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Paramattha manjusa RUPA> ( translation by nina van gorkom)

Visuddhimagga

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#1 RobertK

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Posted 09 October 2014 - 05:22 PM

Dear all
Nina van gorkom had posted many sections of her translation on dsg group and asked me if I would like to put the edited version on this site. Which of course I am delighted to do.

#2 RobertK

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Posted 09 October 2014 - 05:24 PM

NINA: The “Path of Purification”, Visuddhimagga, written by Buddhaghosa, deals in Ch XIV with the five khandhas. I quote from the translation by Venerable Nyanamoli. Its commentary or Mahå-Tíkå, the Paramattha Ma~njusa, was written by Dhammapåla who is said to have lived at the same time as Buddhaghosa.
I translated parts of this commentary from the Pali, and I refer to it as the Tiika. First I give the line by line translation and after that I give the whole text in English. Those who prefer English only can just ignore the Pali English text. After each section I have added comments of my own, in order to highlight the fact that the Visuddhimagga and its Tiika are not theoretical, that they pertain to the development of understanding of dhammas appearing now, at the present moment, in daily life. Among all twentyeight ruupas classified here, only seven appear all the time in daily life: the three that are tangible object (the Element of Earth, appearing as hardness or softness, the Element of Heat, appearing as heat or cold, and the Element of Wind, appearing as motion or pressure), and colour, sound, odour and flavour. They are experienced through their relevant sense-doors.
We read about many details of all twentyeight ruupas, and such passages can remind us that they are elements subject to conditions, that there is no person or self who could own them or control them. While reading the texts we should not forget that the aim of our study is understanding of whatever appears as just a dhamma, not self. We cling to our body and find it very important, but in reality there are only ephemeral elements arising because of conditions.
At the very beginning of the Visuddhimagga (Ch I, 1) we read:

“When a wise man, established well in Virtue,
Develops Consciousness and Understanding,
Then as a bhikkhu ardent and sagacious
He succeeds in disentangling this tangle (S I, 13)”

“When a wise man, established well in virtue,
Develops consciousness and understanding'”
siile pati.t.thaaya naro sapa~n~no,
citta.m pa~n~na~nca bhaavayanti


NINA: Now here the word <naro> is used for man. In this word the meaning of hero is implied, it is an extraordinary person. When returning to Vis Ch 1, this becomes clearer. It is a bhikkhu with the very refined siila of the bhikkhu, seeing danger in the slightest faults, who lives like an arahat. He is well established in the many different kinds of siila. He develops concentration up to the degree of jhaana and the supernatural powers and then he develops insight, and finally he will attain arahatship.
Vis. I, 6, also states: <in some instances, this path of purification is taught by insight alone.>
It is said that tangle is a term for the network of craving. We are much entangled in the cycle.

The Visuddhimagga is divided into three parts: virtue (siila), concentration, samaadhi, and understanding, pa~n~naa.
Ch XIV of the Visuddhimagga is the beginning of Part three and this deals with Understanding: Description of the soil in which understanding grows.

Chapter XIV begins with an exposition of the meaning of understanding: its characteristic, function, manifestation and proximate cause; how many kinds of understanding there are; how it is developed; what are the benefits of developing understanding.
As to the soil (bhuumi) in which understanding grows, we read in the Visuddhimagga XIV, 32 that the soil is the khandhas, aayatanas, elements, faculties, truths and dependent origination. Purification of siila and of concentration are compared to the roots and the five purifications (dealt with in Ch XVIII and following) which include the development of insight, are compared to the trunk.

After having explained about many aspects of understanding, the Visuddhimagga begins with an exposition about the five khandhas.
We read in the ‘Dispeller of Delusion” 9I, Ch I, Classification of the Aggregates, p. 1) about the meaning of the word khandha. It can be heap (raasi) or category.<...therefore the aggregates (khandhaa) should be understood as having the characteristic of a heap. It is also permissible to say in the sense of a portion (ko.t.thaasa).> It is explained that the materiality heap is classified in eleven ways and <divided into the 25 portions of materiality and as the 96 portions of materiality- all this the Fully enlightened One taught by summarizing it under the name materiality aggregate (ruupakkhandha).>
Nina: In the same way he summarized all the different portions of the other khandhas and took these altogether in each of the other khandhas.
Each of the five khandhas includes respectively different ruupas, feelings, perceptions (sa~n~naa or remembrance), formations (or activities) and cittas, but the Buddha classified them as just five khandhas. One khandha is ruupa-khandha and four khandhas are naama-khandhas. Thus, the paramattha dhammas of citta, cetasika and ruupa are classified as five khandhas.

All twentyeight ruupas, classified as ruupa-khandha, are realities, paramattha dhammas, different from concepts, pa~n~natti. In daily language we speak about a body, arms and legs, but these are conventional truth, different from ultimate truth. Paramattha dhammas are ultimate realities each with their own characteristic that cannot be changed, no matter how we call it. Visible object, the ruupa that can be experienced through eyesense is always visible object or colour, no matter how we name it. We may give it another name, but its characterstic cannot be changed. It is important to know the difference between conventional truth and ultimate truth. Only paramattha dhammas are the objects of insight.
The khandha of formations or activities, sa.nkhaarakkhandha, comprises all cetasikas other than feeling and perception.
We should remember that sa.nkhaara has different meanings in different contexts. Sa.nkhaara dhamma comprises all conditioned dhammas, all ruupa, citta and cetasika, whereas sa.nkhaarakkhandha comprises only fifty cetasikas.
The khandhas are not abstract categories, they arise at this moment. Seeing is the khandha of consciousness, and when there is seeing, there are also the ruupa that is eyebase, the ruupa of visible object, feeling, perception (sa~n~naa or remembrance), and seven cetasikas included in the khandha of formations. We take the khandhas for self, but they have no owner.

All twentyeight ruupas, classified as ruupa-khandha, are realities, paramattha dhammas, different from concepts, pa~n~natti. In daily language we speak about a body, arms and legs, but these are conventional truth, different from ultimate truth. Paramattha dhammas are ultimate realities each with their own characteristic that cannot be changed, no matter how we call it. Visible object, the ruupa that can be experienced through eyesense is always visible object or colour, no matter how we name it. We may give it another name, but its characterstic cannot be changed. It is important to know the difference between conventional truth and ultimate truth. Only paramattha dhammas are the objects of insight, they have the characteristics of impermanence, dukkha and anattaa.

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Visuddhimagga XIV, 34: Herein, all kinds of states whatsoever that have the characteristic of 'being molested' (ruppana) by cold, etc., taken all together should be understood as the materiality (ruupa) aggregate.
1. That is of one kind with the characteristic of 'being molested'.
2. It is also of two kinds when classed as (a) primary entity (bhuuta)
and ( B) derived [by clinging] (upaadaaya).


Pali of Vis. 34: tattha ya.m ki~nci siitaadiihi ruppanalakkha.na.m dhammajaata.m, sabba.m ta.m ekato katvaa ruupakkhandhoti veditabba.m.
tadeta.m ruppanalakkha.nena ekavidhampi bhuutopaadaayabhedato duvidha.m.

Tiika:
34. Tatthaati tesu pa~ncasu khandhesu. Ya.m ki~nciiti anavasesapariyaadaana.m.
As to the word, herein, this means, in the five aggregates. As to the expression, whatsoever, this means an all-inclusive treatment.
..... (grammatical explanation of the expression ya.m ki~nci, what so ever.)
Siitaadiihiiti siitu.nhajighacchaapipaasaadiihi. Hetu-atthe ceta.m kara.navacana.m.
(Molested) by cold etc. , this means by cold, heat, hunger, thirst, etc. This is the instrumental case with the meaning of cause. ....

Bhuutopaadaayabhedatoti ettha tadadhiinavuttitaaya bhavati ettha upaadaayaruupanti bhuuta.m.
As to the expression, with regard to the classification as principal elements and derived elements, here, the latter proceed by the condition of dependence on them (principle elements), and thus they have become derived (by clinging).
.......
English text of the Tiika:
As to the word, herein, this means, in the five aggregates. As to the expression, whatsoever, this means an all-inclusive treatment.
..... (grammatical explanation of the expression ya.m ki~nci, what so ever.)
(Molested) by cold etc. , this means by cold, heat, hunger, thirst, etc. This is the instrumental case with the meaning of cause. ....
As to the expression, with regard to the classification as principal elements and derived elements, here, the latter proceed by the condition of dependence on them (principle elements), and thus they have become derived (by clinging).
--------
Visuddhimagga XIV, 35: Herein (a) "primary materiality" is of four kinds as the earth element, water element, fire element, and air element. Their characteristic, function, and manifestation have been given under the definition of the four elements (Ch. XI, 87, 93); but as to the proximate cause, each has the other three as its proximate cause. [444]
------
Tiika 35:
35. Kaama.m catudhaatuvavatthaane vacanatthaaditopi bhuutaani vibhaavitaaneva,
After he has explained the principal elements as to word meaning and so on in the definition of the four elements as objects of sense desire *,

sabhaavadhammaana.m pana lakkha.naadivibhaavanaati katvaa
and he has given the explanation of the characteristics and so on of these dhammas which each have their own distinct nature,

vutta.m “lakkha.narasapaccupa.t.thaanaani catudhaatuvavatthaane vuttaanii”ti.
he said, “Their characteristic, function, and manifestation have been given under the definition of the four elements”.

Tattha pada.t.thaanassa avuttattaa aaha “pada.t.thaanato panaa”ti-aadi.
Since he had not given the proximate cause, he said, “as to their proximate cause and so on”.

Avacana~nca tassa tassatthassa paccayatoti ettha pakaarantarena vibhaavitattaati da.t.thabba.m.
It should be seen that he did not mention that condition in each case, in between.
Sabbaapiiti catassopi dhaatuyo.
As to the expression, also all of them, this means, also the four elements.

Aaposa"ngahitaaya tejonupaalitaaya vaayovitthambhitaaya eva pathaviidhaatuyaa pavatti,
The element of earth proceeds because it is held together by water, maintained by fire, and distended by wind.

na a~n~nathaati saa sesabhuutattayapada.t.thaanaa, evamitaraapiiti aaha “avasesadhaatuttayapada.t.thaanaa”ti.
Thus, it is not otherwise that the other great elements are its proximate cause, and therefore he said also with regard to the other elements: ”each has the other three as its proximate cause”.
****
English:
After he has explained the principal elements as to word meaning and so on in the definition of the four elements as objects of sense desire *,
and he has given the explanation of the characteristics and so on of these dhammas which each have their own distinct nature,
he said, “Their characteristic, function, and manifestation have been given under the definition of the four elements”.
Since he had not given the proximate cause, he said, “as to their proximate cause and so on”
It should be seen that he did not mention that condition in each case, in between.
As to the expression, also all of them, this means, also the four elements.
The element of earth proceeds because it is held together by water, maintained by fire, and distended by wind.
Thus, it is not otherwise that the other (three) great elements are its proximate cause, and therefore he said also with regard to the other elements: ”each has the other three as its proximate cause”.
_______
* In Ch XI, they are treated under the aspect of the foulness of the body since they are objects of desire.



#3 RobertK

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Posted 09 October 2014 - 05:30 PM

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Vis. XIV, 36. (B) "Derived materiality" is of twenty-four kinds as eye, ear, nose,
tongue, body, visible datum, sound, odour, flavour, feminity
faculty, masculinity faculty, life faculty, heart-basis; bodily
intimation,verbal intimation; space element; lightness of matter,
malleability of matter, wieldiness of matter, growth of matter,
continuity of matter, ageing of matter, impermanence of matter, and
physical nutriment.

Vis. 36, Pali. upaadaaruupa.m catuviisatividha.m cakkhu, sota.m, ghaana.m, jivhaa, kaayo, ruupa.m, saddo, gandho, raso, itthindriya.m, purisindriya.m, jiivitindriya.m, hadayavatthu, kaayavi~n~natti, vaciivi~n~natti, aakaasadhaatu, ruupassa lahutaa, ruupassa mudutaa , ruupassa kamma~n~nataa, ruupassa upacayo, ruupassa santati, ruupassa jarataa, ruupassa aniccataa, kaba.liikaaro aahaaroti.


Tiika 36, part I: Tiika text 36:
(b)Catuviisatividhanti ga.nanaparicchedo balaruupaadiina.m pa.tisedhanattho.
As to the expression, of twentyfour kinds, the division in numbers has the meaning of exclusion from the strong material phenomena and so on.

Tattha ya.m vattabba.m, ta.m parato aavi bhavissati.
Here what is fit to be told will become evident later on.

Cakkhatiiti cakkhu, vi~n~naa.naadhi.t.thita.m ruupa.m assaadenta.m viya hotiiti attho.
It relishes, thus it is an eye *, the meaning is: it is as it were enjoying the visible object that consciousness is fixed on.

Cakkhatiiti hi aya.m cakkhati-saddo “madhu.m cakkhati, bya~njana.m cakkhatii”ti-aadiisu viya assaadanattho.
As to the word relishes, this means enjoyment, just like he enjoys honey, curry and so on.

Vutta~nheta.m “cakkhu.m kho, maaga.n.diya, ruupaaraama.m ruuparata.m ruupasamuditan”ti (ma. ni. 2.209).
This was said (M I, 503): ”The eye, Magandiya, delights in visible object, is delighted by it, rejoices in it.”

A.t.thakathaayampi vuccati “ruupesu aavi~nchanarasan”ti (visuddhi. 2.433; dha. sa. a.t.tha. 600).
It is also said in the Commentary that its function is picking up (an object) among material phenomena.
******
English:
As to the expression, of twentyfour kinds, the division in numbers has the meaning of exclusion from the strong material phenomena and so on.
Here what is fit to be told will become evident later on.
It relishes, thus it is an eye *, the meaning is: it is as it were enjoying the visible object that consciousness is fixed on.
As to the word relishes, this means enjoyment, just like he enjoys honey, curry and so on.
This was said (M I, 503): ”The eye, Magandiya, delights in visible object, is delighted by it, rejoices in it.”
It is also said in the Commentary that its function is picking up (an object) among material phenomena.
_____
* See Vis. XV, 19. The eye cannot be attached, but this is a figurative way of speaking.
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Tiika 36 Part II (omission of preceding section)
Some points from the omitted part are partly the same as Dispeller of Delusion Ch II, Suttanta Division: jiivaa, tongue, it evokes life, thus it is tongue. (N: word association between jivita, life and jivaa, tongue. We must eat in order to live).
Body: “It is the origin of vile states, subject to cankers; origin being the place of arising. (Kucchitaana.m saasavadhammaana.m aayo uppatti.t.thaananti kaayo). Beings who enjoy pleasant tangible object are also after sexual intercourse (Tena hi pho.t.thabbasukha.m assaadentaa sattaa methunampi sevanti.)
Tiika 36 text:
Va.n.navikaara.m aapajjamaana.m hadaya"ngatabhaava.m ruupayatiiti ruupa.m, iva dassetiiti attho.
It makes visible a change of appearance that manifests the state of mind, and thus it is visible object, * as it is shown, is the meaning.

