a kind of affliction.

It cannot be changed, because it has been conditioned by kamma already. Whatever arises is conditioned and we cannot be master of it.

There are many moments of seeing and hearing, and these are accompanied by indifferent feeling. They are kusala vipaakacittas or akusala vipaakacittas accompanied by indifferent feeling which is also vipaaka. Indifferent feeling is superior when it accompanies kusala vipaakacitta and inferior when it accompanies akusala vipaakacitta. However, they are fleeting moments that fall away very quickly. It is difficult to realize that one short moment of akusala vipaakacitta is a kind of affliction or suffering. When we think of something unpleasant we saw or heard, we actually join many different moments together into a whole of impressions. We think with ignorance and aversion of situations and persons that caused us to experience unpleasant objects. We do not realize the difference between the moment of akusala citta that is accompanied by unhappy feeling and the moment of vipaakacitta. 

We tend to blame other people, but in fact, it is akusala kamma, not a person, that conditions unpleasant sense-cognitions. There can be detachment from the idea of self and person when we have more understanding of paramattha dhammas that appear one at a time through one of the six doors. We can learn the difference between vipaaka and thinking about it with akusala citta. Life is actually one fleeting moment of experiencing an object.

We can begin to study the different dhammas as explained by the Visuddhimagga. This can give us a foundation of intellectual understanding of non-self, and this can be a condition for the arising of direct understanding of dhammas as they are.   

===========

Text Vis.:

So with these seven kinds of unprofitable resultant and the previous sixteen kinds of profitable resultant, sense-sphere resultant consciousness is of twenty-three kinds.

 ===============

N: There are altogether twentythree types of vipaakacittas of the sense-sphere (kaamaavacara), namely: eight types of kusala vipaakacittas with roots (sahetuka), eight types of kusala vipaakacittas without roots (ahetuka) and seven types of akusala vipaakacittas.

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Intro Vis. 103 and 104.

 

After the Visuddhimagga has dealt with kusala vipaakacittas and akusala vipaakacittas of the sense-sphere, kaamavacaara cittas, it now deals with the vipaakacittas of higher planes of citta: the plane of ruupaavacaara citta or ruupajhaanacitta (fine-material jhaana) and aruupavacaaracitta or aruupajhaanacitta (immaterial jhaana). Thus, these cittas are the results of kusala kamma that is ruupajhaana and aruupajhaana.

=================

Vis. 103:

That of the 'fine-material sphere', however, is of five

kinds (57)-(61) like the profitable (9)-(13).

But the profitable occurs in a cognitive series with the impulsions as an attainment [of jhana], while this occurs in an existence [in the fine-material sphere] as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and death.

 

Vis. 104:

And as that of the fine-material sphere [was like the

profitable of that sphere] so that of the 'immaterial sphere' (62)-(65)

is of four kinds like the profitable too (14)-(17). And its occurrence

is classed in the same way as that of the fine-material sphere.

 

Text Vis. 103:

 That of the 'fine-material sphere', however, is of five

kinds (57)-(61) like the profitable (9)-(13).

==============

N: The ruupaavacaara vipaakacittas produced by ruupaavaacaara kusala cittas are accompanied by the same jhaana-factors. Recapitulating the ruupaavaacaara kusala cittas, classified according to five stages of jhaana, as given by Vis. XIV, 86:

 

Vis.86.< The consciousness of the 'fine-material sphere' is fivefold,

being classed according to association with the jhaana factors. That is

to say, (9) the first is associated with applied thought, sustained

thought, happiness(piiti or enthusiasm), bliss (sukha, happy feeling), and concentration, (10) the second leaves out applied thought from that, (11) the third leaves out sustained thought from that, (12) the fourth makes happiness fade away from that, (13) the fifth is associated with equanimity and concentration, bliss having subsided. >

=========

Text Vis. 103:

But the profitable occurs in a cognitive series with the impulsions as an attainment [of jhaana],while this occurs in an existence [in the fine-material sphere] as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and death.

===========

N: The translator uses <existence>, but the Pali  gives <upapatti>, which literally means rebirth. Thus, the vipaakacitta occurs in the following life.

Kusala rupaavacaaracitta (ruupa-jhaanacitta) arises within a process of cittas, during the moments of javana-cittas (impulsion). These cittas which are of a high degree of kusala kamma do not produce result in the same life. If one’s skill in jhaana does not decline and the last javanacittas arising before the dying-consciousness are jhaanacittas, the jhaanacitta can produce vipaaka in the form of rebirth-consciousness of the following life. And then also the bhavanga-cittas and the dying-consciousness are of the same type of ruupaavacaara vipaakacitta.

As we have seen before, kusala kamma of the level of ruupa-jhaana, fine-material jhaana, can lead to rebirth in ruupa-brahma planes where there are less sense impressions. There are no nose, tongue, body or sexuality in those planes. Only seeing, hearing, and the experience of mental objects occur. There are no cittas rooted in dosa, since there are no conditions for aversion in these planes. But there can be cittas rooted in lobha.

Those who have a limited degree of absorption of the first jhaana will be reborn in the lowest plane of ruupa-brahmans, namely, the  plane of Brahma’s Retinue. Those with a medium and a high degree of absorption of the first jhaana will be reborn accordingly in higher ruupa-brahma planes: the plane of Brahma’s Ministers and the Great Brahmaas. Each stage of jhaana can be of a limited, a medium or a high degree of absorption, Each of these degrees produces its result accordingly (Commentary to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha, Abhidhamma Topics, p. 108, 109) >

The Tiika states that the ruupaavacaara vipaakacitta is similar to the ruupaavacaara kusala citta that produces it, with regard to the accompanying cetasikas, contact, etc. and with regard to the object.

Jhaanacitta can have as object the meditation subjects of samatha, such as the kasinas, the brahmavihaaras, etc. <The vipaakacitta occurs with the same object as the kusala citta>. It does not occur with another object. The kamma and the vipaaka in this case are of the same plane of citta (bhuumi). Thus, of the fine-material plane of citta, ruupaavacaara bhuumi.

The Tiika explains that with the fifth jhaana the supranatural powers can be attained, but that this does not give a result.   

We read in The Expositor (p. 380):<Herein, because the resultant of the sensuous realm is both like and unlike its own moral [kusala] consciousness, therefore it has not been classified as simply a sequel similar to that moral consciousness. But in the case of these two realms-of Ruupa and Aruupa- the results of kamma are like the moral consciousness in each, just as the shadows of elephants, horses, mountains, etc., resemble these. Therefore, it has been classified on this principle. Again, kamma of the sensuous realm gives result at one time or other; but the kamma of the Ruupa and Arupa realms, being unobstructed, gives result in the second individuality.>

N: Thus, in the following life. 

*******

Text Vis. 104:

And as that of the fine-material sphere [was like the profitable of that sphere] so that of the 'immaterial sphere' (62)-(65) is of four kinds like the profitable too (14)-(17).

===========

N: To recapitulate:

There are four stages of aruupajhaana and all four aruupa-jhaanacittas are accompanied by the same two factors as the fifth ruupa-jhaanacitta, by equanimity and concentration.

The four meditation subjects of aruupa-jhaana are not dependent on any materiality. They are: Boundless Space, Unbounded Consciousness, Nothingness, Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception.

========

Text Vis:

And its occurrence is classed in the same way as that of the fine-material sphere.

========

N: Thus, the Kusala arupaavacaaracitta (aruupa-jhaanacitta) arises within a process of cittas, during the moments of javana-cittas, and these can produce their results accordingly in the next life as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and dying-consciousness. The aruupaavacaara vipaakacittas have the same object as the aruupaavacaara kusala citta which produces it.

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Intro Vis. 105.

As we have seen, there are four planes (bhumi) of citta: cittas of the sense-sphere (kaamaavaraa cittas), of the fine-material sphere (ruupa-jhaana), of the immaterial sphere (aruupa-jhaana) and supramundane or lokuttara cittas. The magga-cittas, lokuttara kusala cittas, arise when enlightenment is attained. As we have seen in XIV, 88, there are four stages of enlightenment: the stage of the streamwinner, of the once-returner, of the non-returner and of the arahat. At each of these stages defilements are successively eradicated.

