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Jhanas according to Brahmali


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#21 RobertK

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Posted 19 June 2006 - 06:27 AM

In the Susima sutta the Buddha explained about sukkavipassaka
arhants - those who are liberated without having jhana.
Venerable Bodhi translates the commentary to this sutta:

Saratthappakasini (Atthakatha) :
QUOTE
"Why is this said? For the purpose
of showing the arising of
knowledge thus even without concentration.
This is meant: "Susima, the path and fruit are not the issue of
concentration (samadhinissanda), nor the advantage brought about by
concentration (samadhi-anisamsa), nor the outcome of concentration
(samadhinipphatti). They are the issue of insight (vipassana), the
advantage brought about by insight, the outcome of insight.
Therefore, whether you understand or not, first comes knowledge of
the stability of the Dhamma, afterwards knowledge of Nibbana.
Spk-pt (tika): 'Even without concentration' (vina pi samadhim): even
without
previously established (concentration) that has acquired the
characteristic of serenity (samatha-lakkhanappattam); this is said
referring to one who takes the vehicle of insight
(vipassanayanika)..."



For the vipassaniyanika there is samadhi but it is momentary
(khanika). At the moments of vipassana insight (nana) the samadhi
assists panna (right understanding)
by focusing on whatever element is present. It is momentary but
powerful at these times.
Nevertheless the development of samatha assists vipassana. For
instance Dhammanusati ( Meditation on Dhamma) is needed because
without right reflection on Dhamma right understanding can't grow.


RobertK

#22 RobertK

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Posted 19 June 2006 - 06:36 AM

Dear Wolfgang,
Concentration has various meanings. When it is kusala it can
be
the type that is associated with samatha or with vipassana.
QUOTE
Anguttara Nikaya IV.41
Samadhi Sutta
"Monks, these are the four developments of concentration.
Which
four? There is the development of concentration that, when
developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here &
now. There is the development of concentration that, when
developed & pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge &
vision. There is the development of concentration that, when
developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness. There
is
the development of concentration that, when developed &
pursued,
leads to the ending of the effluents.

"And what is the development of concentration that, when
developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here &
now? There is the case where a monk -- quite withdrawn from
sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities -- enters &
remains in the first jhana:..... he enters & remains in the
fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither
pleasure nor pain. This is the development of concentration
that, when developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in
the here & now.

"And what is the development of concentration that, when
developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness? There
is
the case where feelings are known to the monk as they arise,
known as they persist, known as they subside. Perceptions are
known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as
they
subside. Thoughts are known to him as they arise, known as
they
persist, known as they subside. This is the development of
concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to
mindfulness & alertness.
http://www.abhidhamma.org/an4-41.html


When the texts talk about meditation, jhaya, it is useful to
know that there are two types. Bhikkhuni Sela could have had
concentration based on either;
The Dhammapada 371 :
QUOTE
"Meditate, o bhikkhu and be not heedless.
The atthakatha says "o bhikkhus meditate by the two kinds of
meditative absorptions"
And the tika notes that this is twofold in "the sense of
meditative absorption that arises depending on an object and
meditative absorption that arises dependent on
characteristics"

The tika later explains this by saying that the first is (p506
note 6 of carter and palihawadana)
QUOTE
"the eight attainments
(jhanas) to be obtained by training the mind in concentrating
on one of the thirty eight objects such as kasina [or metta, or
Buddha or Dhamma or breath etc] and the second means 'insight
wisdom, path and fruit'..to be obtained by reflecting on the
three characteristics'"


Now when it says 'reflecting' this is a wide term that can
mean
pondering deeply or it can mean direct insight into the actual
characteristics and conditions of the present moment right up
to the vipassana nanas and magga and phala.
THe Dhammapada pradipaya (see p457 of carter) says
QUOTE
"to consider the coming into being of rupa on account of
ignorance, craving, kamma and nutrition, and also to see the
mere characteristics of its instantaneous coming into being,
without looking for causative aspect; thus one should consider
the rise of rupa in five ways. Likewise to consider the rise
of the other 4 khandas in the same way...Thus the rise of the
pancakkhanda (five aggregates )is seen in 25 ways. To see that
the rise of the khandas is stopped by abolishing the
causes:ignorance, craving, kamma and nutrition..in this way
the cessation of the agregates should be seen"


> robert
>

#23 RobertK

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Posted 19 June 2006 - 06:40 AM

Dear Wolfgang
I think an important thing is to establish that there are various types
of concentration that are samma –right, and if we can agree on this
then to establish which are part of the noble eight-fold path
leading out samsara.