Anekatthattaa vaa dhaatuuna.m pakaasanattho eva ruupasaddo da.t.thabbo.
Or the term visible object should be seen as having the purpose of clarifying the diversity of the elements.

Sappatiiti saddo, udaahariiyati, sakehi vaa paccayehi sappiiyati sotavi~n~neyyabhaava.m upaniiyatiiti attho.
It is emitted and thus it is sound, it is uttered, or by its own conditions it is emitted, it brings along its nature of audibility, is the meaning.

Gandhayatiiti gandho, attano vatthu.m suucayati .m “ida.m sugandha.m, duggandhan”ti pakaaseti
It is smelt, thus it is odour; it betrays its own basis that is not known, it makes manifest “this is a good smell, this is a bad smell”,

pa.ticchanna.m vaa pupphaphalaadi.m “idamettha atthii”ti pesu~n~na.m karonta.m viya hotiiti attho.
or it makes known what is concealed with regard to flowers and fruits, and so on, saying, “It is this here,” just like the action of slander, is the meaning.

Rasanti ta.m sattaati raso, asaadentiiti attho.
Beings taste it, thus, it is taste; they enjoy it, is the meaning.

Itthiyaava indriya.m itthindriya.m, tathaa purisindriya.m.
The faculty of a woman is feminity faculty, and likewise there is masculinity faculty.

Jiivanti tena sahajaatadhammaati jiivita.m, tadeva indriya.m jiivitindriya.m.
By this the conascent realities live, thus it is life, and moreover, it is a faculty, life faculty **.

Hadaya~nca ta.m vatthu ca, hadayassa vaa manovi~n~naa.nassa vatthu hadayavatthu.
Heart and that base, or the base of the heart for mind-consciousness is the heartbase ***.
****
English:

Or the term visible object should be seen as having the purpose of clarifying the diversity of the elements.
It is emitted and thus it is sound, it is uttered, or by its own conditions it is emitted, it brings along its nature of audibility, is the meaning.
It is smelt, thus it is odour; it betrays its own basis that is not known, it makes manifest “this is a good smell, this is a bad smell”,
or it makes known what is concealed with regard to flowers and fruits, and so on, saying, “It is this here,” just like the action of slander, is the meaning.
Beings taste it, thus, it is taste; they enjoy it, is the meaning.
The faculty of a woman is feminity faculty, and likewise there is masculinity faculty.
By this the conascent realities live, thus it is life, and moreover, it is a faculty, life faculty **.
Heart and that base, or the base of the heart for mind-consciousness is the heartbase ***.
_______
* A word association of ruupa, visible object and ruupayati: to make visible. When someone has a change in the colour of his face, it shows what is in his mind.
**This ruupa is only in a living body. It is produced by kamma.
*** This is not in the enumeration of rúpas of the Dhammasangani, but it is mentioned in the Pa.t.thana Book of the Abhidhamma as ”that ruupa”, being the base for cittas other than the five sense-cognitions.
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36 part III
Relevant text of Vis. 36:
... bodily intimation,verbal intimation; space element; lightness of matter,
malleability of matter, wieldiness of matter, growth of matter,
continuity of matter, ageing of matter, impermanence of matter, and
physical nutriment.

...kaayavi~n~natti, vaciivi~n~natti, aakaasadhaatu, ruupassa lahutaa, ruupassa mudutaa , ruupassa kamma~n~nataa, ruupassa upacayo, ruupassa santati, ruupassa jarataa, ruupassa aniccataa, kaba.liikaaro aahaaroti.

Text Tiika 36, part III:
Copanakaayabhaavato kaayo ca so adhippaayavi~n~naapanato vi~n~natti caati kaayavi~n~natti.
The body, with its nature of bodily agitation, and the intimation which makes known an intention, is thus bodily intimation.

Copanavaacaabhaavato, adhippaayavi~n~naapanato ca vacii ca saa vi~n~natti caati vaciivi~n~natti.
Speech with its nature of agitation of the voice, and this intimation which makes known an intention, is thus verbal intimation.

Viggahaabhaavato na kassati, kasitu.m chinditu.m na sakkaa, na vaa kaasati dibbatiiti akaasa.m, akaasameva aakaasa.m, tadeva nissattanijjiiva.t.thena aakaasadhaatu.
It is space, because it cannot be broken up, it cannot be ploughed *; it is not possible to plough it or to break it, or it does not appear, and thus, one does not enjoy what does not appear; what does not appear is space. Then, because it is without a living soul, it is the element of space.

Ruupassaati nipphannaruupassa. Lahubhaavo lahutaa.
As to the expression (lightness

#4 RobertK

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Posted 16 October 2014 - 08:02 AM

Saya.m anipphannataaya “ruupassaa”ti visesita.m. Esa nayo sesesupi.

Because in itself it is unproduced, it is explained as “of matter.” This method applies for the remaining qualities **.

 

Aya.m pana visesani kammani saadhu kamma~n~na.m, tassa bhaavo kamma~n~nataa.

This is being wieldy for different works, its nature is wieldiness.

 

Pa.thama.m, upari ca cayo pavatti upacayo.

The first and the later accumulation is the occurrence, integration.***

 

Pubbaaparavasena sambandhaa tati pavatti santati.

Because of what precedes and follows there are connections, it goes on, proceeds as continuation.

 

Aniccassa vinaasino bhaavo aniccataa.

Impermanence is the nature of being impermanent, subject to destruction. 

 

Kabala.m kariiyatiiti kaba.liikaaro.

It is made into morsels and thus it is morsel-made (food).

 

Aaharatiiti aahaaro.

It produces and thus it is food.

 

Eva.m taava upaadaayaruupa.m saddatthato veditabba.m.

Thus one should understand the derived material phenomena in as far as it concerns their word meaning.

 

*****

English Tiika text:

The body, with its nature of bodily agitation, and the intimation which makes known an intention, is thus bodily intimation.

Speech with its nature of agitation of the voice, and this intimation which makes known an intention, is thus verbal intimation. 

It is space, because it cannot be broken up, it cannot be ploughed *; it is not possible to plough it or to break it, or it does not appear, and thus, one does not enjoy what does not appear; what does not appear is space. Then, because it is without a living soul, it is the element of space.

As to the expression (lightness) of matter, of produced matter. The nature of being light is lightness.

Because in itself it is unproduced, it is explained as “of matter.” This method applies for the remaining qualities **.

This is being wieldy for different works, its nature is wieldiness.

The first and the later accumulation is the occurrence, integration.***

Because of what precedes and follows there are connections, it goes on, proceeds as continuation.

Impermanence is the nature of being impermanent, subject to destruction.  It produces and thus it is food.

Thus one should understand the derived material phenomena in as far as it concerns their word meaning.

_______

* There is a word association of aakaasa, space and kassati, to plough. Another word derivation, according to Ledi Sayadaw: kaasati: to shine, to appear.

** These are different qualities or characteristics of matter, ruupa: lightness of matter, malleability of matter, wieldiness of matter are matter as alteration. They are unproduced, not concrete matter.

Growth of matter, continuity of matter, ageing of matter, impermanence of matter are characteristics of matter.

*** This refers to the origin or arising of rupa.

 

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Vis. 37:

37.   1. Herein, the eye's characteristic is sensitivity of primary

elements that is ready for the impact of visible data; or its

characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma

sourcing from desire to see. Its function is to pick up [an

object] among visible data. It is manifested as the footing of

eye-consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma

sourcing from desire to see.

------------------

Pali Vis. 37. tattha ruupaabhighaataarahatappasaadalakkha.na.m da.t.thukaamataanidaanakammasamu.t.thaanabhuutappasaadalakkha.na.m vaa cakkhu, ruupesu aavi~nchanarasa.m, cakkhuvi~n~naa.nassa aadhaarabhaavapaccupa.t.thaana.m, da.t.thukaamataanidaanakammajabhuutapada.t.thaana.m.

 

Tiika:

 

Note to Vis. text in Pali:

37. tattha ruupaabhighaataarahatappasaadalakkha.na.m da.t.thukaamataanidaanakammasamu.t.thaanabhuutappasaadalakkha.na.m vaa cakkhu:

Nina: impact of visible object, ruupaabhighaata, readiness or fitness, arahataa, the eyesense (sensitivity), pasaada. Then at end: characteristic, lakkha.na.m.

Sentient organ that is ready for the impact of visible data is the characteristic (of the eye). Pasada, literally brightness or clearness, (it is a revealer) is a derived rupa with its own specific nature or characteristic, (sa-bhava, own nature) also called pasaada-ruupa. It is eyesense, earsense, etc.

 

As to the second part, for this I needed to consult the Atthasalini, 307 (Expositor II, p. 404). Vis reads: <or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to see.

da.t.thukaamataanidaanakammasamu.t.thaanabhuutappasaadalakkha.na.m vaa>

I analyse: sourcing from desire to see, da.t.thukaamataa nidaana, originated by kamma, kammasamu.t.thaana, sentient organ depending on the primaries, bhuutappasaada. At the end: characteristic, lakkha.na.m.

In a compound, stems are used and except at the end, no cases are used. Here bhuuta stands for the genetive case, but in the compound the ending is eliminated. This will be clear from what follows.

In the Tiika it is said: catunna.m bhuutaana.m pasaado : the sensitivity of the four primaries. The Atthasalini:<In the phrase 'that eye which is the sentient organ derived from the four great essentials,' the possessive case is used in the sense of purpose. The sentient organ arises grasping the four great essentials is the meaning.> 

Thus we read the genetive: of the four primaries, but the meaning is: depending on.

 

Tiika text 37:

37.  Idaani yathaa-uddi.t.thaani upaadaaruupaani lakkha.naadito niddisitu.m “tattha ruupaabhighaataarahabhuutappasaadalakkha.nan”ti-aadi aaraddha.m.

Now he said first in order to explain the characteristics etc. of the derived material phenomena that were pointed out: ” Herein, sentient organ that is ready for the impact of visible data is the characteristic and so on”.   

 

Tattha tatthaati tesu upaadaaruupesu.

As to the expression herein, this means, with regard to the derived materiality.

 

Ruupe, ruupassa vaa abhighaato ruupaabhighaato, ta.m arahatiiti ruupaabhighaataaraho,

On account of visible object, or the impact of visible object is visible

object-impact, it is fit  for this, thus, ready for impact of visible object,

 

 ruupaabhighaato hotu vaa maa vaa eva.msabhaavo catunna.m bhuutaana.m pasaado ruupaabhighaataarahabhuutappasaado,

the sentient organ that is dependent on the four primaries is of such nature, no matter whether it is impinged on by visible object or not, thus, (there is the compound) “the sentient organ dependent on the primaries that is ready for the impact of visible data;

 

eva.mlakkha.na.m cakkhuuti attho.

thus is its characteristic, meaning the eye.

........(section omitted)

 

Tenaaha “ya.m cakkhu anidassana.m sappa.tigha.m ruupamhi sanidassanamhi sappa.tighamhi pa.tiha~n~ni vaa”ti,

Therefore he said: “...which eye that is invisible and reacting has impinged on visible object that is visible and reacting...”

 

“yamhi cakkhumhi anidassanamhi sappa.tighamhi ruupa.m sanidassana.m sappa.tigha.m pa.tiha~n~ni vaa pa.tiha~n~nati vaa”ti ca aadi.

“on which eye(sense) that is invisible and reacting visible object that is visible and reacting has impinged or impinges...” and so on (Dhsg §598, 599).

......(section omitted)

Da.t.thukaamataati hi da.t.thumicchaa, ruupata.nhaati attho.

As to the expression desire to see, this refers to seeing in the wrong way, the meaning is craving for visible object.

(.....)

Ruupesu puggalassa, vi~n~naa.nassa vaa aavi~nchanarasa.m.

The picking up (an object) among visible data, by a person or consciousness, is its function *.  

 

Aadhaarabhaavapaccupa.t.thaana.m nissayapaccayabhaavato.

It is manifested as the footing of eye-consciousness, by its nature of dependence-condition **.

 

Da.t.thukaamataanidaanakammajabhuutapada.t.thaana.m

 Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to see,

yesa.m bhuutaana.m pasaado, tevassa aasannakaara.nanti katvaa.

and the sense-organ is depending on (of) these primaries, which have been made the near cause of it.

 

*****

English:

Now he said first in order to explain the characteristics etc. of the derived material phenomena that were pointed out: ” Herein, sentient organ that is ready for the impact of visible data is the characteristic and so on”.    

As to the expression herein, this means, with regard to the derived materiality.

On account of visible object, or the impact of visible object is visible

object-impact, it is fit  for this, thus, ready for impact of visible object,

the sentient organ that is dependent on the four primaries is of such nature, no matter whether it is impinged on by visible object or not, thus, (there is the compound) “the sentient organ dependent on the primaries that is ready for the impact of visible data”; thus is its characteristic, meaning the eye.

........(section omitted)

 

...Therefore he said: which eye that is invisible and reacting has impinged on visible object that is visible and reacting...

on which eye(sense) that is invisible and reacting visible object that is visible and reacting has impinged or impinges...” and so on (Dhsg §598, 599).

......(section omitted)

As to the expression desire to see, this refers to seeing in the wrong way, the meaning is craving for visible object.

(.....)

The picking up (an object) among visible data, by a person or consciousness, is its function *.  

It is manifested as the footing of eye-consciousness, by its nature of dependence-condition **.

 Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to see, and the sense-organ is depending on (of) these primaries, which have been made the near cause of it.

 __________

* The eyesense does not strictly speaking select or pick up an object. Because of conditions, citta does, or, in conventional sense a person does.

** The sense-bases and the heart-base are dependance-condition for the relevant cittas that arise at those bases. 

*******

 

Tiika Texts 37, part 2, fragments (see Vis. note 14):

......

Etthaahañ cakkhaadiina.m indriyaana.m ki.m ekakammunaa uppatti, udaahu naanaakammunaati? Ubhayathaapiiti poraa.naa.

'Here it may be asked, "Is the arising of the faculties of the eye,

etc., due to kamma that is one or to kamma that is different?" Now the

ancients say, "In both ways".

 

Tattha naanaakammunaa taava uppattiya.m cakkhaadiina.m visese vattabba.m natthi kaara.nassa bhinnattaa.

 

Herein, firstly, in the case of the arising of an eye, etc., due to kamma that is different there is nothing to be explained since the cause is divided up.