The Vis. deals here with supramundane vipaakacittas, the phala-cittas (fruition-consciousness), which are the results of the magga-cittas (path-consciousness). 

 

Text Vis. 105: The 'supramundane resultant' is of four kinds (66)-(69)

because it is [respectively] the fruitions of the consciousnesses

associated with the four paths (18)-(21). It occurs in two ways, that is

to say, as [fruition in] the cognitive series of the path and as

fruition attainment (see Ch. XXII).

So resultant consciousness in all four planes is of thirty-six kinds.

*********

As the Vis. text states:  The 'supramundane resultant' is of four kinds (66)-(69)because it is [respectively] the fruitions of the consciousnesses

associated with the four paths (18)-(21).

It occurs in two ways, that is to say, as [fruition in] the cognitive series of the path and as fruition attainment (see Ch. XXII).

===========================

N: The Tiika mentions that during the process when enlightenment occurs, there are two or three moments of phalacitta. However, when there is fruition attainment, phalasamaapatti, it occurs uninterruptedly, and thus there are two ways (positions or .thaana) of its occurring.    

At the moment of enlightenment, magga-citta arises, and then it is followed in the same process by phalacittas, fruition consciousness. The magga-citta conditions the vipaakacitta, fruition consciousness by way of anantara-paccaya and other conditions. There is no delay, it is akaliko. Vis. VII, 31: <This, however, is undelayed (na kaalika) because its fruit comes immediately next to it...> Kamma that is worldly, lokiya, produces its result later on, but the kusala kamma that is magga-citta, is the only kamma that produces vipaaka in the same process. 

Also someone who is a sukkhavipassaka, with dry insight, experiences nibbaana with samaadhi of the degree of attainment concentration. The reason is that the object is nibbaana.

Those who have cultivated jhaana, can attain enlightenment with lokuttara cittas accompanied by the jhanafactors of the different stages of jhaana. They can, after the process during which enlightenment occurred, experience nibbaana again with phalacittas in the course of life. That is the meaning of the two ways or positions of occurring of the fruition-consciousness.                            

===============

Text Vis: So resultant consciousness in all four planes is of thirty-six kinds.

===================================

N: The Tiika mentions that there are twentythree  vipaakacittas of the sense-sphere (kaamaavaraa cittas). These are: eight sahetuka kusala vipaakacittas, eight ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas and seven akusala vipaakacittas (which are always ahetuka). There are five ruupaavacaara vipaakacittas (of the fine-material sphere), four aruupaavacaara vipaakacittas (of the immaterial sphere), and four lokuttara vipaakacittas. Thus, there are  thirty-six kinds in all.

The Tiika states that this is according to a method which is neither too short nor too detailed.

N: When we include lokuttara jhaanacittas, lokuttara cittas accompanied by jhaana-factors, the classification is more detailed.

The Tiika explains that there is no lokuttara kiriyacitta. The result of lokuttara kusala citta is sure to occur without interval (anantaravipaaka). It refers to a text in the Minor Readings, VI, The Jewel Discourse: <Calling it concentration straight-resulting (samaadhim aanantarikaññam aahu): and which he called ‘straight-resulting concentration’ since it produces its fruit quite certainly  straightway next to its own occurrence; for when path-concentration has arisen, there is no obstacle whatever that can prevent the arising of its fruit...>

This text speaks about samaadhi, concentration, and this is the ariyan right concentration which is lokuttara.

Middle Lngth Sayings III, no 117, The Great Forty, states: <And what, monks, is the ariyan right concentration with the causal associations, with the accompaniments? It is right view, right thinking, right speech, right action, right mode of livelihood, right endeavour, right mindfulness.>

 

Kusala kamma that is not lokuttara is a link in the cycle of birth and death. In the Expositor (II, p. 290) this kind of kamma that accumulates is compared to the building up a wall. The lokuttara magga-citta pulls down and demolishes this wall. Its result is completely different from the result of kamma of the other three planes of citta, it is not a link in the cycle of birth and death, it could not produce vipaaka in the form of rebirth-consciousness nor by way of a pleasant experience through one of the senses.

The magga-citta can arise when the right conditions have been cultivated so that enlightenment can be attained. As the Tiika to the Vis. 88 states, the six purifications, visuddhis, have to be reached which include all the stages of insight, before there can be the seventh purification, purification by knowledge and vision that is associated with the magga-citta, path-consciousness. The magga-citta is accompanied by all eight path-factors, including right action, right speech and right livelihood. The magga-citta eradicates the bases of wrong action, speech and livelihood in accordance with the stage of enlightenment that has been attained. The magga-citta produces, immediately after it has fallen away, the phala-citta, fruition-consciousness. The phala-citta is also accompanied by all eight path-factors, but at that moment the defilements that were to be eradicated by the magga-citta have been eradicated.

 

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Kiriyacitta, inoperative or functional citta.

=======================

Visuddhimagga XIV, 106:  The 'functional', however, is of three kinds according to plane: (A) of the sense sphere, (B) of the fine-material sphere, © of the immaterial sphere. Herein, that of the 'sense sphere' is of two kinds, namely, (1) without root-cause, and (2) with root-cause.

 Herein, that 'without root-cause' is that devoid of non-greed, etc., as the cause of result. That is of two kinds, being classed as (70) mind-element, and (71)-(72) mind-consciousness-element.

****

We read in the Expositor II, p. 385, about kiriyacittas:

...<Here ‘inoperative (kiriya) means the mere acting or doing of a function. In all inoperative consciousness that which has not attained the apperceptional state [N: javana or impulsion] is fruitless like a plant with a wind-snapped flower...>

 

N: the sense-door adverting-consciousness (pañcadvaaraavajjana-citta) and the mind-door adverting-consciousness which performs in a sense-door process the function of determining (votthapana), are neither kusala, akusala, being different from the javanacittas, nor are they vipaaka. They are fruitless and merely perform their function.

Text: <...that which has reached the apperceptional state is fruitless like the flower of an uprooted tree...>

 

N: The javanacittas of the arahat are kiriyacittas which are neither cause nor result. For them there are no longer roots, hetus, which are kusala or akusala and this is compared to the roots which could cause a tree to bear fruits.

 

Text Expositor: Nevertheless, because of procedure in accomplishing this and that function, there is the mere doing, hence [the activity] is called inoperative. The phrase ‘neither moral [kusala] nor immoral [akusala]’, etc., means that, owing to the absence of the moral condition called the moral root, it is not moral; owing to the absence of the immoral condition called the immoral root, it is not immoral. Owing to the absence of moral and immoral causes of wise and unwise attention, it is said to be neither moral nor immoral. Owing to the absence of the productive condition called moral and immoral, it is not result of kamma...>

 

******

 

Visuddhimagga 107. Herein, (70) the 'mind-element' has the characteristics of being the forerunner of eye-consciousness, etc., and of cognizing visible

data, and so on. Its function is to advert. It is manifested asconfrontation of visible data, and so on. Its proximate cause is the interruption of [the continued occurrence of consciousness as] life-continuum. It is associated with equanimity only.

 

N: the mind-element, mano-dhaatu, is the five-door adverting consciousness.

When a new object, visible object or sound, etc. has impinged on the relevant sense-base, there is not immediately seeing or one of the other sense-cognitions. There has to be first the citta which adverts to the object. Therefore, this citta is called the forerunner. The Tiika explains that this citta does not experience the flavour of the object completely, and that it occurs only once. No matter whether the object is desirable or undesirable, it is accompanied by indifferent feeling.

Its proximate cause is the interruption of the stream of bhavanga-cittas (life-continuum). The bhavanga-cittas experience the same object as the pa.tisandhi-citta, they do not experience an object that impinges on one of the six doors. It is unpredictable which object impinges on one of the sense-bases and interrupts the stream of bhavanga-cittas. This helps us to understand the anattaness of realities.

