Jump to content


Photo

Bodhi


  • Please log in to reply
No replies to this topic

#1 Dmytro

Dmytro

    Newbie

  • MODERATOR
  • Pip
  • 3 posts
  • Gender:Male

Posted 03 October 2013 - 05:12 AM

Hello Pali friends,

The word "Bodhi" has been variously translated as "Enlightenment", "Awakening", etc.
Let's explore the meaning of this word in more detail.

From Pasadika sutta (DN 29):

Yañca kho, cunda, sadevakassa lokassa samārakassa sabrahmakassa sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā, sabbaṃ tathāgatena abhisambuddhaṃ, tasmā ‘tathāgato’ti vuccati. Yañca, cunda, rattiṃ tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhati, yañca rattiṃ anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati, yaṃ etasmiṃ antare bhāsati lapati niddisati.

'Cunda, whatever in this world with its devas and maras and Brahmas, with its ascetics and Brahmins, its princes and people, is seen by people, heard, sensed, cognized, whatever was ever achieved, sought after or mentally pondered upon -- all that has been fully comprehended [abhisambuddham] by the Tathagata. That is why he is called Tathagata. Between the night in which the Tathagata comprehends [abhisambujjhati] the unequalled Perfect Comprehension (samma-sambodhi), Cunda, and the night in which he goes out to the Nibbana-element without remainder, whatever he proclaims, says or explains is so and not otherwise.'


Though the verb 'bujjhati' has a meaning 'awakes', this meaning is mentioned only in few places in the Commentaries:

Bujjhatīti kilesasantānaniddāya uṭṭhahati, cattāri vā ariyasaccāni paṭivijjhati, nibbānameva vā sacchikaroti.

"Awakes - arises from the sleep of defilement-flow"

(Dhammasangani-Atthakatha)


In the suttas, Bodhi is precisely defined as the Comprehension, of the four Actualities for the Noble Ones (ariya-sacca).

Perfect Comprehension (samma-sambodhi) comprises a whole universe:

Comprehension of the Four Actualities for the Noble Ones (cattāro ariyasaccāni) - translated below as "awakening":

Yāvakīvañca me, bhikkhave, imesu catūsu ariyasaccesu evaṃ tiparivaṭṭaṃ dvādasākāraṃ yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇadassanaṃ na suvisuddhaṃ ahosi, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.

"And, monks, as long as this — my three-round, twelve-permutation knowledge & vision concerning these four noble truths as they have come to be — was not pure, I did not claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its deities, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & commonfolk. [But as soon as this — my three-round, twelve-permutation knowledge & vision concerning these four noble truths as they have come to be — was truly pure, then I did claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its deities, Maras & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & commonfolk. Knowledge & vision arose in me: 'Unprovoked is my release. This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming.'"]

http://www.accesstoi...6.011.than.html


Similarly regarding four elements (dhātū - paṭhavī, apo, tejo, vāyo - solid, liquid, fire, gas):

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imāsaṃ catunnaṃ dhātūnaṃ evaṃ assādañca assādato ādīnavañca ādīnavato nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ na abbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Pubbesambodha sutta).

Similarly regarding five appropriated aggregates (upādānakkhandhā - rūpa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhārā, viññāṇa - body, feelings, recognitions, volitions, consciousness):

‘‘Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ evaṃ assādañca assādato ādīnavañca ādīnavato nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Assāda sutta).

Similarly regarding four "turns" of appropriated aggregates (Upādānaparipavattā - aggregate, its arising, its cessation, and the way to cessation):

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ime pañcupādānakkhandhe catuparivaṭṭaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Upādānaparipavattā sutta)

Similarly regarding six inner spheres of perception (ajjhattikā āyatanā - cakkhūṃ, sota, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, mano - sight, hearing, etc. ):

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ channaṃ ajjhattikānaṃ āyatanānaṃ evaṃ assādañca assādato, ādīnavañca ādīnavato, nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ
(Paṭhama-pubbesambodha sutta)

Similarly regarding six outer spheres of perception (bāhirā āyatanā - visible forms, sounds, etc.)

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ channaṃ bāhirānaṃ āyatanānaṃ evaṃ assādañca assādato, ādīnavañca ādīnavato, nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Dutiya-pubbesambodha sutta)

Similarly regarding five faculties (pañcā indriyāni - saddhindriyaṃ, vīriyindriyaṃ, satindriyaṃ, samādhindriyaṃ, paññindriyaṃ - faith, persistence, remembrance, composure, discernment):

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Punabbhavasutta)

Similarly regarding six faculties (cha indriyāni - cakkhuṃ, sota, ghāna, jivhā, kāya, mano - sight, hearing, etc.)

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imesaṃ channaṃ indriyānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassa maṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Sambuddha sutta)

Similarly regarding the world (loka):

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ lokassa assādañca assādato ādīnavañca ādīnavato nissaraṇañca nissaraṇato yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Pubbevasambodha sutta)

Similarly regarding bonds to another sex of to pleasurable rebirth (aññataraññataramethunasaṃyoga):

‘‘Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, brāhmaṇa, imesaṃ sattannaṃ methunasaṃyogānaṃ aññataraññataramethunasaṃyogaṃ attani appahīnaṃ samanupassiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, brāhmaṇa, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Methuna suttaṃ)

Similarly regarding the knowledge and vision of higher gods (adhidevañāṇadassana):

Yāvakīvañca me, bhikkhave, evaṃ aṭṭhaparivaṭṭaṃ adhidevañāṇadassanaṃ na suvisuddhaṃ ahosi, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ‘sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Gayāsīsa sutta)

Similarly regarding the nine consecutive attainments (anupubbavihārasamāpattiyā - cattāro rūpajjhānā, cattāro aruppajjhāna, saññāvedayitanirodha - four bodily jhanas, four non-bodily jhanas, cessation of recognition and feeling):

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, ānanda, imā nava anupubbavihārasamāpattiyo na evaṃ anulomapaṭilomaṃ samāpajjimpi vuṭṭhahimpi, neva tāvāhaṃ, ānanda, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṃ.
(Tapussasutta)

"Ananda, as long as I had not attained & emerged from these nine step-by-step dwelling-attainments in forward & backward order in this way, I did not claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & common people. But as soon as I had attained & emerged from these nine step-by-step dwelling-attainments in forward & backward order in this way, then I did claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & brahmans, its royalty & common people. Knowledge & vision arose in me: 'My release is unshakable. This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming.'"

http://www.accesstoi...9.041.than.html

 

Metta, Dmytro