 

Ekakammunaa pana uppattiya.m katha.m nesa.m visesoti? Kaara.nassa bhinnattaa eva.

 But when their arising is due to kamma that is one, how does there come to be differentiation among them? It is due to dividedness in the cause too.

 

Ta.mta.mbhavapatthanaabhuutaa hi ta.nhaa ta.mta.mbhavapariyaapannaayatanaabhilaasataaya saya.m vicittaruupaa upanissayabhaavena ta.mta.mbhavanibbattakakammassa vicittabhedata.m vidahati.

 For it is craving, in the form of longing for this or that kind of becoming that,

itself having specific forms owing to hankering after the sense-bases included in some kind of becoming or other, contrives, acting as decisive-support, the specific divisions in the kamma that generates such a kind of becoming.

 

Yato tadaahitavisesa.m ta.m tathaaruupasamatthataayogenaanekaruupaapanna.m viya aneka.m visi.t.thasabhaava.m phala.m nibbatteti.

As soon as the kamma has acquired the differentiation induced by that [hankering] it generates that effort consisting in appropriate ability, a multiple fruit with differentiated essences, as though it had itself taken on a multiple form. ........

Aya~nca ekassapi kammassa anekindriyahetutaavisesayogo yuttito, aagamanato ca parato aagamissati.

And the fact of this differentiating effort on the part of kamma that is one being the cause of the multiple faculties will be dealt with below as to logic and texts.

 

Apica ekasseva kusalacittassa so.lasaadivipaakacittanibbattihetutaa vuccati.

Besides, it is told how one kind of consciousness only is the cause of the

generation of sixteen kinds of resultant consciousness and so on;

 

Lokepi ekasseva saalibiijassa paripu.n.naaparipu.n.nata.n.dula-aata.n.dulaphalanibbattihetutaa dissateva, ki.m vaa etaaya yutticintaaya.

and in the world it is also found that a single paddy seed is the cause of the

generation of the ripe, the unripe, the husked, and the unhusked fruit. But what is the use of logical thinking?

 

Yato kammaphala.m cakkhaadiini, kammavipaako ca sabbaso buddhaana.myeva ~naa.nassa visayoti.

 For the eye, etc., are the fruit of kamma; and kamma-result is exclusively the province of a Buddha's knowledge' (Pm.444).

 

English:

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 38.

 

38.  2. The ear's characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that

is ready for the impact of sounds; or its characteristic is sensitivity

of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to hear.

Its function is to pick up [an object] among sounds. It is manifested as

the footing of ear-consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary

elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to hear.

 

39.  3. The nose's characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements

that is ready for the impact of odours; or its characteristic is

sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire

to smell. Its function is to pick up [an object] among odours. It is

manifested as the footing of nose-consciousness. Its proximate cause is

primary elements sourcing from desire to smell.

 

40.  4. The tongue's characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements

that is ready for the impact of flavours; or its characteristic is

sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire

to taste. Its function is to pick up [an object] among flavours. It is

manifested as the footing of tongue-consciousness. Its proximate cause

is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to taste.

 

41.  5. The body's characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements

that is ready for the impact of tangible data; or its characteristic is

sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire

to touch. Its function is to pick up [an object] among tangible data. It

is manifested as the footing of body-consciousness. Its proximate cause

is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to touch.

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Visuddhimagga XIV, 42-47 renders different opinions of different teachers. I am omitting these paragraphs.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Visuddhimagga XIV, 47:

47.  1. There is what is called 'the eye' in the world. That looks like

a blue lotus petal and is surrounded by black eyelashes and varied with

dark and light circles. The "eye" [sensitivity as meant] here is to be

found in the place in the middle of the black circle surrounded by the

white circle in that [feature of the] eye with its accessories where

there appears the image of the bodies of those who stand in front of it.

It pervades the eye's seven layers like oil sprinkled on seven layers of

cotton. It is assisted by the four primary elements whose [respective]

functions are upholding, cohering, maturing, and moving, as a warrior

prince is by the four nurses whose functions are holding, bathing,

dressing, and fanning. It is consolidated by temperature, consciousness,

and nutriment; it is maintained by life; it is furnished with colour,

odour, flavour, etc. (see Ch. XVIII, par. 5); it is the size of a mere

louse's head; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door for

eye-consciousness, and the rest [of the consciousness of the cognitive

series]. [446]

 

48. And this is said by the General of the Dhamma:

 

'The sensitivity with which he sees a visible object is small and it is

subtle too, no bigger than a louse's head'.

-------------------- 

 

 

Tiika: 47, 48:

 Pubbe lakkha.naadinaa vibhaavitampi cakkhu.m .thita.t.thaanaadito vibhaavetu.m “cakkhu cetthaa”ti-aadi aaraddha.m.

He said first, “and there is here an eye”, in order to explain the eye as standing in its location and so on, after he had also before explained about its characteristic and so on.

 

Tattha cakkhu saadhayamaana.m ti.t.thatiiti sambandho.

Here the connection is, as said, the eye stands accomplishing (its functions of base and door).

 

Ca-kaaro byatirekattho, tenassa vuccamaanameva visesa.m joteti.

By the word “and” there is an additional meaning, he explains its diversity by saying this.

 

Etthaati etesu yathaaniddi.t.thesu pa~ncasu upaadaaruupesu.

As to the word here, this means with these five derived material phenomena as explained *.

 

”Sariirasa.n.thaanuppattidese”ti etena avasesa.m ka.nhama.n.dala.m pa.tikkhipati.

As to the expression, the point where the images of the bodies appear, by this he rejects that the black circle is remaining.

 

Snehamiva satta akkhipa.talaani byaapetvaa .thitaaheva attano nissayabhuutaahi catuuhi dhaatuuhi katuupakaara.m

Just like an oily liquid it (the eyesense) pervades the seven layers of the eye, and it stands by itself, assisted by the four great elements on which it depends, 

 

tannissiteheva aayuva.n.naadiihi anupaalita.m parivaarita.m

and it remains, maintained and protected by life, colour, and so on, 

 

tisantatiruupasamu.t.thaapakehi utucittaahaarehi upatthambhiyamaana.m ti.t.thati.

supported by the three origination factors in the continuity of materiality, that are heat, consciousness and nutrition.

 

Satta-akkhipa.talabyaapanavacaneneva cakkhussa anekakalaapagatabhaava.m dasseti.

By the expression, pervading the seven layers of the eye, he teaches that the eye is connected with several groups of materiality.

 

Pamaa.nato uukaasiramattanti uukaasiramatte padese pavattanato vutta.m.

As to the expression, with the seize of a louse head, this was said with regard to its procedure at a point that has only the seize of a louse head.

 

Cakkhuvi~n~naa.nassa vatthubhaava.m nissayabhaavato aavajjanasampa.ticchanaadiina.m tadaaramma.naavasaanaana.m dvaarabhaava.m samavasara.t.thaanato.

Its nature is being a base for seeing-consciousness by way of being its dependence, and being a doorway (also) for the adverting-consciousness, the receiving-consciousness and so on, and the retention that dwell (on the object) in the sense of association **.

 

Ta.m paneta.m cakkhu adhi.t.thaanabhedato,

Thus this is the eye as to its fixed classification,

 

tatthaapi pacceka.m anekakalaapagatabhaavato

and there, taking part in several groups of materiality, it stands by itself, 

anekampi samaana.m saama~n~naniddesena aavajjanaaya ekattaa,

and though it is also diverse in the general explanation, it is one in adverting, 

 

ekasmi.m kha.ne ekasseva ca kiccakarattaa eka.m katvaa vutta.m.

and since it performs one function at one moment, it is said to be one.

 

Evampi bahuusu kathamekasseva kiccakaratta.m.

Though it is also diverse, how is it only one in the performing of its function?

 

Ya.m tattha visada.m hutvaa “ruupaabhighaataaraha.m”, ta.m vi~n~naa.nassa nissayo hotiiti gahetabba.m.

As he has made clear, saying, “ready for impact of visible object”, it should be taken as being thus the support for consciousness.

 

Pho.t.thabbaviseso viya kaayavi~n~naa.nassa aaramma.nabhaave.

Even as the variety of what is tangible is the object for body-consciousness ***.

 

Tiika 48. Manupassatiiti ma-kaaro padasandhikaro, atha vaa manuuti macco.

As to the expression, he sees (a visible object), the prefix “ma” (of manupassati) is an euphonic combination, or, “manu” means man.

*****

English

 

He said first, “and there is here an eye”, in order to explain the eye as standing in its location and so on, after he had also before explained about its characteristic and so on.  

Here the connection is, as said, the eye stands accomplishing (its functions of base and door).

By the word “and” there is an additional meaning, he explains its diversity by saying this.

As to the word here, this means with these five derived material phenomena as explained *.

As to the expression, the point where the images of the bodies appear, by this he rejects that the black circle is remaining.

Just like an oily liquid it (the eyesense) pervades the seven layers of the eye, and it stands by itself, assisted by the four great elements on which it depends,  

and it remains, maintained and protected by life, colour, and so on, 

supported by the three origination factors in the coninuity of materiality, that are heat, consciousness and nutrition.

By the expression, pervading the seven layers of the eye, he teaches that the eye is connected with several groups of materiality.

As to the expression, with the seize of a louse head, this was said with regard to its procedure at a point that has only the seize of a louse head.

Its nature is being a base for seeing-consciousness by way of being its dependence, and being a doorway (also) for the adverting-consciousness, the receiving-consciousness and so on, and the retention that dwell (on the object) in the sense of association **.

Thus this is the eye as to its fixed classification,

and there, taking part in several groups of materiality, it stands by itself, 

and though it is also diverse in the general explanation, it is one in adverting,  

and since it performs one function at one moment, it is said to be one.

Though it is also diverse, how is it only one in the performing of its function?

As he has made clear, saying, “ready for impact of visible object”, it should be taken as being thus the support for consciousness.

Even as the variety of what is tangible is the object for body-consciousness ***.

 48: As to the expression, he sees (a visible object), the prefix “ma” (of manupassati) is an euphonic combination, or, “manu” means man.

****

_______

*The eyedecad consists of ten rupas in one group: the four great elements, the eyesense, life-faculty, colour, odour, flavour and nutritive essence. Thus, apart from eyesense there are five other derived ruupas.

** Eyesense is base and doorway for seeing-consciousness, and it is doorway for the other cittas in that process.

*** The body sensitivity is all over the body, but only at one point at a time there is impingement of tangible object, and only that point is base and doorway for body-consciousness. It is diverse, but also one under the aspect of receiving the impact of tangible object.

 

Nina: The eye consists of many groups of ruupa, but only one ruupa in a group is eyesense, arising and falling away. Kamma keeps on producing it. Also when there is no impingement of visible object, the eyedecad is arising and falling away. It is ready or fit for impact of visible object, and then it is the doorway for the eye-door process cittas, and also the base for seeing-consciousness. 

----------

Please note: all this is not medical science, it is a simile. See the word -iva after sneham (oil): just like oil. Iva is like viya: used for a simile. The Expositor says, <Although the world perceives the eye as white, as [of a certain] bigness, extension, width, they do not know the real sentient eye, but only the physical basis thereof.>

That is why it is said: <And again, the eye of the flesh is twofold: viz., as compound organ and as sentient organ. >

Eyesense is a hidden reality, you cannot touch it. But it is there, arising and falling away. You know it is there, otherwise you could not see. (an unobserved rupa that is real all the same!)

As you will see in the Tiika: <By the expression, pervading the seven layers of the eye, he teaches that the eye is connected with several groups of materiality.>

Why here the seven layers? Perhaps to indicate that what we take for eye are so many groups of ruupa arising and falling away. The seven layers are not the eyesense, but closely connected with it, eyesense cannot arise in isolation.

As to the louse head, this is only a simile. In fact, it is even smaller. The Tiika explains: <As to the expression, with the seize of a louse head, this was said with regard to its procedure at a point that has only the seize of a louse head.>

Note: its procedure: at this very, very small point there is a great deal going on: when it is the right time for kamma to produce seeing, there is eyesense that is ready to receive visible object, so that there can be seeing.

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#5 RobertK

RobertK

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Posted 16 October 2014 - 08:03 AM

(Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 49.

 

49.  2. The ear [sensitivity] is to be found inside the [feature of the]

ear-hole with its accessories in the place that is shaped like a

finger-stall and surrounded by fine brown hairs. It is assisted by the

elements in the way aforesaid. It is consolidated by temperature,

consciousness, and nutriment; it is maintained by life; it is equipped

with colour, etc.; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door

for ear-consciousness, and the rest.

 

50.  3. The nose [sensitivity] is to be found inside [the feature of

the] nose-hole with its accessories in the place shaped like a goat's

hoof. It has assistance, consolidation, and maintenance in the way

aforesaid; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door for

nose-consciousness, and the rest.

 

51.  4. The tongue [sensitivity] is to be found in the middle of the

[feature of the] tongue with its accessories in the place shaped like a

lotus petal tip. It has assistance, consolidation and maintenance in the

way aforesaid; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door for

tongue-consciousness, and the rest.

 

52.  5. The body [sensitivity] is to be found everywhere, like a liquid

that soaks a layer of cotton, in this physical body where there is

matter that is clung to.23 It has assistance, consolidation and

maintenance in the way aforesaid too; and it duly serves both as

physical basis and as door for body-consciousness, and the rest.

 --------------------

Note 23 (from translator): Upaadi.n.na (also upaadi.n.naka) is pp. of upaadiyati (he

clings), from which the noun upaadaana (clinging) also comes.

Upaadi.n.na-(ka-) ruupa (clung-to matter) = kammaja-ruupa (kamma-born

matter); see Dhs. par.653. It is vaguely renderable by 'organic or

sentient or living matter'; technically, it is matter of the four

primaries that is 'clung-to' (upaadi.n.na) or 'derived' (upaadaaya) by

kamma. Generally taken as a purely Abhidhamma term (Dhs., p.1), it

nevertheless occurs in the Suttas at M.i,185 in the same sense.

 

Tiika 49 to relevant Vis passage:

The ear [sensitivity] is to be found inside the [feature of the]

ear-hole with its accessories in the place that is shaped like a

finger-stall and surrounded by fine brown hairs. It is assisted by the

elements in the way aforesaid.

Tiika 49:

A"ngulivedhaka.m a"nguliiyaka.m.

A fingerstall is a finger ring.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Vis. 53:

53. Like snakes, crocodiles, birds, dogs, and jackals that gravitate to

their own respective resorts, that is to say, ant-hills, water, space,

villages, and charnal grounds, so the eye, etc., should be regarded as

gravitating to their own respective resorts, that is to say, visible

data, and so on (cf. DhsA. 314).