Only one sense-object at a time can impinge on the relevant sense-base. When visible object impinges on the eyesense, there cannot be sound impinging on the earsense at the same time. Neither can a person or a thing impinge on the eyesense. However, we join many different objects into a whole and believe that we see persons and things. Learning about the different cittas that arise in processes and experience one object through one doorway at a time, helps us to see that there is nobody in visible object, sound or the other sense-objects.

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Visuddhimagga 108: But the 'mind-consciousness-element' is of two kinds, namely, shared by all and not shared by all. [457] Herein, (71) that 'shared by

all' is the functional [mind-consciousness-element] accompanied by

equanimity without root-cause. It has the characteristic of cognizing

the six kinds of objects. Its function is to determine at the five doors

and to advert at the mind door.

 

N: The mano-dvaaraavajjana-citta, mind-door adverting consciousness, is an ahetuka kiriyacitta that performs the function of determining, vo.t.thappana, through the five sense-doors and it is called after its function vo.t.thappana-citta.  The Tiika explains as to the vo.t.thappana-citta that, after it has taken the object from the santiira.nacitta (investigating-consciousness), it occurs as it were (viya) defining or fixing the object. The word viya, as it were, is meaningful; it shows that its function is different from what we call in conventional language determining or fixing. It is neither kusala nor akusala, it is kiriyacitta, inoperative citta. It is only one moment of citta and it is followed (in the case of non-arahats) by kusala cittas or akusala cittas and these arise because of accumulated conditions. This reminds us of the uncontrollability of cittas: there is no time to decide whether kusala cittas or akusala cittas will arise. Cittas succeed one another extremely rapidly.

The mind-door adverting-consciousness performs the function of adverting, aavajjana, through the mind-door. It is the first citta of the mind-door process that arises after the bhavangacittas and after it has adverted to the object it is followed by kusala cittas or akusala cittas.

Thus, the mano-dvaaraavajjana-citta performs the function of determining, vo.t.thappana, through the five sense-doors and it performs the function of adverting, aavajjana, through the mind-door. It is one type of citta that performs two functions.

 

Vis. text: It is manifested as the states [of determining and adverting] corresponding to those [last-mentioned two functions]. Its proximate cause is the departure either of the resultant mind-consciousness-element without root-cause (40)-(41) [in the first case], or of one among the kinds of life-continuum [in the second]. (72) That 'not shared by all' is the functional [mind-consciousness-element] accompanied by joy without root-cause. It has the characteristic of cognizing the six kinds of objects. Its function is to cause smiling [41] in Arahants about things that are not sublime. It is manifested as the

state corresponding to that [last-mentioned]. Its proximate cause is always the heart-basis.

 

N: The Tiika explains as to the heart-base, that it arises in planes where there are five khandhas, naama and ruupa. When one smiles or laughs, there are ruupas originated from citta. This reminds us that we should not take laughing for self. There are only naama and ruupa.

 

Vis. text: So the sense-sphere functional without root-cause is of three kinds.

 

N: Namely: the five sense-door adverting-consciousness, the mind-door adverting-consciousness (performing two functions: determining, vo.t.thapana, through the five doors and adverting through the mind-door), and the smile- producing consciousness of the arahat, the hasituppaada-citta.

----------------------

Note 41. 'With respect to such unsublime objects as the forms of

skeletons or ghosts' (Pm. 476). See e.g. Vin.iii,104.

 

N: We read in the Expositor (II, p. 386) about the smiling-consciousness of the arahat which arises in the processes of cittas experiencing objects through the six doors: <In the eye-door seeing a suitable place for religious application, the Arahant is joyful at this thought. In the ear-door he becomes joyful at this kind of thought:- ’when they, being seized by excessive greed, are making a great noise in the matket-place, such frivolous craving of lust have I put away.’ In the door of smell, joy arises when he is offering odours and flowers at a shrine. In the door of taste, joy arises when, after acquiring savoury alms and distributing them, he partakes of them and thinks: ’Surely I have fulfilled the duties of courtesy!’ In the door of tactile activities joy arises at the consciousness, ’Surely I have completed the minor duties!’ So far it is thus obtained in the five doors.

Moreover, in the mind-door joy arises with reference to past and future objects. For instance: -reflecting on the reaon of some act done in the time of the lad Jotipaala, of the King Makhaadeva, of the ascetic Ka.nha and others , the Tathaagata manifested a smile. And that reflection is a function of the knowledge of former existence and omniscience, at the conclusion of the practice of which this laughter-producing consciousness arises. >

We read that evenso the Tathaagata smiles at the thought of the arising of Silent Buddhas in the future.

 

N: First the Buddha directs his attention to the past or the future with mahaa-kiriyacittas, accompanied by wisdom, and after that he smiles with ahetuka kiriyacittas, which are hasituppaada cittas.

It is explained in the Expositor (II, p. 388) that ordinary persons laugh with four types of citta: four kusala cittas accompanied by joy, and four lobha-muula-cittas accompanied by joy. When we laugh, there are usually lobha-muulacittas. Arahats smile with four mahaa-kiriyacittas accompanied by joy and with one type of ahetuka kiriyacitta accompanied by joy. The last type of citta is ahetuka, it is without the hetus of alobha, adosa and paññaa. The cittas of the arahat are not always accompanied by paññaa.

 

Visuddhimagga 109. That, however, 'with root cause' is of eight kinds

(73)-(80), like the profitable (1)-(8), being classed according to joy

and so on. While the profitable [kusala] arises in trainers [ariyans who are non-arahats] and ordinary men only, this [N: kiriyacitta] arises in Arahants only. This is the difference here.

 

So firstly, that of the sense sphere is of eleven kinds.

 

 That, however, of the 'fine-material sphere' (81)-(85), and that of the 'immaterial sphere' (86)-(89) are [respectively] of five kinds and of four kinds like the profitable. But they should be understood to differ from the profitable in that they arise only in Arahants.

So functional consciousness in the three planes is of twenty kinds in

all.

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Visuddhimagga 110: So the 21 kinds of profitable, the 12 kinds of unprofitable, the 36 kinds of resultant, and the 20 kinds of functional, amount in all to 89 kinds of consciousness.

 

N: The 21 kinds of kusala cittas are: 8 kusala cittas of the sense sphere (kaamaavacara), five ruupaavacara kusala cittas, four aruupaavacara kusala cittas and four lokuttara kusala cittas.

There are 12 kinds of akusala cittas (rooted in lobha, in dosa and in moha). As to the 36 kinds of vipaakacittas: these are 8 sahetuka vipaaka (kusala vipaaka with roots), 8 ahetuka kusala vipaaka, 7 ahetuka akusala vipaaka, 5 ruupaavacara (ruupajhaana) kusala vipaaka, 4 aruupaavacara (aruupajhaana) kusala vipaaka and 4 lokuttara vipaaka (phalacittas, fruition-consciousness). As to the 20 kiriyacittas, there are 3 ahetuka kiriyacittas, 8 mahaakiriyacittas (of the sense-sphere) of the arahat, 5 ruupaavacara kiriyacittas and 4 aruupaavacara kiriyacittas (of the arahat).

This may seem to be a technical summing up, but all these 89 kinds of cittas are realities, each with their own characteristic. If the Buddha had not attained enlightenment and taught the Dhamma we would not know about the different kinds of cittas. We would take akusala citta rooted in attachment with pleasant feeling for kusala citta. We would take selfish affection for loving kindness. The Buddha’s teaching about the different cittas is of infinite value for our daily life.

The kaamaavacara cittas which are kusala, akusala and avyaakata (vipaaka and kiriya) occur in daily life time and again. They are cittas, not a person. They each have their own characteristic. They arise at the appropriate base and experience the appropriate object. Seeing experiences only visible object, hearing experiences only sound. Cittas do not know each other’s object. We should not merely know the names of the different cittas. When we consider their different characteristics there are conditions for the arising of sati and paññaa. Direct understanding can begin to penetrate the different characteristics of cittas. 