There are several suttas that give the 4 rupa jhanas as right
concentration, and these are very common in the suttas.. There are
also suttas where the eight mudane jhanas are given
Then there are many suttas like the following, which do not get cited
so often on internet forums:
I quoted in an earlier post the Anguttara Nikaya IV.41
Samadhi Sutta
http://www.abhidhamma.org/an4-41.html
There is also the Digha Nikaya, sangiti sutta (sutta 33) page 488 of
Walshe
Four concentrative meditations (samadhi bhavana):
a. Leads to happiness here and now (dithadhamma-suka)
b. Gaining knowledge and vision (nana-dassana-patilabha)
c. Mindfulness and clear awareness (sati-sampajana)
d. The destruction of the corruptions. (asavanama khaya)
i. How does this practice*a*lead to happiness here and now? Here, a
monk practices the four Jhanas
ii. How does it*b*lead to the gaining of knowledge and vision?
Here, a monk attends to the perception of light, he fixes his mind
to the perception of day, by night as by day, by day as by night. In
this way, with a mind clear and unclouded, he develops a state of
mind that is full of brightness.
iii. How does it*c*lead to mindfulness and clear awareness? Here, a
monk knows feelings as they arise remain and vanish.
iv. How does this*d*practice to the destruction of corruptions?
Here, a monk abides in the contemplation of the rise and fall of the
five aggregates of grasping: "This is material form, this is its
arising, this is its ceasing; these are feelings, this is its
arising, this is its ceasing; this perception, this is its arising,
this is its ceasing; these are mental formations, this is its
arising, this is its ceasing; this is consciousness, this is its
arising, this is its ceasing."


Note that*b*is a special type of samatha meditation giving powers
of mundane vision.

Thus in these two suttas the four mundane jhanas are given a
specific category different from the types of samadhi which result
in sati-sampajana or the destrution of the defilements.

+++++++++
here is another sutta
http://www.vipassana...ttarisaka-e.htm
QUOTE
III. 2. 7.Mahaacattaariisakasutta.m-
(117) The Longer discourse on the forty
I heard thus.

Bhikkhus, what is noble right concentration together with the means
and accessories? It is right view, right thoughts, right speech,
right actions, right livelihood, right endeavour and right
mindfulness. Bhikkhus, the mind's one pointedness, endowed with
these seven factors is called noble right concentration together
with the means and the accessories.


No mention of the 4 jhanas here….


+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
QUOTE
MAJJHIMA NIKAAYA III
(5.7) Mahaasa.laayatanikasutta.m.
149. The Longer Discourse on the six spheres

http://www.vipassana...ayatanika-e.htm
To someone who learns and realizes, eye, forms, eye-consciousness,
eye contact and whatever feelings pleasant or unpleasant or neither
unpleasant nor pleasant born of eye contact, as they really are.
Attachment does not arise for eye, forms, eye-consciousness, eye
contact and whatever feelings pleasant or unpleasant or neither
unpleasant nor pleasant born of that eye contact. This one not
attached, unyoked and not deluded, abiding seeing the danger does
not accumulate in the five holding masses for the future. His
craving, interest and greed, to be here and there in the future,
cease. His bodily and mental troubles, anxiety and laments cease.
Further he experiences bodily and mental pleasantness. Whatever his
view, it becomes right view. Whatever his thoughts, they become
right thoughts. Whatever his speech it becomes right speech.
Whatever his actions, they become right actions. Whatever his
effort, it becomes right effort. Whatever his mindfulness, it
becomes right mindfulness. Whatever his concentration, it becomes
RIGHT CONCENTRATION.


Again right concentration, but no jhanas mentioned..
++++++++++++++++++++==


How is insight developed and nibbana attained:
From the digha nikaya
QUOTE
Sangiti sutta
"The vimuttayatanam The 5 bases of deliverance:
XXV. "Five bases of deliverance; here
a. the teacher or a respected fellow disciple teaches a monk Dhamma.
And as he receives the teaching, he gains a grasp of both the spirit
and the letter of the teaching. At this, joy arises in him, and from
this joy, delight; and by this delight his senses are calmed, he
feels happiness as a result, and with this happiness his mind is
established [he attains nibban];
b. he has not heard it thus, but in the course of the teaching
Dhamma to others he has learnt it by heart as he has heard it, or
c. as he is chanting the Dhamma... or
d. ...when he applies his mind to the Dhamma, thinks and ponders
over it and concentrates his attention on it; or
e. When he has properly grasped some concentration sign, has well
considered it, applied his mind to it, and has well penetrated it
with wisdom. At this, joy arises in him; and from this joy, delight,
and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness as a
result, and with this happiness his mind is established.


Notice the first 4 ways of liberation do not mention gaining mundane
jhana.

Robertk