 

Tiika text:

 

Visamajjhaasayataaya cakkhu vammikachiddaabhiratasappo viya,

The eye takes to what is uneven * like a snake that delights in a hollow of an antshill,

 

bilajjhaasayataaya sota.m udakabilaabhiratakumbhiilo viya,

the ear takes to a cave** like a crocodile that delights in a cave in the water,

 

aakaasajjhaasayataaya ghaana.m aja.taakaasaabhiratapakkhii viya,

the nose takes to space*** like a bird that delights in the sky,

 

gaamajjhaasayataaya jivhaa gaamaabhiratakukkuro viya,

the tongue takes to a “village” **** like a dog that delights in a village,

 

upaadinnakajjhaasayataaya kaayo aamakasusaanaabhiratasi"ngaalo viya

the body takes to what is “clung to” ***** like the jackal that delights in a charnal ground,

 

passitabboti dassento “vammi..pe.. da.t.thabbaa”ti aaha.

and he taught that it should be seen thus with the words, “It should be seen as the anthill, etc.”

 

Visamajjhaasayataa ca cakkhussa visamajjhaasaya.m viya hotiiti katvaa vuttaa,

And the desire for the uneven was stated just as if there is desire of the eye for what is uneven,

 

cakkhumato vaa puggalassa ajjhaasayavasena cakkhu visamajjhaasaya.m da.t.thabba.m.

or because of the inclination of a person who has eyes the eye should be seen as desire for the uneven.

 

Esa nayo sesesupi.

The remaining is according to the same method.

 

Sabbopi ca yathaavutto papa~nco sotaadiisupi yathaaraha.m veditabbo.

And all this should be seen, as stated, as an obsession, also with regard to the ear and so on, as is appropriate.

 

English of Tiika:

The eye takes to what is uneven * like a snake that delights in a hollow of an antshill,

the ear takes to a cave** like a crocodile that delights in a cave in the water,

the nose takes to space*** like a bird that delights in the sky,

the tongue takes to a “village” **** like a dog that delights in a village,

the body takes to what is “clung to” ***** like the jackal that delights in a charnal ground,

and he taught that it should be seen thus with the words, “It should be seen as the anthill, etc.”

And the desire for the uneven was stated just as if there is desire of the eye for what is uneven,

or because of the inclination of a person who has eyes the eye should be seen as desire for the uneven.

The remaining is according to the same method.

And all this should be seen, as stated, as an obsession, also with regard to the ear and so on, as is appropriate.

_________

* Expositor elaborates: A snake does not like swept places but wants a place of refuse, a lair of grass and leaves, an anthill. Thus, an uneven place. Evenso, <the eye does not delight in burnished, guilded walls, but delights in [surfaces] variegated with pictures and beautified with flowers and creepers>. Thus there is a great variety of visible object, and seeing sees it all.

** The cave: <So, too, [the sense of hearing] desires a ‘den’; it entertains a wish for the cavity of the ear which is dependent on space. The space in the ear-cavity is the cause of hearing a sound. And open space also is operative when [a bhikkhu] is reciting within [a cave].>

N: All these similes are used to teach the conditions necessary for the functioning of the senses so that the sense-cognitions can occur.

 

***<So the nose desires space, and has for object odour dependent on wind....> It is explained that cattle turn up their muzzles and breathe the wind, and no smell is experienced when breath is not inhaled. An example easy to understand.

****The tongue <desires ‘a village’ and has for object the taste dependent on the watery element.> Even when the bhikkhu who enters the village in the morning <is not able to discern the taste of dry food unwetted by saliva.>

N: In the village he will receive almsfood. A simple example that the water element (saliva) has a function for tasting sense.

*****The bodysense is compared to a jackal who desires to be in a charnal ground where he can eat raw human flesh. Evenso the tactile sense desires matter grasped at (upadi.n.na), and takes tangible object dependent on the extension element (N:solidity or earth).

 

**********

Nina: Remarks:

The commentaries use many similes to explain the senses. We should go deeper into these texts in order to understand the purpose of the similes and explanations. Otherwise we do not profit to the full from the texts.

The eye is compared to <a blue lotus petal and is surrounded by black eyelashes and varied with dark and light circles> and it is not bigger than a louse head.

<The ear [sensitivity] is to be found inside the [feature of the]

ear-hole with its accessories in the place that is shaped like a

finger-stall and surrounded by fine brown hairs>.

<The nose [sensitivity] is to be found inside [the feature of the] nose-hole with its accessories in the place shaped like a goat'shoof.>

<The tongue [sensitivity] is to be found in the middle of the [feature of the] tongue with its accessories in the place shaped like a lotus petal tip.>

<The body [sensitivity] is to be found everywhere, like a liquid that soaks a layer of cotton, in this physical body where there is matter that is clung to.>

 

Louse head, goat's hoof, those are not attractive images. The Expositor (311) states as to the tongue: like the upper part of a torn lotus leaf. Not beautiful.

These similes help us to see the foulness of the body, one of the meditation subjects for all occasions. And what is the purpose of that meditation? To remind us that what we take for our beautiful body are only ruupas that are non-self. To see the body in the body.

And this is repeated for each of the senses:< It has assistance, consolidation, and maintenance in the way aforesaid; and it duly serves both as physical basis and as door...> The ruupas that are the senses arise in a group of ruupas, they need the assistance of the other ruupas in that group, they are conditioned. Also the similes about the anthill have as purpose: to explain the particular conditions for each of the senses. 

 

The Expositor expands more and I added part of it in my footnotes. We have to take them in the right sense, they are very daily, simple reminders that can help us to understand them as just conditioned ruupas.

The bodysense is compared to a jackal who desires to be in a charnal ground where he can eat raw human flesh. Evenso the tactile sense desires matter grasped at (upadi.n.na), and takes tangible object dependent on the extension element (N:solidity or earth). The Expositor explains <Internal and external extension is the cause of the tactile sense seizing the object>. It is also said that one does not know the hardness or softness of a bed without sitting down in it, and of fruits placed in the hand without pressing them. Very daily examples to remind us of the element of hardness, external and internal.

The bodysense is <like a liquid that soaks a layer of cotton, in this physical body where there is matter that is clung to.> The bodysense is all over the body, and it is base at that point where there is impingement of tactile object. There can only be impingement at one point at a time.

As you will see, at the end of my Tiika translation it is said:

<And all this should be seen, as stated, as an obsession, also with regard to the ear and so on as is appropriate.>

The word papa~nca, obsession, is used to give us an extra stab with the goad. We are obsessed by sense impressions. Therefore understanding of dhammas has to be developed at this moment.

The Expositor clarifies the real purpose of all these similes and explanations by stating about  the eyesense (308, 309): 

<And this is visual element [N: eyesense]', refers to emptiness of essence, of entity....

'And this is a world,' refers to its transience, perishableness...

'And this is ocean'- because it cannot be filled>

We never have enough of seeing, we cannot be satisfied, it is like an ocean.

<'And this is an empty village,' refers to its being common to many and to the absence of a possessor.>

There is no owner who can exert control. It is empty of essence as we read.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Visuddhimagga text 54. 6. As regards visible data, etc., which come next, a visible datum

has the characteristic of impinging on the eye. Its function is to be

the objective field of eye-consciousness. It is manifested as the resort

of that too. Its proximate cause is the four great primaries. And all

the [following] kinds of derived materiality are the same as this. Where

there is a difference we shall mention it. This [visible datum] is of

various kinds as 'blue, yellow' (Dhs.617) and so on.

 

Text of Tiika:

Cakkhumhi, cakkhussa vaa pa.tihanana.m cakkhupa.tihanana.m,

The impingement on the eye or of the eye is eye-impingement,

 

ta.m lakkha.na.m etassaati cakkhupa.tihananalakkha.na.m.

this is its characteristic [of visible object] thus, the characteristic of impingement on the eye.

 

Pa.tihanana~ncettha yathaavutto abhighaatova.

And here the impinging is, as said, just the impact.

 

Visayabhaavo aaramma.napaccayataa.

(Its function is) being the objective field, it is object-condition *.

 

Kaama.m saa eva gocarataa, tathaapi visayagocaraana.m aya.m viseso ana~n~natthabhaavo,

Sense-object is just the objective field, and therein the diversity of visible data is not to be found elsewhere,

 

tabbahulacaaritaa ca cakkhuvi~n~naa.nassa.

and it is an object of abundant relish for seeing-consciousness **.

 

Visayabhaave cassa ya.m vattabba.m, ta.m parato aavi bhavissati.

And what should be said of its being the objective field will become clear elsewhere.

 

Yattha pana kaayavi~n~natti-aadike.

Just as in the case of body-intimation to begin with ***.

********

English of Tiika:

The impingement on the eye or of the eye, is eye-impingement,

this is its characteristic [of visible object], thus, the characteristic of impingement on the eye.

And here the impinging is, as said, just the impact.

(Its function is) being the objective field, it is object-condition *.

Sense-object is just the objective field, and therein the diversity of visible data is not to be found elsewhere,

and it is an object of abundant relish for seeing-consciousness **.

And what should be said of its being the objective field will become clear elsewhere.

Just as in the case of body-intimation to begin with ***.

___________

* Visible object is object-condition for seeing and for the other cittas in the eye-door process. Object-condition is an indispensable condition for the arising of cittas. Each citta must experience an object.

** Visible object is a sense object and it is in particular a condition for abundant enjoyment. As we read before: “It relishes (cakkhati), thus it is an eye (cakkhu)”. This reminds us that we are greatly attached to visible object and that we go on thinking with attachment on account of what is seen, without end.

*** The Vis. text states that the following kinds of derived materiality (after visible object) are similar, but that it shall be mentioned where there is a difference. Body-intimation to begin with is different, it displays intention and this will become clearer later on.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Text Visuddhimagga 55. 7. Sound has the characteristic of impinging on the ear. Its function is to be the object of ear-consciousness. It is manifested as

the resort of that too. It is of various kinds as 'drum sound, tabor

sound' (Dhs.621) and so on.

 

56. 8. Odour has the characteristic of impinging on the nose. Its

function is to be the object of nose-consciousness. It is manifested as

the resort of that too. It is of various kinds as 'root odour, heartwood

odour' (Dhs.625) and so on.

 

57. 9. Flavour has the characteristic of impinging on the tongue. Its

function is to be the object of tongue-consciousness. It is manifested

as the resort of that too. It is of various kinds as 'root flavour,

trunk flavour' (Dhs.629) and so on.

 

******

Text Visuddhimagga 58 :

58. 10. The feminity faculty has the female sex as its characteristic.

Its function is to show that 'this is a female'. It is manifested as the

reason for the mark, sign, work, and ways of the female (cf. Dhs. 633).

11. The masculinity faculty has the male sex as its characteristic.

Its function is to show that 'this is a male'. It is manifested as the

reason for the mark, sign, work, and ways of the male (cf. Dhs. 634).

 

Both these last are coexstensive with the whole body, as body

sensitivity is. But it does not follow that they have to be called

either 'located in the space where body-sensitivity is located' or

'located in the space where that is not located'.

 

Nina: Sex-faculty conditions rupas all over the body, and it is compared to bodysense which is also all over the body except in some parts as hairs or nails. But it is not exactly in the same way as bodysense, it is only a comparison.

******

Text Visuddhimagga: Like the natures of visible data, etc., these are not confoundable one with the other.

 

Nina: Visible object is distinct from sound, etc. Thus, femininity is distinct from masculinity. The reference to Yamaka in the foonote should be: X, Indriya Yamaka, where it is explained that these two faculties are distinct.

 

-------

Tiika Vis. 58:

Itthiyaa bhaavo, “itthii”ti vaa bhavati etena citta.m, abhidhaana~ncaati itthibhaavo,

The sex of a woman, or because of this her disposition is “woman”, and it is therefore  named femininity,

 

ta.m lakkha.na.m etassaati itthibhaavalakkha.na.m.

this characteristic of her is thus the female sex.

 

Tato eva “itthii”ti ta.msahita.m santaana.m pakaasenta.m viya hotiiti vutta.m “itthiiti pakaasanarasan”ti.

Therefore, the continuum that is accompanied by this makes as it were known, “this is a female”, and thus, it was said that it has the function to show, “this is a female, not a male”.

 

Va.t.ta.msataa avisadahatthapaadaaditaa ca itthili"nga.m.

The rounded shape and the frailty of hands, feets, and so on are the features of a woman.

Thanama.msaavisadataa, nimmassudaa.thitaa, kesabandhana.m,

The pronounced form and delicacy of the breast, being without a beard and so on, the dressing of the hairs,

 

vatthaggaha.na~nca “itthii”ti sa~njaananassa paccayabhaavato itthinimitta.m.

and the way of wearing cloths, all these things are the characteristic mark of a female by being a condition of making known that this is a woman.

 

Daharakaalepi suppakamusalakaadiihi kii.laa, mattikatakkena suttakantanaadi ca itthikutta.m, itthikiriyaati attho.

Also in youth girls play by winnowing, with pestles and so on, with clay and by spinning and so on, and this is a feminine occupation, meaning, feminine behaviour. 

 

Avisada.t.thaanagamanaadiko aakaaro itthaakappo.

A woman’s deportment is her refined way of standing and going, and so on.   

 

Aparo nayo itthiina.m muttakara.na.m itthili"nga.m. Saraadhippaayaa itthinimitta.m.

The feminine attribute as being the feminine parts is another method of explanation. This has the meaning of the feminine characteristic mark.

 

Avisada.t.thaanagamananisajjaakhaadanabhojanaadikaa itthikutta.m.

A woman’s behaviour is her more refined way of standing, going, sitting, swallowing, eating, and so on.

 

Itthisa.n.thaana.m itthaakappo.

Feminine deportment is the continuum of a woman.

 

Imaani ca itthili"ngaadiini yathaasaka.m kammaadinaa paccayena uppajjamaanaanipi

And now, since a woman’s feature and so on also arise each due to its own condition consisting in kamma and so on,

 

 yebhuyyena itthindriyasahite eva santaane ta.mtadaakaaraani hutvaa  uppajjantiiti

they mostly do so as modes in a continuum accompanied by the feminine faculty,

 

itthindriya.m tesa.m kaara.nanti katvaa vutta.m

and thus, having made the feminine faculty the reason for these, he said,

 

“itthili"nganimittakuttaakappaana.m kaara.nabhaavapaccupa.t.thaanan”ti.

 “The manifestation is the reason for the mark, sign, occupation and ways of the female.”

 

English of Tiika:

The sex of a woman, or because of this her disposition is “woman”, and it is therefore named femininity,

this characteristic of her is thus the female sex.