 

Text Vis: And these occur in the fourteen modes of (a)

rebirth-linking, (B) life-continuum, © adverting, (d) seeing, (e)

hearing, (f) smelling, (g) tasting, (h) touching, (i) receiving, (j)

investigating, (k) determining, (l) impulsion, (m) registration, and (n)

death.

 

N: There are fourteen functions of citta. The Tiika states that there are no other functions except these fourteen. Each citta performs its own function. The cittas that arise in a process do so according to a fixed order. The javana-cittas (akusala cittas or kusala cittas) of the sense-door process arise after the determining-consciousness (vo.t.thappaana-citta) and the javana-cittas in a mind-door process arise after the mind-door adverting-consciousness. Nobody, not even the Buddha, can change the fixed order of cittas (citta niyama).

 

*****

 

 

Text Vis. 111. How so? (a) When, through the influence of the eight kinds of

sense-sphere profitable [consciousness] (1)-(8), beings come to be

reborn among deities and human beings, then the eight kinds of

sense-sphere resultant with root-cause (42)-(49) occur,

 

N: The eight mahaa-kusala cittas (of the sense-sphere) with two roots (alobha and adosa) or with three roots, that is, accompanied by paññaa as well, produces rebirth in the human plane or in the six lower deva planes.

 

Vis. text: ..and also the resultant mind-consciousness-element without root-cause associated with equanimity (41), which is the weak profitable result with two root-causes in those who are entering upon the state of eunuchs, etc., among human beings--

 

N: Those reborn with a santira.na-citta (investigating-consciousness) which is ahetuka kusala vipaaka, are handicapped from birth. It is the result of weak kusala kamma. As we have seen, the santiira.na-citta which is ahetuka kusala vipaaka can in this case perform the function of rebirth. It is the same type of citta as the santiira.na-citta which performs in a sense-door process the function of investigating a sense-object. 

 

Vis. text: thus nine kinds of resultant consciousness in all

occur as 'rebirth-linking'; and they do so making their object whichever

among the kamma, sign of kamma, or sign of destiny has appeared at the

time of dying (see also Ch. XVII, par.120).[42]

 

Note 42 (of the translator in the text). See also MA.iv,124f. 'Here "kamma" is stored-up profitable kamma of the sense sphere that has got an opportunity to ripen; hence he said "that has appeared". "Sign of kamma" is the gift to be given that was a condition for the volition at the moment of accumulating the

kamma. "Sign of destiny" is the visible-data base located in the destiny

in which he is about to be reborn' (Pm. 477). See Ch. XVII, pr.136ff.

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Intro Vis. 111:

Kamma conditions the last javana-cittas (kusala cittas or akusala cittas) that arise before the dying-consciousness. Whatever object these cittas experience, that is also the object of the next rebirth-consciousness. The dying-consciousness that follows upon these last javana-cittas has the same object as the rebirth-consciousness and life-continuum of the life that is about to end. 

 

Nina: Any object appearing through one of the six doorways can be the object of the last javana-cittas before dying. Thus, it is an object that appears just like now. That object is conditioned by kamma. When kusala kamma will produce rebirth-consciousness, kamma conditions the object experienced by the last javana-cittas to be pleasant, and the javana-cittas which experience it to be kusala cittas. When akusala kamma will produce rebirth-consciousness, kamma conditions the object experienced by the last javana-cittas to be unpleasant, and the javana-cittas which experience it to be akusala cittas. 

These objects are past, present or not so classifiable. The last javana-cittas of a life that is about to end may experience a sense object which is a present object. These javana-cittas are five in number, <because of slowing down due to the nearness of death>. These are followed by two moments of retention and one moment of dying-consciousness. The dying-consciousness experiences another object which is the same as the pa.tisandhi-citta and all bhavanga-cittas of the life that is about to end.

The pa.tisandhi-citta, rebirth-consciousness, experiences as it were a seal-imprint or copy of the object experienced by the last javana-cittas of the preceding life. We should remember that the rebirth-consciousness, the bhavanga-citta and the dying-consciousness are cittas which are door-freed (dvara-vimutta) and process-freed (viithi-vimutta). They do not experience an object that impinges on one of the six doors like the cittas arising in processes. They merely experience a <copy> or echo of the object experienced by the last javana-cittas of the preceding life. We are unable to know what kind of object this is. The "Dispeller of Delusion" states that the rebirth-consciousness can experience a present object, but this means that the last javana-cittas of the preceding life directly experienced a present object. However, the rebirth-consciousness does not experience it in the same way as those javana-cittas, it merely experiences a copy of it.

The next life follows upon this present life very rapidly, it all occurs in one flash.

Seeing at this moment may be followed by kusala javana-cittas or akusala javana-cittas and then the dying-consciousness may arise to be followed immediately by the rebirth-consciousness.

When kamma committed in the past is remembered during the last javana-cittas, the object is a past object.

When the object of the last javana-cittas is a sign of destiny, the place of one’s next rebirth, one may see a heavenly mansion or a picture of the flames of hell, for example.

 

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Text Vis. 112. When, through the influence of the profitable of the fine-material sphere (9)-(13) and the immaterial sphere (14)-(17), beings are reborn

[respectively] in the fine-material and immaterial kinds of becoming,

then the nine kinds of fine-material (57)-(61) and immaterial (62)-(65)

resultant occur as 'rebirth-linking'; and they do so making their object

only the sign of kamma that has appeared at the time of dying.[43]

------------------------

Note 43. ' "The sign of kamma" here is only the kamma's own object

consisting of an earth kasina, etc.' (Pm.478).

 

N: When ruupajhaana or aruupajhaana has been developed and the jhaana has not declined, kamma conditions the last javana-cittas which have as object the meditation subject of ruupa-jhaana or aruupa-jhaana, and it will produce rebirth in ruupa-brahma planes or aruupa-brahma-planes, depending on the stage of jhaana which has been attained.

 

Vis. text: 113. When, through the influence of the unprofitable (22)-(33), they are reborn in a state of loss, then the one kind of unprofitable resultant

mind-consciousness-element without root-cause (56) occurs as

rebirth-linking; and it does so making its object whichever among the

kamma, sign of kamma, and sign of destiny has appeared at the time of

dying.

 

N: There is only one type of akusala vipaakacitta that performs the function of rebirth, bhavanga and dying and this is the santiira.na-citta that is akusala vipaakacitta. This type has many degrees and arises in the unhappy planes of existence: the animal world, the ghost world, the demon world and the hell planes.

 

Vis. text: This firstly is how the occurrence of nineteen kinds of resultant

consciousness should be understood as rebirth-linking.

 

N: these types are:

1 akusala vipaaka santiira.na-citta (ahetuka, result of akusala kamma)

1 kusala vipaaka santiira.na-citta (ahetuka, result of weak kaamaavacara kusala kamma)

8 mahaa-vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of kaamaavacara kusala kammas)

5 ruupaavacara vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of ruupa-jhaanacittas)

4 aruupaavacara vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of aruupa-jhaanacittas)

 

Thus, nineteen types of citta can perform the function of rebirth, bhavanga (life-continuum) and dying.

 

*****

Vis. text: Ch. XIV, 114.

 (B) When the rebirth-linking consciousness has ceased, then,

following on whatever kind of rebirth-liking it may be, the same kinds,

being the result of that same kamma whatever it may be, occur as

'life-continuum' consciousness with that same object; and again those same kinds.[44]

***

Note 44, taken from the Tiika: "With that same object": if kamma is the life-continuum's object, then it is that kamma; if the sign of the kamma, or the sign of the destiny, then it is one of those' (Pm. 478).

 

N: All bhavanga-cittas arising throughout life in between the processes are the result of the same kamma that produced the rebirth-consciousness and they have the same object.

****

Vis. text: And as long as there is no other kind of arising of consciousness to interrupt the continuity, they also go on occurring endlessly in periods of   dreamless sleep, etc., like the current of a river.[45]

***

N: The Tiika explains the word continuity as: the continuity of the bhavangacittas. The bhavanga-cittas succeed one another like a stream, until there is the interruption of this stream when an object impinges on one of the six doorways and a process of cittas begins which experience that object.

The Tiika explains that there is the interruption of this stream by another type of citta reckoned as adverting-consciousness (avajjana-citta). This citta is the five sense-door adverting-consciousness which adverts to a sense object, or it is the mind-door adverting-consciousness which adverts to an object through the mind-door. This citta succeeds the last bhavanga-citta before the mind-door process begins. The last bhavanga-citta is in this case the mind-door. 

 

Note 45, taken from the Tiika: ' "occurring endlessly": this is, in fact, thus called "bhava.nga" (life-continuum), lit. "limb" (or "practice"--see Ch. II,

par. 11) of becoming) because of its occurring as the state of an

'a.nga' ("limb" or "practice") of the rebirth-process becoming

(uppatti-bhava)' (Pm. 478).

 *****

N: a.nga: limb, constituent part or quality. Bhava.nga: constituent part of becoming or life. It keeps the continuity in the life of an individual. There is no moment without citta, also in between the processes or in dreamless sleep when there is not the experience of an object impinging on one of the six doors.

 

Vis. text: This is how the occurrence of those same [nineteen kinds of]

consciousness should be understood as life-continuum.

N: Just like the rebirth-consciousness, the bhavanga-citta can be of nineteen types. (see Vis. 113).

 

N: The Co. to the Book of Analysis, Dispeller of Delusion II, p. 154 explains that  dreamless sleep is interspersed again and again with kusala citta, akusala citta or kiriyacitta. One may see or hear in one’s dream, but these are experiences through the mind-door. One remembers what one has experienced before. A footnote, (no 22, on p. 215, quoting a subcommentary to the Book of Analysis,  the Muula.tiikaa) explains  about the kiriyacitta that dreams: the adverting-consciousness which is a kiriyacitta (inoperative or indeterminate) may arise two or three times, taking the place of the javana cittas and may then be followed by bhavanga-cittas again. Thus, in this case there is         dreaming very shortly and then dreamless sleep again. The kiriyacitta does not refer to arahats, because arahats do not dream.

 

The Dispeller of Delusion (p. 154, quoting the Co to the Gradual Sayings) explains about the result of kusala citta and akusala citta in a dream. Since it is weak it cannot produce rebirth-consciousness, but it can give result in the course of life when supported by other kammas.

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Vis. Ch. XIV, 115.

 

115. © With the life-continuum continuity occurring thus, when

living beings' faculties have become capable of apprehending an object,

 

Tiika: faculties, namely the faculties of the eye, etc.

As to the words, capable of apprehending an object, the Tiika explains that the faculties of living beings only gradually ripen.

 

N: In the case of human birth kamma produces at the first moment of life three decads (groups of ten ruupas): the decad of bodysense, of sex and of heartbase. There are not yet eyesense, earsense, smellingsense and tasting sense. We read in the Co to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (T.A. p. 249) that later on the eyedecad appears, one week after that the eardecad, one week after that the nosedecad, and one week after that the tongue decad.

 

Vis. text: then, when a visible datum has come into the eye's focus, there is impinging upon the eye-sensitivity due to the visible datum. 

Thereupon, owing to the impact's influence, there comes to be a disturbance in [the continuity of] the life-continuum.

 

N: The Tiika states: Because of the force of the impact (gha..t.tanaabalena), the bhavanga-citta is disturbed. The Tiika mentions that there is a different condition (for citta), that is, the pleasant or unpleasant object that impinges on the eyesense.

As to disturbance of the bhavanga-citta, the words of the Tiika are contained in the footnote 46:

 

 "A disturbance in the life-continuum" is a wavering of the

life-continuum consciousness; the meaning is that there is the arrival

at a state that is a reason for dissimilarity in its occurrence twice

in that way.

 

N: An object, different from the object experienced by the bhavanga-citta impinges on the relevant doorway. The first bhavanga-citta that is disturbed is the vibrating bhavanga-citta, bhavanga calana, and this is succeeded by the arrest bhavanga-citta, upaccheda bhavanga, the last bhavanga-citta arising before the first citta of a process experiencing the object that has impinged.

 

Text Tiika: For it is called disturbance (calana) because it is like a

disturbance (movement) since there seems to be a cause for an occasion

(avatthaa) in the mind's continuity different from the previous

occasion. Granted, firstly, that there is impact on the sensitivity

owing to confrontation with an object, since the necessity for that is

established by the existence of the objective field and the possessor

of the objective field,

 

N: The word possessor is used in figurative sense. It is not a person. The Pali uses the i-suffix, indicating a possessive noun(visayii, having an object).

The object impinges on the sense organ so that there are conditions for citta to experience it.

 

Text Tiika: but how does there come to be disturbance (movement) of the life-continuum that has a different support? Because it is connected with it. And here the example is this: when grains of sugar are put on the surface of a drum and one of the grains of sugar is tapped, a fly sitting on another grain of sugar moves' (Pm. 478).

 

Text of the Co. to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 126):

<...For when there is impact with the object by virtue of its being positioned in a place that is suitable for the five sense organs, the sequence of existence-continuum gets interrupted by the experience of that impact on the sense organs [though] it is not interrupted suddenly. As when a man who is running fast wants to stop, stops only after he has taken one or two further steps, so it is interrupted only after it has occurred twice...But surely, when visible forms, etc., make impact with the sense organs it is only vibration of what is supported by those [sense organs] that makes sense, so how is there vibrating of the existence-continuum which is supported by the heart-base?

Because of [their]being bound together as a continuity. For when a fly has alighted on a grain of sugar on one surface of a drum, and the other surface is struck with a stick or whatever, the sugar is made to vibrate by the vibration in turn of the drum’s skin and cords, etc., and the fly flies off and goes.

Similarly when visible form, etc., makes impact with the sense organs, the essential elements, which are their supports, are vibrated, and as a result of the successive vibrating of the other material elements that are bound up with them the heartbase is vibrated, and the vibrating of the existence-continuum that is supported by that causes activity to occur. It is said:

One should illustrate by the simile of the grain of sugar how, when one base is struck, there is disturbance of what is supported by some other [base] by reason of their being bound together.>

 

Text Vis: : Then, when the life-continuum has ceased, the functional mind- element (70) arises making that same visible datum its object, as it were cutting off the life-continuum and accomplishing the function of 'adverting'. So too in the case of the eardoor and so on.

 

N: The adverting-consciousness adverts to the new object that has impinged on one of the sense-doors. This is a kiriyacitta (inoperative citta, neither cause nor result), and it is called mano-dhaatu, mind-element.

The Tiika explains that the visible object which has come into focus has become the condition for the disturbance of the bhavangacitta.

It seems that we can see and hear at the same time, but in reality these cittas arise in different processes of cittas. All the time there is disturbance of the stream of bhavanga-cittas and a new object comes into focus. Seeing or hearing do not arise immediately, but first the adverting-consciousness arises which adverts to the object. Visible object or sound could not appear if the stream of bhavanga-cittas were not interrupted. When there is bhavangacitta, nothing appears, and then there are conditions for visible object to appear, but it falls away immediately and there is nothing left. The stream of bhavangacittas is resumed and then interrupted again when a new object appears. It all happens so rapidly, we do not notice that there are countless cittas arising and falling away. We do not notice the diversity of objects that appear and then fall away immediately.

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Text Vis. XIV, 116. When an object of any one of the six kinds has come into focus in the mind door,

 

N: When visible object, sound, or another sense object has been experienced by the cittas of a sense-door process, it is experienced by cittas of the mind-door process, after there have been bhavanga-cittas in between these processes. Later on mind-door processes of cittas which have concepts as objects may arise. 

 

Vis. text: then next to the disturbance of the life-continuum

the functional mind-consciousness-element without root-cause (71) arises

accompanied by equanimity, as it were cutting off the life-continuum and accomplishing the function of 'adverting'.

 

N: The Tiika explains that after the arising of the retention (tadaaramma.na-citta which may arise at the end of a sense-door process), to be followed immediately by bhavanga-cittas, the five-sense-door adverting consciousness adverts to the object and that it should be said that this is immediately followed by seeing, etc. However, the Tiika states that in this exposition the two kinds of adverting-consciousnesses are dealt with. Therefore, the latter cittas (seeing etc.) are not mentioned here.