Therefore, the continuum that is accompanied by this makes as it were known, “this is a female”, and thus, it was said that it has the function to show, “this is a female, not a male”.

The rounded shape and the frailty of hands, feets, and so on are the features of a woman.

The pronounced form and delicacy of the breast, being without a beard and so on, the dressing of the hairs, and the way of wearing cloths, all these things are the characteristic mark of a female by being a condition of making known that this is a woman.

Also in youth girls play by winnowing, with pestles and so on, with clay and by spinning and so on, and this is a feminine occupation, meaning, feminine behaviour. 

A woman’s deportment is her refined way of standing and going, and so on.  

The feminine attribute as being the feminine parts is another method of explanation. This has the meaning of the feminine characteristic mark.

A woman’s behaviour is her more refined way of standing, going, sitting, swallowing, eating, and so on.

Feminine deportment is the continuum of a woman.

And now, since a woman’s feature and so on also arise each due to its own condition consisting in kamma and so on, they mostly do so as modes in a continuum accompanied by the feminine faculty, and thus, having made the feminine faculty the reason for these, he said,

 “The manifestation is the reason for the mark, sign, occupation and ways of the female.”

 

'Footnote (of translator):

'As regards the "mark of the female", etc., too, its "facultiness" is

stated as predominance, in other words, as a state of cause, because the

conditions for the modal matter (aakaara-ruupa) consisting of the mark

of the female, etc., in a continuity accompanied by faculties do not

arise otherwise, and because these kinds of materiality are a condition

for apprehending the female.

Nina: Explanation: conditions for the modal matter: namely the different modes of feminine features, signs, occupation and deportment, as explained in the Tiika.

Nina:  U.Narada, Guide to Conditional Relations, explains that sex is a faculty, but not faculty-condition as classified in the Patthana. We have to remember that faculty, indriya, is a leader, but in its own field. For example, eyesense is a faculty, a leader, an important condition for seeing. Quote from U. Narada:

 

<<The sex materiality of beings born in the sensuous plane arises at the nascent phase of rebirth-consciousness [N: it is one of the three decads produced by kamma at the arising moment of rebirth-consciousness] . But the distinctive qualities do not appear simultaneously at that time. Now, a conditioning state of faculty-condition is always that of presence condition [N: it has to arise at the same time] and, accordingly, the conditioning and conditioned states must arise together either at the nascent or static phase [the moment of arising or of presence; also ruupa has a moment of arising, moments of presence and a moment of falling away]. As pointed out above, the distinctive sexual characteristics do not arise together with the sex materiality and, therefore, the latter cannot be a conditioning state of presence condition [N: one of the classes of conditions in the Patthana]. As such it cannot be that of faculty condition which controls those characteristics. Furthermore, sex materiality is not capable of controlling either the nine states of materiality that arise together with it in a materiality group (male- or female-decad) or the states of materiality belonging to another materiality group....

Why the two sex materialities are themselves faculties: The male and female sex materialities have their own independent power to bring about the bodily form and other distinctive characteristics of a man or woman respectively, and because of this control or domination they are faculties.> end quote.

The Expositor (II, 321) uses a simile:

<But feminine features, etc., are not the female controlling faculty; they are produced in course of process because of that faculty. When there is seed the tree grows because of the seed, and is replete with branch and twig and stands filling the sky; so when there is the feminine controlling faculty called femininity, feminine features, etc., come to be. The feminine controlling faculty should be regarded as the seed; as the tree stands growing and filling the sky because of the seed, so the feminine features, etc., arise in course of procedure because of that faculty.>

 

Footnote (of translator Visuddhimagga): And it is because the mark, etc., are dependent on other conditions that wherever they have predominance its shape is encountered, even in dead and sculptured matter that resembles it. And so too with the masculinity faculty.

'And since these two do not occur together in a single continuity,

because of the words "Does the masculinity faculty arise in one in whom

the feminity faculty arises? -- No" (Yamaka), etc., therefore even in a

hermaphrodite there is only one of them at a given moment (see also

DhsA. 323)' (Pm.448).

-----------------------------------------------------------------



#6 RobertK

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Posted 16 October 2014 - 08:04 AM

Vis. XIV, 59:    12. The life faculty has the characteristic of maintaining conascent kinds of matter. Its function is to make them occur. It is manifested in

the establishing of their presence. Its proximate cause is primary

elements that are to be sustained. And although it has the capacity

consisting in the characteristic of maintaining, etc., yet it only

maintains conascent kinds of matter at the moment of presence, as water

does lotuses and so on. Though states (dhamma) arise due to their own

conditions, it maintains them, as a wet-nurse does a prince. And it

occurs itself only through its connexion with the states that occur,

like a pilot; it does not cause occurrence after dissolution, because of

its own absence and that of what has to be made to occur. It does not

prolong presence at the moment of dissolution because it is itself

dissolving, like the flame of a lamp when the wick and the oil are

getting used up. But it must not be regarded as destitute of power to

maintain, make occur, and make present, because it does accomplish each

of these functions at the moment stated (cf. Dhs. 635).

 

 

439. Sahajaruupaanupaalanalakkha.nanti attanaa sahajaataruupaana.m anupaalanalakkha.na.m.

As to the expression, the characteristic of maintaining conascent kinds of matter,

this means the characteristic of maintaining as if it were its own the conascent materiality.

.....( follows footnote 25.)

 

Tesanti sahajaruupaana.m. 

As to the expression (its function is causing the occurrence) <of them>, namely, of the conascent materiality. 

 

Pavattana.m yaapana.m. thapana.m .thitihetutaa.

By causing them to occur, to support them and establish them. By being the cause of their establishment.

 

Attanaa anupaalanavasena yaapetabbaani pavattetabbaani bhuutaani etassa pada.t.thaananti

The primary elements that are to be supported and made to occur because it maintains them as if they were its own, are its proximate cause, 

 

yaapayitabbabhuutapada.t.thaana.m.

and thus, its proximate cause is primary elements that are to be sustained.

 

Anupaalanalakkha.naadimhiiti aadi-saddena pavattanarasaadimeva sa"nga.nhaati.

As to the expression, (the capacity consisting) in the characteristic of maintaining and so on, with the words, <and so on>, he combines (its characteristic) together with its function of making them occur.

 

Atthikkha.neyevaati anupaaletabbaana.m atthikkha.neyeva.

As to the words, only at the moment of presence, this means, only at the moment of presence of the material phenomena that are to be maintained.

 

Asati anupaaletabbe uppalaadimhi ki.m udaka.m anupaaleyya.

If there is no lotus that has to be protected, what would the water protect? *

 

Yadi kammajaana.m .thitihetumantarena .thiti na hoti, jiivitindriyassa ko .thitihetuuti aaha “sayan”ti-aadi.

If there is nothing that causes the persistence of the kamma-born materiality meanwhile, who would cause the persistence of the life-faculty, and thus he said, “it occurs itself and so on (only through its connexion with the states that occur)”.

 

Yadi kammajaana.m .thaana.m jiivitindriyapa.tibaddha.m,

If the status of the kamma-born materiality is dependent on the life-faculty,

 

atha kasmaa sabbakaala.m na .thapetiiti aaha “na bha"ngato”ti-aadi.

then how could it at all times cause their subsistance and thus, he said, (it does not cause occurence) after the moment of dissolution.

 

Tassa tassa anupaalanaadikassa saadhanato.

Because accomplishes each of these functions of maintaining, and so on **. 

 

Ta.m saadhana~nca jiivamaanataavisesassa paccayabhaavato.

 And the accomplishment is being the condition for distinguishing what is living.

 

English of Tiika text:

As to the expression, the characteristic of maintaining conascent kinds of matter,

this means the characteristic of maintaining as if it were its own the conascent materiality.

As to the expression (its function is causing the occurrence) <of them>, namely, of the conascent materiality. 

By causing them to occur, to support them and establish them. By being the cause of their establishment.

The primary elements that are to be supported and made to occur because it maintains them as if they were its own, are its proximate cause, 

and thus, its proximate cause is primary elements that are to be sustained.

As to the expression, (the capacity consisting) in the characteristic of maintaining and so on, with the words, <and so on>, he combines (its characteristic) together with its function of making them occur.

As to the words, only at the moment of presence, this means, only at the moment of presence of the material phenomena that are to be maintained.

 If there is no lotus that has to be protected, what would the water protect? *

If there is nothing that causes the persistence of the kamma-born materiality meanwhile, who would cause the persistence of the life-faculty, and thus he said, “it occurs itself and so on (only through its connexion with the states that occur)”.

If the status of the kamma-born materiality is dependent on the life-faculty,

then how could it at all times cause their subsistance and thus, he said, (it does not cause occurence) after the moment of dissolution.

Because accomplishes each of these functions of maintaining, and so on **. 

 And the accomplishment is being the condition for distinguishing what is living.

________

* Thus, both the kamma-born materiality and life-faculty have to be present.

**: As said in the Vis. passage: <But it must not be regarded as destitute of power to maintain, make occur, and make present, because it does accomplish each of these functions at the moment stated. >

*****

note 25 (of translator who follows Tiika).  'Since the life faculty is itself entirely kamma-born it is

established, by taking them as conascent, that the things to be

protected by it are kamma-born too; this is why there is no inclusion of

the term "kamma-born".

Nina: The rupas conascent with life faculty are in one group that originates from kamma. Thus there is no need to say that the other rupas that are conascent are also originating from kamma. 

 

continuation note 25: It maintains as if it were its own that kamma-born matter by being the cause of its occurrence even though only lasting for a moment; that is why it has the characteristic of maintaining conascent kinds of matter. For kamma alone is not competent to be the cause of kamma-born things' presence, as nutriment, etc., are

of the nutriment-born.

 

Nina: Kamma is past kamma and is since long fallen away. But life-faculty maintains the other rupas in the group  originated from kamma. U Narada: <It does not relate by the force of production>, thus, it is not the same as the way the factors of nutrition, heat and citta produce the other rupas in their respective groups. These rupas produced by them are compared to a child with the mother alive, <whereas kamma-produced matter which is maintained by physical life-faculty, is compared to the motherless child maintained by a wet-nurse.>

 

note 25: ' "Because it does accomplish each of those functions": it does so

because it is a condition for distinguishing what is living. For it is

the life faculty that distinguishes matter that is bound up with

faculties from dead matter, and kamma-born matter and what is bound up

with that from matter that is temperature originated, and so on.

 

N: Kamma-born matter is not only different from dead matter but also from materiality produced by the three other factors of heat, nutrition, citta.

 

'And the life faculty must be regarded as the reason not only for

presence during a moment but also for non-interruption of connexion;

otherwise death as the termination of a life span would be illogical'

N: The groups of rupa with life-faculty fall away but they are replaced throughout life until death occurs.

Pm. 448).

 

nina: We see that what is written here in the commentaries is entirely

consistent with the suttas, just elaborating on the details.

 

MN 43, 22, The Greater Series of Questions and Answers, the Five

Faculties, Nanamoli/Bodhi transl:

 

„Friend, as to these five faculties - that is, the eye faculty, the ear

faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty - what

do these five faculties stand in dependence on?

 

„Friend, as to these five faculties - that is, the eye faculty, the ear

faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty -

these five faculties stand in dependence on vitality.

[Note: MA identifies vitality (aayu) with the life faculty

(jiivitindriya), which has the function of maintaining and vitalising the

other material phenomena of the living body.]

 

„Friend, what does vitality stand in dependence on?

„Vitality stands in dependence on heat.

[Note: Heat (usmaa) is the kamma-born heat intrinsic to the living body.]

 

„Friend, what does heat stand in dependence on?

„Heat stands in dependence on vitality.

 

„Just now, friend, we understood the venerable Sariputta to have said:

vitality stands in dependence on heat‚; and now we understand him to say:

heat stands in dependence on vitality.‚ How should the meaning of these

statements be regarded?

 

„In that case, friend, I shall give you a simile, for some wise men here

understand the meaning of a statement by means of a simile.  Just as when

an oil-lamp is burning, its radiance is seen in dependence on its flame

and its flame is seen in dependence on its radiance; so, too, vitality

stands in dependence on heat and heat stands in dependence on vitality.

 

In the next section on Vital Formations (aayusankhaaraa), which the MA

(comy) clarifies as indicating vitality, i.e aayu or jiivitindriya, it

clarifies that these are not feelings and it is when the body is bereft of

vitality, heat and consciousness that is is then discarded and forsaken,

left lying senseless like a log.

The body we cling to so much, depends on this very vitality or life-force

which can cease at any moment. Reflecting wisely, it can be a condition

for calm or satipatthana right now.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV,60.

 

 13. The heart-basis has the characteristic of being the

(material) support for the mind-element and for the

mind-consciousness-element. Its function is to observe them. It is

manifested as the carrying of them. It is to be found in dependence on

the blood, of the kind described in the treatise on the mindfulness of

the body (Ch. VIII, 111), inside the heart. It is assisted by the

primaries with their functions of upholding, etc.; it is consolidated by

temperature, consciousness, and nutriment; it is maintained by life; and

it serves as physical basis for the mind-element and the

mind-consciousness-element, and for the states associated with them.[26]

--------------------------

 

Nina: Mind-element (mano-dhaatu): the sense-door adverting-consciousness, pa~ncadvaaraavajjana-citta, (first citta of a sense-door process after the stream of bhavanga-cittas is arrested), and the two types of receiving-consciousness, sampa.ticchana-citta (one kusala vipaakacitta and one akusala vipaakacitta).

Mind-consciousness element (manovi~n~naa.na-dhaatu): all cittas, except the five sense-cognitions and the three kinds of cittas classified as mind-element. It includes cittas experiencing an object through six doors as well as door-freed cittas, cittas not arising in processes, namely, rebirth-consciousness, bhavanga-cittas, dying-consciousness.

As to the word observe: the Pali has: aadhaarana: the meaning is: being a container, foundation, support, holding up. In the five khandha planes where there are naama and ruupa, cittas need a physical base, foundation. They do not arise independently of the body. The five sense-cognitions have the sense bases as physical support, and all the other cittas, namely, mind-element and the mind-consciousness-element  have as support what is called the heartbase, an infinitely tiny ruupa arising and falling away.

Text Visuddhimagga: It is manifested as the carrying of them. It is to be found in dependence on the blood, of the kind described in the treatise on the mindfulness of the body (Ch. VIII, 111), inside the heart.

 

Nina: as to the text that is referred to:  Vism. VIII, 111: This is the heart flesh. As to colour, it is the colour of the back of a red-lotus petal. As to shape, it is the shape of a lotus bud with the outer petals removed and turned upside down; it is smooth outside, and inside it is like the interior of a kosataki (loofah gourd). In those who possess understanding it is a little expanded; in

> those without understanding it is still only a bud. Inside it there is a hollow the size of a punnaga seed's bed where half a pasata measure of blood is kept, with which as their support the mind element and mind-consciousness element occur.