With regard to the words, as it were cutting off the life-continuum, the Tiika adds: as it were interrupting the continuity of bhavanga-cittas.

 

Vis. text:   

This is how the occurrence of two kinds of functional consciousness

should be understood as adverting.

 

N: These are the kiriyacittas which are the five-sense-door adverting-consciousness and the mind-door adverting-consciousness.

Nobody can direct the adverting-consciousness to interrupt the stream of bhavanga-cittas, nor can anyone cause the adverting-consciousness to advert to a particular object.

The object has impinged already on one of the sense-organs and interrupted the stream of bhavanga-cittas already. It all happens too quickly and cittas follow their course because of the appropriate conditions.

 

******



#8 RobertK

RobertK

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Posted 13 December 2014 - 10:21 AM

Vis. XIV, 117. (d)-(h) Next to adverting,[47] taking the eye door first,

'eye-consciousness' (d) arises accomplishing the function of 'seeing' in

the eye door and having the eye-sensitivity as its physical basis. And

[likewise] (e) 'ear-', (f) 'nose-', (g) 'tongue-', and (h)

'body-consciousness' arise, accomplishing respectively the functions of

'hearing', etc., in the ear door and so on.

 

N: The visible object that impinges on the eyesense is a condition for seeing. This reminds us that seeing is not self, it can only arise when there are the appropriate conditions. When seeing arises the ruupas which are eyesense and visible object have not fallen away yet. Ruupa lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta and thus visible object can be experienced by several moments of cittas arising in a process. The same is true for the other sense-cognitions.

 

Vis. text:

These comprise the profitable resultant [consciousnesses] (34)-(38) with

respect to desirable and desirable-neutral objective fields, and the

unprofitable resultant (50)-(54) with respect to undesirable and

undesirable-neutral objective fields.

 

N: Seeing and the other sense-cognitions are kusala vipaakacittas or akusala vipaakacittas. Kusala vipaakacitta experiences a desirable object or a moderately desirable object, and akusala vipaakacitta experiences an undesirable object or a moderately undesirable object.

 

Text Vis. :This is how the occurrence of ten kinds of resultant consciousness

should be understood as seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and

touching.

 

Note 47, taken from the Tiika:

' "Next to adverting" means next to five-door adverting. For

those who do not admit the cognitive series beginning with receiving,

just as they do not admit the heart basis, the Pali has been handed down

in various places in the way beginning "For the eye-consciousness

element as receiving (sampa.ticchanaaya cakkhuvi~n~naa.nadhaatuyaa)"

(see Ch. IV, n.13); for the Pali cannot be contradicted' (Pm.479). The

quotation as it stands is not traced to the Pi.takas.

 

N: The cittas of the eye-door process such as receiving-consciousness, etc. are not expressively mentioned in the suttas. We read in the suttas about seeing etc. which is followed by defilements or by right understanding. The details of the process, the cittas arising in between seeing etc. and the akusala cittas or kusala cittas, are not expounded in the suttas, nor is the heart-base expressively mentioned. That is why some people will not admit what is explained in the Abhidhamma and Commentaries.

The Middle Length Sayings, III, no 115, mentions mind element, mano-dhaatu, and mind-consciousness element, mano-viññaa.na-dhaatu, but the details have not been explained. 

 

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Vis. XIV, 118. (i) Because of the words 'Eye-consciousness having arisen and

ceased, next to that there arises consciousness, mind, mentation ...

which is appropriate mind-element' (Vbh.88), etc., next to

eye-consciousness, etc., and 'receiving' the same objective fields as

they [deal with], mind-element arises as (39) profitable resultant next

to profitable resultant [eye-consciousness, etc.,] and as (55)

unprofitable resultant next to [459] unprofitable resultant

[eye-consciousness, and so on].

 

This is how the occurrence of two kinds of resultant consciousness

should be understood as receiving.

 

N: Mind-element, mano-dhaatu, referred to in this paragraph is the receiving-consciousness, which is either akusala vipaakacitta, or kusala vipaakacitta. When the preceding sense-cognition is akusala vipaakacitta, the receiving-consciousness is also akusala vipaakacitta, and when the preceding sense-cognition is kusala vipaakacitta, the receiving-consciousness is also  kusala vipaakacitta. 

As to the words, consciousness (citta.m), mind (mano), mentation (maanasa.m) which is appropriate mind-element' (Vbh.88), this is taken from the Book of Analysis, p. 114, which gives several synonyms of citta.

 

Vis. XIV, 119. (j) Because of the words 'Mind-element having arisen and ceased, also, next to that there arises consciousness, mind, mentation ... which

is appropriate mind-element' (Vbh.89), [48] then resultant

mind-consciousness-element without root-cause arises 'investigating' the

same objective field as that received by mind-element.

 

N: After the mind-element, mano-dhaatu, in this case the vipaakacitta that is receiving-consciousness, the mind-consciousness-element that is the investigating-consciousness arises. This is also vipaakacitta.

 

Text Vis: When next to (55) unprofitable-resultant mind-element it is (56) unprofitable-resultant, and when next to (39) profitable-resultant [mind-element] it is either (40) accompanied by joy in the case of a desirable object, or (41)accompanied by equanimity in the case of a desirable-neutral object.

 

N: When the investigating-consciousness succeeds the receiving-consciousness which is akusala vipaaka, it is also akusala vipaaka, since it is produced by the same akusala kamma that produced the sense-cognition (seeing etc.) that is akusala vipaaka.

When the investigating-consciousness succeeds the receiving-consciousness which is kusala vipaaka, it is also kusala vipaaka, but in that case it is accompanied by pleasant feeling when the object is very desirable, or by indifferent feeling, when the object is moderately desirable. Therefore, there are two types of investigating-consciousness which are kusala vipaaka. 

 

Text Vis. : This is how the occurrence of three kinds of resultant consciousness

should be understood as investigating.

 

Note 48. See Ch. IV, note 13.

N: The translator explains that the nucleus of process cittas is present in the Suttanta, but not the details. These we find partly in the Conditional Relations (Patthana), in the Book of Analysis, in the Path of Discrimination, and in extenso in the Commentaries.

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Vis: XIV, 120. (k) Next to investigation, (71) functional

mind-consciousness-element without root-cause arises accompanied by

equanimity 'determining' that same objective field.

This is how occurrence of one kind of resultant consciousness should be

understood as determining.

 

N: The investigation-consciousness is succeeded by the determining-consciousness, votthapana-citta, which determines or defines the object. As we have seen, this is the mind-door adverting-consciousness which performs the function of determining in a sense-door process. This citta which is neither cause nor result but an inoperative citta, an ahetuka kiriya citta, determines whether it will be succeeded by akusala cittas or by kusala cittas. We should know that determining is not the same as what we mean by determining or deciding in conventional sense. This is only one extremely short moment of ahetuka kiriyacitta that performs its function in a process of cittas. There is no one who decides, it depends on accumulations whether it will be followed by kusala cittas or by akusala cittas.

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Ch. XIV, 121.

 

Intro to the duration of processes:

One ruupa lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta. A sense obbject that is ruupa is experienced by several cittas arising in a process of cittas, succeeding one another.

The process of cittas can run its full course, so that after the javana cittas there are two more moments of citta left. We come later on to the details. Sometimes the  ruupa falls away after the javana cittas, does not last longer. It cannot last longer than seventeen moments of citta.

Before it comes into range (when the sense-door adverting-citta adverts to it, the first citta of a sense-door process) one moment may have past and then it runs for sixteen more moments, thus, it runs its full course. Or, when more than one moment has passed before it comes into range, then it falls away sooner. Depending on the duration of the process we have in the sense-door process: very great, great, slight, very slight. In the mind-door process we have: clear and unclear (see T.A. p. 120)

 

Text Visuddhimagga XIV, 121:

(l) Next to determining, if the visible datum, etc., as object is

vivid,[49] then six or seven 'impulsions' impel with respect to the

objective fields as determined.