 

Nina: We have to go back in time centuries and centuries. What was the intention of the commentators? To see the heartbase as not worth clinging to, not beautiful. It is only the tiniest element performing a function. The last sentence is the core: <with which as their support the mind element and mind-consciousness element occur.> The reality of that base is expressed by means of conventional terms to help people at that time to understand it correctly. We should not reject the terms used here, but consider what is really essential. Blood, inside the heart: we have to understand the ruupa dhamma these words stand for. That is what really matters.  

 

Returning to the Visuddhimagga Text: It is assisted by the

 primaries with their functions of upholding, etc.

N: It arises from the first moment of life in a decad: the four Great Elements: solidity (earth) as a foundation, cohesion (water) as holding together (preventing falling apart of the conascent rupas), heat (fire) as maturing or maintaining and motion (wind) as distending (resilience).

Text:  it is consolidated by temperature, consciousness, and nutriment; it is maintained by life;

N: So long as we are alive cittas arise, and each citta supports the previously arisen rupas.

U. Narada, Conditional Relations: postnascence condition:

< Mentality possesses such powerful force that, although it depends on the heart-base,( which is dependent on the blood inside the heart that is a very small part of the body), it is related to the matter produced by the four causes present in the whole body by postnascence condition.>

> it serves as physical basis for the mind-element and the

> mind-consciousness-element, and for the states associated with them.

Nutriment and life: nutriment is one of the eight inseparable rupas arising in each unit of rupa. Not mentioned here: flavour, odour and colour, included in these eight.

 It is maintained by life: since heartbase is produced only by kamma, there has to be in that unit: life-faculty. As we saw: it maintains kamma produced matter, as a wetnurse.

---------

(omittance of long footnotes to Visuddhimagga XIV, 60)

 

 _____

 

The Tiika refers to the definition of the Vis. text on the heart-base:

<The heart-basis has the characteristic of being the

(material) support for the mind-element and for the

mind-consciousness-element. Its function is to observe them. It is

manifested as the carrying of them..

Pali:  manodhaatumanovi~n~naa.nadhaatuuna.m nissayalakkha.na.m hadayavatthu, taasa~n~neva dhaatuuna.m aadhaara.narasa.m, ubbahanapaccupa.t.thaana.m.

 

Tiika text: Taasa~n~neva dhaatuunanti (aadhaara.narasa.m)

As to the expression, of these elements (its function is observance),

 

manodhaatumanovi~n~naa.nadhaatuuna.myeva

namely, of the mind-element and the mind-consciousness element.

 

Nissayabhaavato upari aaropetvaa vahanta.m viya paccupati.t.thatiiti ubbahanapaccupa.t.thaana.m.

Because of its nature of support, it manifests itself by bearing them as it were after having lifted them up, and thus its manifestation is the carrying of them.

Sesa.m he.t.thaa vuttanayameva.

What remains has been spoken of above.

 

English of Tiika:

As to the expression, of these elements (its function is observance),

namely, of the mind-element and the mind-consciousness element.

Because of its nature of support, it manifests itself by bearing them as it were after having lifted them up, and thus its manifestation is the carrying of them.

What remains has been spoken of above.

*****

 

We have to remember that the heartbase is a subtle rupa to be known only through the mind-door. When we believe that we notice the heartbase through the bodysense, it is only thinking about the heart. We may cling to our heart instead of understanding the reality of the ruupa that is heartbase.

It is helpful that the Patthana only uses the term: that ruupa.

 

Some people find it hard to accept that what can only be experienced through the mind-door and what they cannot experience now is not necessarily a concept. Heartbase is a reality, a dhamma. A concept can be a condition by way of object, but it could never be a condition by way of base, as is the case with the heart-base. Thus, how could heartbase be a concept, an idea, a product of thinking?

A Summary about heartbase:

 

Rob K's posts[see http://www.abhidhamm...hp?showtopic=40 have rendered many questions people may have about the heart, transplantation of heart, etc. He also explained that we may be clinging to an idea of my heart, but that the heartbase is a very subtle rupa that can only be experienced through the mind-door. Although we cannot experience it now, what can we learn about this? It is the physical basis for many cittas, included in mind-element and mind-consciousness element. It is a condition for other realities and it itself is conditioned by kamma which keeps on producing it throughout life, on and on. We are in a five khandha plane, meaning, what we call *we* are naama and ruupa. Each citta takes a new base (be it sensebase or heartbase), except during the last javanacittas of a life which all depend on one heartbase. This study helps us to see at least intellectually, that the heartbase and the cittas that depend on it are very temporary, beyond control and not to be taken for mine or self. All these studies of details can remind us of the truth of anattaa.  



#7 RobertK

RobertK

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Posted 16 October 2014 - 08:05 AM

Vis. XIV< 61.

 14. Bodily intimation is the mode (conformation) and the

alteration (deformation) in the consciousness-originated air element

that causes the occurrence of moving forward, etc., which mode and

alteration are a condition for the stiffening, upholding, and moving of

the conascent material body. [448] Its function is to display intention.

It is manifested as the cause of bodily excitement. Its proximate cause

is the consciousness-originated air element. But it is called 'bodily

intimation' (kaaya-vi~n~natti) because it is the cause of the intimating

(vi~n~naapana) of intention by means of bodily excitement, and because

it is itself intimatable through the body, in other words, through that

bodily excitement. Moving forward, etc., should be understood to occur

owing to the movement of the [kinds of matter] that are

temperature-born, etc., which are interlocked with the

consciousness-born kinds moved by that [intimation].27 (See Dhs. 636)

************

Note 27 of the translator. 'It is the mode and the alteration of what? Of

consciousness-originated primary elements that have the air-element in

excess of capability.

Nina: There is a certain unique change in the great Elements and the element of wind or motion (air) plays its specific part. By means of gestures or bodily movement certain intentions are displayed.

Text: What is that capability? It is the state of being consciousness-born and the state of being derived matter.

N: all ruupas that are not the four Great Elements are derived ruupas, and these depend on the four great Elements. Bodily intimation is originated by citta, not by kamma, temperature or nutrition.

(Omission of long explanations in the footnote)

 

Nina’s remark: Bodily intimation is the only ruupa lasting for just one moment of citta, since it is a certain, unique change in the great elements. It is very subtle and so very different from our ideas of what it is - a story about intimation.

There are seven javana cittas, kusala cittas or akusala cittas in the process of cittas, and six of them cause bodily tension or motion, but only the seventh javana citta is the cause of the ruupa that is bodily intimation, and this ruupa falls away with that citta. It is the only ruupa lasting for just one moment of citta. It is hard to pinpoint, but we know it is the cause of gestures or facial expression which display a meaning or intention. In order to understand this ruupa it is not helpful to think of a whole situation or story, such as: I type and then I make known a wish, etc. Then we shall not know that ruupa. It is not a word or term, it is not theoretical, but it is ruupa, it is an element, it is real. It is a very subtle ruupa, arising and falling away with one moment of citta.

It can be directly known by insight, but it depends on whether it appears to the insight knowledge or not. Not all ruupas have to be known by vipassana ~naa.na, but we should not say that it is impossible to know it.

 Different processes of cittas are dealt with that know objects through different doorways. Naama and ruupa. Ruupas produced by citta which has the intention to display a meaning. It is very daily, occurs all the time. But we forget that there are, in the absolute sense, just naama and ruupa arising because of their appropriate conditions. When you speak and move your hands to emphasize your words, there is already bodily intimation. We take it for self! There can also be conceit on account of it. We attach importance to our gestures, to <my personality>.

******

Quote from the Expositor (p. 111, 112):

<If anyone stands in the path of the eye, raises his hands or feet, shakes his head or brow, the movements of his hands, etc. are visible. Intimation, however, is not so visible; it is only knowable by mind. For one sees by the eye a colour-surface moving by virtue of the change of position in hands, etc. [N: different moments of seeing, but sa~n~naa marks and remembers] But by reflecting on it as intimation, one knows it by mind-door-consciousness, thus:’I imagine that this man whishes me to do this or that act.’...And intimation is so called not only because of communicating, but also because of being communicated. Communication by sign is intelligible to others, even to the lower animals. ..>

****

 Conclusion to bodily intimation:

N: The ruupa of bodily intimation is only an uninterested, momentary dhamma. It is ruupa, it does not know anything. But when cittas arise that wish to display intention, this ruupa, a certain, unique change in the great elements, is the means to communicate an intention. Before we realize it we make gestures already or shake our heads, point with our fingers. There are only nama and rupa arising because of their own conditions, there is no person who owns naama and ruupa.

 

---------

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga), Ch. XIV, 62.

 

62. 15. Verbal intimation is the mode (conformation) and the alteration

(deformation) in the consciousness-originated earth element that causes

that occurrence in speech utterance which mode and alteration are a

condition for the knocking together of clung-to matter.28 Its function

is to display intention. It is manifested as the cause of the voice in

speech. Its proximate cause is the consciousness-originated earth

element. But it is called 'verbal intimation' because it is the cause of

the intimating of intention by means of the voice in speech, and because

it is itself intimatable through speech, in other words, through that

voice in speech. For, just as, on seeing a sign for water consisting of

an ox skull, etc., hung up in the forest, it is intimated that 'there is

water here', so too, on noticing either the bodily shaking or the voice

in speech thus, they intimate. 29 (See Dhs. 637.)

 

 Tiika:

Atthaavabodhanasamattho vaciiviseso vaciibhedo.

Speech utterance is the difference in voice so that one is capable to understand a meaning.

 

Tena vaayuvanappatinadiighosaadi.m nivatteti.

Therefore, this excludes the sound of the wind in the forest that is unobstructed, and so on. 

 

Tassa pavattaka.m citta.m samu.t.thaana.m yassaa saa vaciibhedappavattakacittasamu.t.thaanaa, pathaviidhaatu.

That which is originated by citta in the case of the occurrence of speech intimation originated by citta, is the earth element.

 

Tassaa ya.m upaadinnasa"nkhaatassa akkharuppatti.t.thaanassa gha.t.tanasa~n~nita.m kicca.m,

The so-called knocking together of what is reckoned as grasped materiality and the place where the syllables arise is its function,  

 

tassa sahakaariikaara.nabhuuto aakaaraviseso vaciivi~n~natti naamaati dassento aaha “vaciibheda..pe..pe.. vaciivi~n~nattii”ti.

and while he explained that the mode of change that has become a cooperating cause for this is called verbal intimation, he said: “The utterance of speech...etc. is verbal intimation.”

******

English:

Speech utterance is the difference in voice so that one is capable to understand a meaning.

Therefore, this excludes the sound of the wind in the forest that is unobstructed, and so on. 

That which is originated by citta in the case of the occurrence of speech intimation originated by citta, is the earth element.

The so-called knocking together of what is reckoned as grasped materiality and the place where the syllables arise is its function,  

and while he explained that the mode of change that has become a cooperating cause for this is called verbal intimation, he said: “The utterance of speech...etc. is verbal intimation.”

 

Tiika continuation:

 

Tenevaaha “pathaviidhaatuyaa upaadinnagha.t.tanassa paccayo”ti.

Therefore, he said: “The condition is the earth element that knocks together with the materiality that is clung to.”

 

Sesa.m vuttanayameva.

The rest is what was said before.

 

Yathaa hiiti-aadi kaayavaciivi~n~nattiina.m anumaanavasena gahetabbabhaavavibhaavana.m.

As to the words, For, just as, (on seeing a sign for water consisting of

an ox skull, etc., hung up in the forest) and so on, the nature of bodily and verbal intimation should be understood as explained by way of inference.

 

Yathaa hi ussaapetvaa baddhagosiisaadiruupaani disvaa

For, just as, on seeing a sign consisting of an ox skull, etc., hung up in the forest,

 

tadanantarappavattaaya avi~n~naayamaanantaraaya manodvaaraviithiyaa gosiisaadiina.m udakasahacaarippakaarasa~n~naa.naakaara.m gahetvaa udakaggaha.na.m hoti,

immediately after the ocurrence of this, and after the moments that there is’t any cognizing *, one apprehends by means of the mind-door process that occurs immediately after this, the oxskull etc., that serves as a sign by way of its connection with water, and it is apprehended that there is water ;

 

eva.m vipphandamaanasamuccaariyamaanava.n.nasadde gahetvaa

evenso, when one has apprehended (bodily) movement and sounds that are uttered,

tadanantarapavattaaya avi~n~naayamaanantaraaya manodvaaraviithiyaa 

immediately after the ocurrence of this, and after the moments that there is’t any cognizing, one apprehends by means of the mind-door process that occurs immediately after this,

 

purimasiddhasambandhagaha.nuupanissayasahitaaya

saadhippaayavikaaraggaha.na.m hoti.

and which has as its support its connection with what was previously

established **,

the alterations accompanied by intention.

 

English:

Therefore, he said: “The condition is the earth element that knocks together with the materiality that is clung to.”

The rest is what was said before.

As to the words, For, just as, (on seeing a sign for water consisting of

an ox skull, etc., hung up in the forest) and so on, the nature of bodily and verbal intimation should be understood as explained by way of inference.

For, just as, on seeing a sign consisting of an ox skull, etc., hung up in the forest, immediately after the ocurrence of this, and after the moments that there is’t any cognizing (of an object that impinges on a doorway) *, one apprehends by means of the mind-door process that occurs immediately after this, the oxskull etc., that serves as a sign by way of its connection with water, and it is apprehended that there is water ; evenso, when one has apprehended (bodily) movement and sounds that are uttered, immediately after the ocurrence of this, and after the moments that there is’t any cognizing (of an object that impinges on a doorway), one apprehends by means of the mind-door process that occurs immediately after this, and which has as its support its connection with what was previously established **, the alterations accompanied by intention.

_______

* The moments of life-continuum, when there is no cognition of objects experienced in previous processes. The Co to the Abhidhammatthasangaha, Exposition of T.A., p. 227, translates; without noticing the gap. A gap of bhavangacittas is meant here. 

** the processes that occurred previously.

*************

Remarks Nina:

In the Co to the Abhidhammatthasangaha, Exposition of T.A., p. 227, the text is similar. But here another simile is used: <It is as when, having climbed up high and seen visible forms of sandalwood and palmleaves, one has by means of the mind-door process which occurs immediately following this- though the gap is not noticed- a thought of the kind associating water with sandalwood [leaves] etc. , and apprehends water...>

Thus many processes are succeeding one another and in between there are gaps, the bhavanga-cittas. The cetasika remembrance, sa~n~naa marks different moments and therefore someone knows that there is water. This is conditioned by previous processes of cognizing.