 

Note 49 taken from the Tiika:. ' "If ... vivid (lit. large)": this is said because it is the occurrence of consciousness at the end of the impulsions that is being

discussed. For an object is here intended as "vivid" when its life is

fourteen conscious moments; and that should be understood as coming into

focus when it has arisen and is two or three moments past' (Pm. 479).

 

N: mahanta: great or vivid. When the object is great or vivid, the ruupa which is the object impinging on the sense organ came into focus after it had already arisen and was present for the duration of two or three moments of citta. Ruupa lasts, compared to the duration of citta, seventeen moments of citta. Thus, in this case, it falls away after the last javana-citta. There is no opportunity for the two moments of retention after the javana-cittas (see Vis. XIV, 122).

 

We read: six or seven 'impulsions'. The Tiika adds: or five javana-cittas, and this is the case when one is asleep or one has fainted.

N: Also before dying there are five javana-cittas.

 

Text Vis.: These are one among (1)-(8) the eight kinds of sense-sphere profitable, or (22)-(33) the twelve kinds of unprofitable, or (72)-(80) the nine remaining sense-sphere functional.

This, firstly, is the way in the case of the five doors.

 

N: They are eight mahaa-kusala cittas, twelve akusala cittas, eight mahaa-kiriyacittas and one ahetuka kiriyacitta that is the smile-producing citta of the arahat. Thus, these are twentynine kaamaavacara cittas performing the function of javana, the Tiika adds. 

 

Text Vis: But in the case of the mind door those same [impulsions arise] next to (71) mind-door adverting.

 

Beyond [the stage of] change-of-lineage [50] any [of the following 26 kinds

of impulsion] that obtains a condition [51] impels;

 

Note 50, taken from the Tiika: . 'This includes also the preliminary-work and the cleansing (see Ch. XXII, note 7), not change-of-lineage only' (Pm. 479). See also Ch.IV,74 and Ch. XXI,129.

 

N: After the citta which is change-of-lineage, gotrabhuu, arises in a mind-door process, cittas of another plane of citta arise: ruupa-jhaanacitta, aruupa-jhaanacitta or lokuttara citta.

As to the preliminary-work and the cleansing (vodaana), these cittas arise before the change-of-lineage: parikamma or preparatory citta, upacaara or access and anuloma or adaptation which citta adapts to what preceded and to what follows.

 

Note 51 taken from the Tiika: ' "That obtains a condition": any impulsion that has obtained a condition for arising next to change-of-lineage, as that of the

fine-material sphere, an so on' (Pm. 479).

 

Vis. Text: that is, any kind among (9)-(13) the five profitable, and (81)-(85) the five functional, of the fine-material sphere, and (14)-(17) the four profitable, and (86)-(89)the four functional of the immaterial sphere, and also (18)-(21) the four path consciousnesses and (66)-(69) four fruition consciousnesses of the supramundane.

 

N: These are five ruupaavacara kusala cittas, five ruupaavacara kiriyacittas (of the arahat), four aruupaavacara kusala cittas, four aruupaavacara kiriyacittas, four magga-cittas and four phala-cittas. The four phala-cittas (fruition) are lokuttara vipaakacittas arising in the same process as the relevant magga-cittas and performing the function of javana. Thus, there are twentysix cittas other than the kaamaavacara cittas performing the function of javana. 

When we add these cittas to the twentynine kaamaavacara cittas performing the function of javana, there are fifty-five kinds of citta in all performing the function of javana.

 

Vis. text: that is, any kind among (9)-(13) the five profitable, and (81)-(85) the five functional, of the fine-material sphere, and (14)-(17) the four profitable, and (86)-(89)the four functional of the immaterial sphere, and also (18)-(21) the four path consciousnesses and (66)-(69) four fruition consciousnesses of the supramundane.

 

This is how the occurrence of the fifty-five kinds of profitable,

unprofitable, functional, and resultant consciousness should be

understood as impulsion.

 

 N: This passage reminds us that the order of cittas is fixed. Nobody can change the order of cittas, nor can any one cause a specific object to come into focus at a particular moment. When a sense object has already arisen for a few moments before it comes into focus, nobody can cause it to last longer than seventeen moments of citta.

The function of citta is knowing an object and at the moment of javana the sobhana cetasikas or akusala cetasikas which accompany it (in the case of non-arahats) cause the citta to be kusala or akusala.

 

 

Text Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 122:

 

 At the end of the impulsions, if the object is a very vivid

one [52] in the five doors, or is clear in the mind door, then in

sense-sphere beings at the end of sense-sphere impulsions resultant

consciousness occurs

 

Note 52 (taken from the Tiika). ' "A very vivid one" , very great, atimahanta, is one with a life of sixteen consciousness moments. For registration consciousness arises with respect to that, not with respect to any other.

 

N: In this case the process of cittas that experience the ruupa runs its full course. As we have seen when the object is great, the object cannot last longer than the javana-cittas. 

 

Text Note 52: "Clear" means very evident, and that is only in the sense sphere; for registration (retention) arises with respect to that' (Pm. 479).

 

N: Clear, vibhuuti, refers to an object experienced by cittas in the subsequent mind-door process where also retention consciousness arises.

The tadaaramma.na-cittas are kaamaavacara cittas, cittas of the sense-sphere and they arise only in the sensuous planes of existence. They are generated by kamma that is bound up with craving for sense desires. The Tiika explains that the object experienced by the cittas in that process may be very desirable, moderately desirable or undesirable. The javana-cittas which experience an object may be accompanied by happy feeling, unhappy feeling or indifferent feeling. When the javana-cittas are accompanied by unhappy feeling, the tadaaramma.na-cittas that succeed these cannot be accompanied by unhappy feeling since they are vipaakacittas. They cannot, in this case, be accompanied by happy feeling since happy feeling cannot immediately follow upon unhappy feeling. They are accompanied by indifferent feeling. (See Co to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha, Topics of Abhidhamma p. 142).   

 

Text Vis:   through any condition it may have obtained such as

previous kamma, impulsion consciousness, etc., with desirable, etc.,

object [53].

 

Note 53, taken from the Tiika:

 ' "Previous kamma": this is said in order to show the differences in kinds of registration; for kamma that generates rebirth-linking is not the only kind to generate registration; other kinds of kamma do so too. But the latter generates registration unlike that generatable by the kamma that generates rebirth-   linking.

 

N: Kamma other than the kamma which produces rebirth may produce the vipaakacitta that is retention.

 

Note 53: "Impulsion consciousness": this is said in order to show what defines the registration; for it is said, "Registration is definable by impulsion"

 

N: Also the javana-cittas (impulsion) are a condition for the succeeding retention.

 

Note 53: The word "etc." includes rebirth-linking, however; for that is not

a condition for registration that is more outstanding than itself.

 

N: The word "etc.", aadi, refers to the Vis. text: <through any condition it may have obtained such as previous kamma, impulsion consciousness, etc., with desirable, etc., object.>

It is said that kamma does not produce retention that is more outstanding (more superior, ukka.t.thara) than itself. Mahaa-kusala citta with two roots, for example, does not produce retention with three roots. (See Expositor, p. 356, which gives opinions of different teachers.)

This passage shows that there are several intricate conditions for retention. The object experienced by the javana-cittas which may be very desirable, moderately desirable or undesirable and also the feeling accompanying the javana-cittas are factors which combine and are conditions for the type of retention that arises within the process of cittas. 

 

Note 53: "Any condition": any condition from among the desirable objects, etc., that has combined (samaveta) to produce the arising of registration' (Pm.

479).

 

Text Vis: [It occurs thus] as one among the eight sense-sphere resultant

kinds with root cause (42)-(49) or the three resultant mind-consciousness elements without root-cause (40), (41), (56), and it [does so] twice or once, following after the impulsions that have impelled, and with respect to an object other than the life-continuum's object, like some of the water that follows a little after a boat going upstream. Though ready to occur with the life-continuum's object after the impulsions have ended, it nevertheless occurs making the impulsions' object its object. Because of that it is called 'registration' (tadaaramma.na--lit. 'having-that-as-its-object').