We do not realize this when we understand someone else who is gesticulating or speaking. It seems that we know his intention immediately, but in reality many processes occurred. Many conditions cooperate for the speaker to convey his intention and for the listener to understand the meaning of his speech.

******

I quote from the Co to Abhidhamma Sangaha (p. 226):

<Verbal  communication is a single alteration in the consciousness-produced earth-element which causes changes in voice; this becomes the condition for its striking against the grasped materialities at the place where syllables are produced.>

In conventional language we can speak of the vocal cords.

 

Text: The earth element's knocking together

is parallel to the air element's moving as regards function' (Pm. 452).

*****

Nina:  Earth element knocks together with earth element. This produces the rupa that is sound in speech. We call it vocal cords in conventional language, but actually, there is concussion of hardness with hardness. We can call it sound base. Thus, in bodily intimation the element of wind (air) plays its specific part, and in verbal intimation the element of earth plays its specific part. As to concussion of earth with earth making a sound: this also happens outside the body. (ruupas out there). And also noise inside the body: the sound nonad: the pure octad + sound. This does not originate from citta.

 

Note: also the lips play their part in articulation. Many conditions involved. 

What we call vocal cord are rupas produced by kamma.

 Expositor: I, p. 115 (no 87): <But there is a certain unique change (in the primaries set up by consciousness) which is the cause of bringing about the impact of the element, grasped at by kamma, on that set up by mind. This is speech-intimation.> Grasped at by kamma is a translation of upadi.n.na (produced by kamma). But when we say soundbase, there are many groups of rupa involved, also rupas produced by nutrition and temperature.

 

--------------------------------------------------

"The Path of Purification"  (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 63.

 

63. 16. The space element has the characteristic of delimiting matter.

Its function is to display the boundaries of matter. It is manifested as

the confines of matter; or it is manifested as untouchedness, as the

state of gaps and apertures (cf. Dhs. 638). Its proximate cause is the

matter delimited. And it is on account of it that one can say of

material things delimited that 'this is above, below, around, that'.

 

N: Several definitions of space: Vis XIV, 36, Tiika: <It is space, because it cannot be broken up, it cannot be ploughed; it is not possible to plough it or to break it, or it does not appear, and thus, one does not enjoy what does mot appear; what does not appear is space. Then, because it is without a living soul, it is the element of space. >

Dhammasangani, 638:

That which is space and belongs to space, is sky and belongs to sky, is vacuum and belongs to vacuum, and is not in contact with the four Great Phenomena.

The Expositor II (p. 425)

<...space is that which is not ‘scratched’, not scratched off, which is not possible to scratch, cut, or break... ‘Sky’ [in Pali agha] is that which is not struck (a-gha.m); not strikable is the meaning. Aghagata”m is the same. ‘Vacuum’ (vivara, opening) is in the sense of a hole; also vivaragata.m. By ‘untouched by the four great essentials’ the unentangled space-element untouched by these is stated...> (follows the definition).

N: There is unconditioned space and conditioned space. Here, in the context of ruupakkhandha only conditioned space is dealt with. Space that delimits the groups of ruupa (kalapas) is conditioned space and it is classified among the twentyeight kinds of ruupa. Without it the groups would not be distinct, they would permeate each other. Each of the groups of octads, nonads, decads etc. plays its own part, it is important that they are distinct. It performs its function, arising just for a moment and then gone. The decad of speech intimation (the inseparables, sound and speech intimation) arises at the appropriate time, and nobody can tell it to do so. Speech intimation has performed its function before we realize it. Space surrounds all these different groups.

*****

 Though it is not concrete matter and an asabhava rupa, it is bound up with concrete matter since it delimits them. It delimits the groups originated by kamma, citta, nutrition and temperature and therefore reckoned as originated by these four factors. It arises and falls away with them. It is also called an element, dhaatu, space-element in the Expositor (II, 425). And the Co to the Abh. Sangaha states:<an element in the sense that it is lifeless>, meaning, it is not a living being. The Vis. gives the characteristic, function, manifestation and proximate cause, as it does in the case of all 28 rupas. It is ruupa, thus, it has the three characteristics.

--------

Nina: Ven. Bodhi translates: <What is internally, belonging to oneself, is space, spatial, and clung to, that is, the holes of the ears, the nostrils...> At the end of this definition we read: <And that should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: "This is not mine, this I am not, this is not myself.'>

Would this be said of a concept? It is ruupa, an element, not a concept.

We read in the Mahaaraahulovaadasutta: ajjhattika: internal, paccatta.m, belonging to oneself, but used figuratively.

"And what, Rahula, is the space element? The space element may be

internal or external. And what, Rahula, is the internal space

element? That, internally, and individually, is space, void, and

clung to, namely: the cavity of the ear, the orifice of the nose, the

opening of the mouth, and whereby (one) swallows what is tasted,

chewed, drunk and eaten, and where (food) being tasted, chewed, drunk

and eaten remains, and whereby (food) being tasted, chewed, drunk and

eaten passes out of the body lower down, or whatever else internally,

and individually is space, void, sky, empty, an opening, hollow,

untouched by flesh and blood, and clung to. This, Rahula, is

called the internal space element. But that very internal space

element and that external space element are simply space element.

Thus "this is not mine, this I am not, this is not myself" is to be

seen with right wisdom just as it is. Having seen this with right

wisdom just as it is, the mind becomes dispassionate towards (and)

detaches (itself) from the space element."

 

-----------

Tiika:

442. Ruupaani paricchindati, saya.m vaa tehi paricchijjati,

It delimits material phenomena or it is itself delimited by them,

 

ruupaana.m vaa paricchedamatta.m ruupaparicchedo,

or it is just the delimitation of material phenomena, the materiality that is delimitation,

 

ta.m lakkha.na.m etissaati ruupaparicchedalakkha.naa.

that is its characteristic, thus, that of delimiting matter.

 

Aya.m hi aakaasadhaatu ta.m ta.m ruupakalaapa.m paricchindantii viya hoti.

This is the element of space that is as it were delimiting each of the groups of material phenomena.

 

Tenaaha “ruupapariyantappakaasanarasaa”ti.

Therefore he said, “its function is to display the boundary of matter”.

 

Atthato pana yasmaa ruupaana.m paricchedamatta.m hutvaa gayhati, tasmaa vutta.m “ruupamariyaadapaccupa.t.thaanaa”ti.

With regard to its meaning, since it is apprehended as having been just the separation of material phenomena, he said that its manifestation is the confines of matter.

 

Yasmi.m kalaape bhuutaana.m paricchedo, teheva asamphu.t.thabhaavapaccupa.t.thaanaa.

In which group there is the delimitation of the great Elements, its manifestation is the state of being untouched by these.

 

Vijjamaanepi hi kalaapantarabhuutaana.m kalaapantarabhuutehi samphu.t.thabhaave ta.mta.mbhuutavivittataa ruupapariyanto aakaasoti yesa.m so paricchedo, tehi so asamphu.t.thova.

If contact occurs between one group of the great elements with another group, space is the separation of each of them by delimiting materiality and thus it is the delimitation of those elements by which it is itself also untouched.

 

A~n~nathaa paricchinnataa na siyaa tesa.m bhuutaana.m byaapibhaavaapattito.

Otherwise there would be no delimiting of these great elements, but there would be pervasion among them.  

 

Abyaapitaa hi asamphu.t.thataa.

The state of not pervading is the state of being untouched.

 

Tenaaha bhagavaa “asamphu.t.tha.m catuuhi mahaabhuutehii”ti (dha. sa. 637,

Therefore, the Blessed one said, “untouched by the great Elements.”

 

Ka.n.nacchiddamukhavivaraadivasena ca chiddavivarabhaavapaccupa.t.thaanaa vaa.

And because of the cavity in the ear, or the door of the mouth, and so on,

its manifestation is the state of cavities and apertures.

 

Yesa.m ruupaana.m paricchedo, tattheva tesa.m paricchedabhaavena labbhatiiti vutta.m “paricchinnaruupapada.t.thaanaa”ti.

 

Of which material phenomena it is the delimitation, there it is applied, and thus he said, “its proximate cause is matter delimited.”

 

“Yaaya paricchinnesuu”ti-aadinaa aakaasadhaatuyaa ta.mta.mkalaapaana.m kalaapantarehi asa"nkarakaara.nata.m dasseti.

With the words, “And it is on account of it that one can say of

material things delimited (that this is above, below, around, that”)he taught with regard to the element of space that it is the cause for each of the groups that they are not blended with each other.

 

English of the Tiika:

It delimits material phenomena or it is itself delimited by them,

or it is just the delimitation of material phenomena, the materiality that is delimitation,

that is its characteristic, thus, that of delimiting matter.

This is the element of space that is as it were delimiting each of the groups of material phenomena.

Therefore he said, “its function is to display the boundary of matter”.

With regard to its meaning, since it is apprehended as having been just the separation of material phenomena, he said that its manifestation is the confines of matter.

In which group there is the delimitation of the great Elements, its manifestation is the state of being untouched by these.

If contact occurs between one group of the great elements with another group, space is the separation of each of them by delimiting materiality and thus it is the delimitation of those elements by which it is itself also untouched.

Otherwise there would be no delimiting of these great elements, but there would be pervasion among them.  

The state of not pervading is the state of being untouched.

Therefore, the Blessed one said, “untouched by the great Elements.”

And because of the cavity in the ear, or the door of the mouth, and so on,

its manifestation is the state of cavities and apertures.

 Of which material phenomena it is the delimitation, there it is applied, and thus he said, “its proximate cause is matter delimited.”

With the words, “And it is on account of it that one can say of

material things delimited (that this is above, below, around, that”), he taught with regard to the element of space that it is the cause for each of the groups that they are not blended with each other.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 64.

 

64. 17. Lightness of matter has the characteristic of non-slowness. Its

function is to dispel heaviness of matter. It is manifested as light

transformability. Its proximate cause is light matter (cf. Dhs. 639).

 

18. Malleability of matter has the characteristic of non-stiffenedness.

Its function is to dispel stiffness of matter. It is manifested as

non-opposition to any kind of action. Its proximate cause is malleable

matter (cf. Dhs. 640).

 

19. Wieldiness of matter has the characteristic of wieldiness that is

favourable to bodily action. Its function is to dispel unwieldiness. It

is manifested as non-weakness. Its proximate cause is wieldy matter (cf.

Dhs. 641).

 

65. These three, however, are not found apart from each other. Still

their difference may be understood as follows. Lightness of matter is

alteration of matter such as any light (agile) state in material

instances, as in one who is healthy, any non-slowness, any manner of

light transformability in them, which is originated by conditions that

prevent any disturbance of elements capable of creating sluggishness of

matter.

N: The Tiika explains about disturbance of the elements (dhaatukkhobho) as disturbance by winds (air in the belly), bile and phlegm.

As quoted from  “Visuddhimagga” (VIII, 28) about the disturbance of the elements:

 

.<.. But with the disturbance of the earth element even a strong man’s life can be terminated if his body becomes rigid, or with the disturbance of one of the elements beginning with water if his body becomes flaccid and putrifies with a flux of the bowels, etc., or if he is consumed by a bad fever, or if he suffers a severing of his limb-joint ligatures.

When one is healthy, there are conditions for lightness, plasticity and wieldiness of body.>

The Tiika mentions as supporting conditions that obstruct disturbances: <temperature, nutrition and consciousness that is not perplexed or upset. (avikkhitta).>

As we learnt these three factors (all three paramattha dhammas) originate the lightness triad.

As we read in the Expositor: <... Thus ascetics say, “Today we have agreeable food... today we have suitable weather... today our mind is one-pointed, our body is light, plastic and wieldy.”>

Note the word today: these three factors do not always originate the lightness triad. Nobody can choose whether they operate or not. But when they do they are a condition for change. They are rúpas of changeability. That is why it is said in the Vis. text: <any manner of light transformability in them, which is originated by conditions that prevent any disturbance of elements capable of creating sluggishness of matter. >

The last sentence of the Tiika states: <Why are there no lightness etc. for the materiality originated by kamma? This is in view of its being a condition of the past (paccupannapaccaya). Otherwise that (materiality produced by kamma) would always going to be in that way with lightness, etc..>

N: This is understandable when we consider, for example, the bases produced by kamma. Kamma is a cause of the past and keeps on producing the bases at each of the three submoments of citta. Note what is quoted above: today, etc. about the three other factors of nutrition, temperature and citta.

 

Malleability of matter is alteration of matter such as any

malleable state in material instances, as in a well-pounded hide, any

pliable manner consisting in amenableness to exercise of power over them

in all kinds of work without distinction, which [449] is originated by

conditions that prevent any disturbance of elements capable of creating

stiffness of matter. Wieldiness of matter is alteration of matter such

as any wieldy state in material instances, as in well-refined gold, any

manner in them consisting in favourableness to the work of the body,

which is originated by conditions that prevent any disturbance of

elements capable of creating unfavourableness to the work of the body.

 ******

------------

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 66.

 

66. 20. 'Growth of matter' has the characteristic of setting up.

Its function is to make material instances emerge in the first instance. It

is manifested as launching; or it is manifested as the completed state.

Its proximate cause is grown matter.

N: launching is the translation of niyyaatana: the Tiika explains: as it were making them go out, leading them on (niyyaatento viya). 

21. 'Continuity of matter' has the characteristic of occurrence. Its

function is to anchor.

N: to anchor: in Pali: anuppabandhana: to follow immediately.The Tiika explains:

Anuppabandhanarasaati pubbaaparavasena anu anu pabandhanakiccaa.

As to the words, its function is following closely, its task is following along in view of what proceeds and what follows.

N: Thus, initial arising is followed immediately by continuation.

 

Vis text: It is manifested as non-interruption.

 Its proximate cause is matter that is anchored.

 

N: It was explained by A. Sujin recently: each rúpa must arise and fall away, but there is continuation before it decays and falls away. There must be four characteristics, not three. However, there are different methods of teaching.

 

Visuddhimagga: Both of these are terms for matter at its birth; but owing to difference of mode, and according to [different persons'] susceptibility to

instruction the teaching in the summary (uddesa) in the Dhammasa.ngani

is given as 'growth and continuity' (cf. Dhs. 596);

 

N: according to [different persons'] susceptibility to instruction.

The Tiika says: veneyyavasena: for the sake of people that are capable of being taught. The teaching was adapted to the capabilities of different people.

 

Visuddhimagga: but since there is here no difference in meaning, consequently in the description (niddesa) of these words, 'the setting up of the sense-bases is the growth of matter' and 'the growth of matter is the continuity of matter' is said

(Dhs. 642, 732, 865).