 

This is how the occurrence of eleven kinds of resultant consciousness

should be understood as registration.

 

N: Retention seizes the object of the javana-cittas. Therefore it is called: having that object, tadaaramma.na (<tad> is that, <aaramma.na> is object).

These eleven kinds of vipaakacittas which are retention are: eight mahaa-vipaakacittas (with sobhana hetus, beautiful roots); three ahetuka vipaakacittas which are three resultant mind-consciousness elements without root-cause. These are the same types as the three santiira.nacittas (investigating consciousness ) which perform, in this case, the function of retention. One is kusala vipaakacitta accompanied by pleasant feeling (if the object is very desirable), one is kusala vipaakacitta accompanied by indifferent feeling and one is akusala  vipaakacitta accompanied by indifferent feeling.

The many intricate conditions for retention that arises in between the javana-cittas and the bhavanga-citta remind us that cittas operate each because of their own conditions, nobody can direct them to be in this or that way. As we read in the Co. to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 129): <...thus one should understand that when consciousness is operating, it operates by virtue of the fixed order of consciousness (citta niyama), like the fixed order of the seasons and seeds, without there being anyone issuing orders saying,’You are adverting and come immediately after existence-continuum (bhavanga-citta); you are, say, seeing, or whatever, and come immediately after adverting.’>

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 Ch. XIV,123:

 

 At the end of registration the life-continuum resumes its occurrence. When the [resumed occurrence of the] life-continuum is again interrupted, adverting, etc., occur again, and when the conditions obtain, the consciousness continuity repeats its occurrence as adverting, and next to adverting seeing, etc.,

 

N: The Tiika states that it is implied that after seeing the receiving-consciousness arises, and so on for the other cittas performing their functions in the process. It also mentions hearing, smelling, tasting, and the experience of tangible object.

Again and again (puna, puna). The Vis. text reminds us of the danger of being in the cycle of birth and death which is dukkha. Again and again we have to experience objects, pleasant or unpleasant, and happiness and sorrow arise in life. Again and again defilements are likely to arise on account of what we experience. This is an exhortation to develop right understanding of whatever dhamma appears, so that eventually there will be the end of the cycle.

 

Text Vis: according to the law of consciousness, again and again, until the life-continuum of one becoming is exhausted.

 

N: The law of consciousness, in Pali: citta niyama, which is the fixed order of the occurrence of cittas which nobody can change.

The bhavanga-citta maintains the continuity in the life of an individual. From birth to death our life consists of an uninterrupted stream of cittas, succeeding one another. Also in between the processes when one does not experience an object impinging on one of the six doors, there has to be citta so that one stays alive. And again, again, the stream of cittas goes on in the next life. The dying-consciousness is the last bhavanga-citta in a life and after that a new life begins.  

 

Text Vis. : For the last life-continuum consciousness of all in one

becoming is called death (cuti) because of falling (cavanatta) from that

[becoming]. So that is of nineteen kinds too [like rebirth-linking and

life-continuum].

N: The dying-consciousness is the last bhavangacitta and thus it can be one of the nineteen types, just as in the case of all the other bhavanga-cittas.

 

Vis. Text: This is how the occurrence of nineteen kinds of resultant consciousness should be understood as death.

 

N: Reviewing:

 these types are:

1 akusala vipaaka santiira.na-citta (ahetuka, result of akusala kamma)

1 kusala vipaaka santiira.na-citta (ahetuka, result of weak kaamaavacara kusala kamma)

8 mahaa-vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of kaamaavacara kusala kammas)

5 ruupaavacara vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of ruupa-jhaanacittas)

4 aruupaavacara vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of aruupa-jhaanacittas)

 

Thus, nineteen types of citta can perform the function of rebirth, bhavanga (life-continuum) and dying.

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Ch. XIV, 124.

 

124. And after death there is rebirth-linking again; and after

rebirth-linking, life-continuum. Thus the conscious continuity of beings

who hasten through the kinds of becoming, destiny, station [of

consciousness], and abode [of beings] occurs without break.

 

N: ...of beings who hasten through the kinds of becoming, in Pali: sa.msaramaanaana.m sattaana.m. The word sa.msarati means: come again and again, traverse one life after the other.

As to the words, the kinds of becoming, destiny, station [of consciousness], and abode [of beings], the Tiika mentions: three kinds of becoming, five destinies, six states of consciousness and nine abodes of beings, but it does not give details.

These can be found elsewhere. In the Recital (D, III, p. 209, XXI): three planes of rebirth, bhava, : of sense-desires, of ruupajhaana, of aruupajhaana.

Five destinies, gati, : of hell, animal world, ghosts (petas), mankind, devas (Recital (D, III, p. 225).

Six states of consciousness: Co to D. III, Recital, (p. 1034): seeing-consciousness, the kusala vipaaka and akusala vipaaka that is dependent on eyesense, and so for the other four sense-cognitions, and the sixth is mind-consciousness, mano-viññaa.na (see D III, p. 230, VI, 1). 

Nine abodes of beings, avaasa, : the place where they are reborn. The Gradual Sayings refers to some of these: the place of birth of men, of some devas, of demons, the brahma worlds where those are born who cultivated stages of ruupajhaana and aruupajhaana.

The texts remind us of the danger of rebirth. We do not know which kamma will produce which kind of rebirth at a particular moment in the cycle.

 

Vis. text: But when a man attains Arahantship here, it ceases with the cessation of his death consciousness.

 

N: The Tiika explains that the word <here>, etthaa, refers to the beings who go around in the cycle.

 

Tiika text: as to the words, but he who has accomplished arahatship (yo pana arahatta.m paapu.naati) this means, by the right practice which is in accordance with it <sammaapa.tipattimanvaayaati adhippaayo.>

For the arahat there is indeed cessation because there is no more rebirth (tassa arahato niruddhameva hoti citta.m appa.tisandhikabhaavato).

 

N: For the attainment of arahatship, there must be the right practice so that this goal can be reached. Paññaa has to be developed until it eradicates all latent tendencies. 

 

Vis. Text: This is the section of the detailed explanation dealing with the

consciousness aggregate.

 

N. Before we realize it the process of cittas is over, it is followed by bhavanga-cittas and then another process begins again. And so it is life after life. Until ignorance has been eradicated when arahatship is attained.

The study of the processes of cittas and the bhavangacittas that arise in between teaches us that dhammas roll on without a doer. The Abhidhammattha Sangaha (T.A. p.212) compares this with the rolling on like the wheel of a cart in due order. <[They] occur, rolling on, until the roots of the round of rebirths are completely cut off...>

This can give us a sense of urgency to develop understanding at this moment so that ignorance can be eradicated.

 

Thus far the Vis. has dealt with the khandha of consciousness. We learnt about the different classifications of citta. They can be classified according to jaati or nature, as kusala, akusala, vipaaka and kiriya. They can be classified according to plane of citta, as sensuous plane, ruupa-jhaana citta, aruupajhaanacitta and lokuttara citta. They can be classified in accordance with the plane of existence where they arise, with the accompanying roots, hetus, with the accompanying feelings. They can be classified according to the functions they perform in the processes, and outside the processes.

 

As we have read before, the Vis. XIV, 81 states: <whatever has the characteristic of cognizing, all taken together, as the consciousness aggregate. Herein, since the rest are easy to understand when the consciousness aggregate has been understood, we shall therefore begin with the commentary on the

consciousness aggregate.>

 

N: Citta and cetasikas are classified as four naama-khandhas, they are dhammas that experience an object. Citta cognizes an object and the accompanying cetasikas share the same object, but citta is the principal or forerunner in cognizing an object. The naama-khandhas that arise together are of the same nature (jaati) of kusala, akusala, vipaka or kiriya. They are of the same plane of citta: sense sphere, rupa-jhana, arupa-jhana or lokuttara. Thus, if the consciousness aggregate is understood first, the other three nama khandhas will be understood more easily.

In the following sections the Vis. will deal with the other nåma-khandhas which are the cetasikas.

 

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