 

Nina: Thus, we have to remember that the four characteristics are taught by different methods: according to the duration of one rupa (fiftyone submoments of citta), or by way of conventional sense. As to the last method, we read in the Co to the Abh. Sangaha: <Therein, in the period from relinking (patisandhi) until the arising of the decads (groups of ten rúpas) of the eye, etc. the arising of materiality is called accumulation; after that it is called continuity.> At the moment of rebirth in the human plane there are three decads of rupa produced by kamma: the decads of heartbase, bodysense and sex. The decads of the sense organs arise later on.  

****

------------

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV,67.

 

67. And in the Commentary, after saying 'It is genesis that is called

"setting up", increase that is called "growth", occurrence that is

called "continuity" ', this simile is given: 'Genesis as setting up is

like the time when water comes up in a hole dug in a river bank;

increase as growth is like the time when it fills [the hole]; occurrence

as continuity is like the time when it overflows'. And at the end of the

simile it is said: 'So what is stated? Setting up is stated by

sense-base; sense-base is stated by setting up'. Consequently, it is the

first genesis of material instances that is their 'setting up'; the

genesis also of others that are generated in addition to those is

'growth' since it appears in the aspect of increase; the repeated

genesis also of others that are generated in addition to those is

'continuity' since it appears in the aspect of anchoring. This is how it

should be understood to have been declared thus.

 

68, 22. 'Ageing' has the characteristic of maturing (ripening)

material instances. Its function is to lead on towards [their

termination].

It is manifested as the loss of newness without the loss

of individual essence, like oldness in paddy.

 

Tiika text: Sabhaavaanapagamepiiti kakkha.lataadisabhaavassa avigamepi.

As to the expression, without the loss of its specific nature, because the harshness etc. of this nature has not disappeared.

thitikkha.ne hi jaraa, na ca tadaa dhammo sabhaava.m vijahati naama.

The ageing is during the moments of its presence, then that dhamma does not abandon its specific nature.

 

Nina: The paddy becomes harsh, but it is still paddy. With this simile it is demonstrated that rupa, after it has arisen, when it is still present, is ageing and on its way to destruction.  

 

Vis text: Its proximate cause is matter that is maturing (ripening). This is said with reference to the kind of ageing that is evident through seeing alteration in teeth, etc.,as their brokenness, and so on (cf. Dhs. 644). But that of immaterial states, which has no such [visible] alteration, is called hidden ageing.

And that in earth, water, rocks, the moon, the sun, etc., is called

incessant ageing. [450]

******

Tiika text:

“Aruupadhammaanan”ti ida.m tesa.m jaraaya su.t.thu pa.ticchannataaya vutta.m.

As to the expression, immaterial states, this is said with reference to their ageing that is well hidden.

 

Ruupadhammaanampi hi kha.nikajaraa pa.ticchannaa eva, yaa aviicijaraatipi vuccati.

Of rupa dhammas the momentary ageing is also hidden, and this is also called incessant (decaying).

 

Esa vikaaroti kha.n.diccaadivikaaramaaha. So hi aruupadhammesu na labbhati.

As to the expression, such (visible) alteration, he spoke of the alteration as to broken teeth, etc. This cannot be applied to the immaterial dhammas.

 

Yaa aviicijaraa naama, tassaapi esa vikaaro natthiiti sambandhitabba.m.

As to what is called incessant ageing [of rupas], there is no such (visible) alteration of this either in this connection.

Natthi etissaa jaraaya viiciiti aviicijaraa, navabhaavato duvi~n~neyyantarajaraati attho.

In the case of incessant ageing there is no (visible )alteration, and the meaning is that the ageing is difficult to know because of newness [in appearance].

********

Nina: As to ageing of mental phenomena, each citta has three submoments: arising, presence and falling away. These moments are extremely short. At the moment of presence the citta is more powerful, and the cittas that are able to originate rupas can do so only at that moment. The moment of presence of citta and its falling away follows immediately upon the moment of arising. Then citta is succeeded by the next one.

As to incessant ageing, the rupas that constitute a rock are ageing all the time, but this is invisible, since rupas are replaced so long as there are conditions. Thus, this is not as obvious as broken teeth, etc.

*****

--------

Visuddhimagga 69. 23. 'Impermanence of matter' has the characteristic of complete

breaking up. Its function is to make material instances subside. It is

manifested as destruction and fall (cf. Dhs. 645). Its proximate cause

is matter that is completely breaking up.

 *******

Tiika text:

Parito sabbaso ”bhijjanan”ti lakkhitabbaati paribhedalakkha.naa.

The characteristic of complete breaking up should be defined as being destroyed absolutely and in every respect *.

 

Nicca.m naama dhuva.m, ruupa.m pana kha.nabha"ngitaaya yena bha"ngena na niccanti anicca.m, so aniccassa bhaavoti aniccataa.

What is lasting is called permanent, but materiality at the moment of its falling away is not lasting because of its dissolution, and thus it is impermanent, and that state of instability is impermanence. 

 

Saa pana yasmaa .thitippatta.m ruupa.m vinaasabhaavena sa.msiidantii viya hotiiti vutta.m “sa.msiidanarasaa”ti.

He said that its function is to make (material instances) subside, since this (impermanence) causes the materiality that has reached (the moments of) presence ** as it were to subside.

 

Yasmaa ca saa ruupadhammaana.m bha"ngabhaavato khayavayaakaareneva gayhati, tasmaa vutta.m “khayavayapaccupa.t.thaanaa”ti.

 

And since this (impermanence) because of the state of dissolution of material phenomena should be taken by way of destruction and fall, he said

that it is manifested as destruction and fall.

***

English:

The characteristic of complete breaking up should be defined as being destroyed absolutely and in every respect *.

What is lasting is called permanent, but materiality at the moment of its falling away is not lasting because of its dissolution, and thus it is impermanent, and that state of instability is impermanence. 

He said that its function is to make (material instances) subside, since this (impermanence) causes the materiality that has reached (the moments of) presence** as it were to subside.

And since this (impermanence) because of the state of dissolution of material phenomena should be taken by way of destruction and fall, he said

that it is manifested as destruction and fall.

______

 * The word meaning is partly lost in the translation. The prefix pari of  paribheda, breaking up, reinforces the word. The words parito, completely and sabbaso, in every respect, are added. 

** Origination, upacaya rúpa, and continuity, santati rúpa, are characteristics indicating the moments rúpa has arisen but not yet fallen away, whereas decay, jaratå rúpa, indicates the moment close to its falling away and impermanence, aniccatå rúpa, the moment of its falling away. These moments are extremely short. Thus, as soon as rupa is present it is already time for its falling away. 

**********

Remark Nina: The short definitions in the Vis. can be easily overlooked, and the Tiika text emphasizes more the facts of decay and impermanence occurring each moment. All ruupas of the body are decaying now and they are on the way to complete destruction. This is dukkha and a reminder of being in the cycle of birth and death.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Question: Can upacaya exist at cuti?

N: Cuti-citta, dying-consciousness is the last citta in life. When cuti-citta falls away, ruupa produced by kamma falls away. Cuti-citta is very weak and it does not produce ruupa, thus, no ruupa produced by citta. Nutrition also stops producing, it does not produce any ruupa in a corpse. Only temperature or heat element goes on producing ruupas. The corpse is like dead matter outside, originated by temperature. This is recollection of death, maranasati. 

Reckoned backward from cuti-citta, sixteen moments of citta before the cuti-citta, kamma produces ruupa for the last time. The characteristic of origination of ruupa applies at that moment. Thus, not at the moment of cuti-citta, the rupa falls away together with cuti-citta, that is the characteristic of impermanence  of ruupa.     

 

Question:  Can aniccata exist at patisandhi?

N: At the moment the patisandhi-citta arises, kamma produces, when birth is in the human plane, three decads: of bodysense, of heartbase and of sex. Thus, thirtythree ruupas. They arise in three groups of ten each. That is the moment of their arising, thus, the characteristic of origination applies here. And the characteristic of origination has to be followed by continuation, decay and impermanence. This is nyama, the fixed law of Dhamma. Nobody can change this. 

>

Question:  Can all 4 lakkhana rupa exist in a ruupa?

 

N: All four characteristics of rupa are to be applied to each ruupa as it comes into being, develops, decays and breaks up, one after the other, and this happens unthinkably fast. All during the seventeen (or fiftyone) moments of citta. We cannot imagine how fast. And when thinking of the last moments of life, we cannot imagine how fast all that happens. Before we realize it, another life has begun, and if that is in a plane where there are naama and ruupa, again the four characteristics of ruupa apply.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Visuddhimagga 70. 24. 'Physical nutriment' has the characteristic of nutritive

essence. Its function is to feed kinds of matter. It is manifested as

consolidating. Its proximate cause is a physical basis that must be fed

with physical food. It is a term for the nutritive essence by means of

which living beings sustain themselves (cf. Dhs. 646)

 

Tiika text:

Ojaalakkha.noti ettha a"ngama"ngaanusaarino rasassa saaro upathambhabalakaro bhuutanissito eko viseso ojaa.

As to the words, the characteristic of nutritive essence, this means, while making here a certain distinction, nutrition that is the essence of the fluid that pervades the constituent parts (of the body) and that is the cause of sustaining the body.

 

Kaba.la.m kariiyatiiti kaba.liikaaro.

Edible food is made into morsels.

 

Aahariiyatiiti aahaaro, kaba.la.m katvaa ajjhohariiyatiiti attho.

It is consumed and thus it is food, after it is made into morsels it is swallowed, is meant.

 

Ida.m pana savatthuka.m oja.m dassetu.m vutta.m.

He said this in order to explain nutritive essence with the substance *.

 

Baahira.m aahaara.m paccaya.m labhitvaa eva ajjhattikaahaaro ruupa.m uppaadeti, so pana ruupa.m aaharatiiti aahaaro.

After external food has been obtained as a condition, internal nutrition produces materiality, it feeds materiality and thus, this is nutrition.

 

Tenaaha “ruupaahara.naraso”ti.

Thus he said that its function is to feed materiality.

 

Tato eva oja.t.thamakaruupuppaadanena imassa kaayassa upathambhanapaccupa.t.thaano.

Therefore, because it generates the octads with nutrition as the eighth ** constituent in this body, its manifestation is consolidating.

 

Ojaaya ruupaahara.nakicca.m baahiraadhiinanti aaha “aaharitabbavatthupada.t.thaano”ti.

With external food as a condition the function of nutrition is feeding materiality, and thus, he said, its proximate cause is a physical basis that must be fed.

***

English of the Tiika:

As to the words, the characteristic of nutritive essence, this means, while making here a certain distinction, nutrition that is the essence of the fluid that pervades the constituent parts (of the body) and that is the cause of sustaining the body.

Edible food is made into morsels.

It is consumed and thus it is food, after it is made into morsels it is swallowed, is meant.

He said this in order to explain nutritive essence with the substance *.

After external food has been obtained as a condition, internal nutrition produces materiality, it feeds materiality and thus, this is nutrition.

Thus he said that its function is to feed materiality. 

Therefore, because it generates the octads with nutrition as the eighth ** constituent in this body, its manifestation is consolidating.

With external food as a condition the function of nutrition is feeding materiality, and thus, he said, its proximate cause is a physical basis that must be fed.

*****

*The substance (vatthu) is the morsel made food that is swallowed. This external food contains nutritive essence that pervades the body and sustains it. Nutritive essence arises and falls away.

** The eight inseparable rupas are the four Great Elements, visible object, odour, flavour and nutritive essence. These octads arise and fall away in a living body and also in dead matter. Only in a living body nutrition can produce new rupas.

*****

Quote from the Guide to Conditional Relations, U. Narada (p.55, 56). He deals with physical and mental nutrition that are conditions. (The mental nutritions are: contact, volition and contact). Here I shall quote what is said about physical nutrition:

15. Nutriment Condition (Aahaara paccaya).

<...The force of support is the essential function. Although nutriment condition has two functions, that of support and that of production, the former is its essential function.

How Physical Nutriment supports. When food is taken, the nutritive essence in it not only produces nutriment-produced matter but also supports kamma-produced matter, mind-produced matter and temperature-produced matter in the whole body by keeping them strong and fresh. That is why these three kinds of matter continue to arise successively.

When there is no support by physical (i.e. external) nutriment because food is not taken, the nutritive essence in each of the types of matter produced by the four causes in the whole body (i.e. internal nutriment) carries out the function of support only. But when food is taken, the nutritive essence from external food carries out the other function of production, i.e. producing nutriment-produced matter. Human beings commonly can go without food for seven days only...

How Nutritive Essence Supports Womb-born Beings, etc.

Before the nutritive essence in the food taken by the mother is distributed throughout the foetus, the latter is supported by the nutritive essence in each of the types of matter produced by the three causes. But when it is distributed, nutriment-produced matter is produced for the first time and from then onwards nutritive essence in foods supports the body for the whole period of an existence...>

(See also Co to the Sammaditthi Sutta, under: physical food.)

 

Nina’s Remarks: We should remember that the Tiika is not a medical treatise. It emphasizes the specific conditions necessary for the body to function. The goal is detachment from the idea of self or mine. We take all our bodily functions for granted, but we should remember that many different conditioning factors are needed for its functioning. All the ruupas that constitute the body arise and fall away immediately. They are replaced so long as there are conditions for life to continue.

As we read in the Guide to Conditional Relations, <When food is taken, the nutritive essence in it not only produces nutriment-produced matter but also supports kamma-produced matter, mind-produced matter and temperature-produced matter in the whole body by keeping them strong and fresh. That is why these three kinds of matter continue to arise successively.>

This passage helps us to see all the more how intricate the different conditioning factors are that cooperate to cause the functioning of the body.

We can be reminded that the body we cling to are only conditioned ruupas, not mine. We cling to our physical health, but we are not the owner of the body. Kamma, citta, temperature and nutrition originate ruupas of the body during our life. It depends on kamma how long life lasts.

****



#8 RobertK

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Posted 16 October 2014 - 08:06 AM

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 71

 

Vis. 71. These, firstly, are the material instances that have been handed

down in the texts.(30) But in the Commentary others have been added as

follows: matter as power, matter as procreation, matter as birth, matter

as sickness; and, in the opinion of some, matter as torpor.

 

N: The monks of the Abhayagiri monastery had opinions different from the Mahaavihaara (Great Monastery, where Buddhaghosa was residing). The opinions on ruupas of the monks of Abhayagiri were rejected. They wanted to add other ruupas to the twentyeight rupas as handed down in the texts. We see here that Buddhaghosa was most conscientious in rendering other opinions. At other places we can read: some teachers say... (keci, some). The Tiika gives a long explanation about torpor, middha which the monks of Abhayagiri said to be an additional ruupa. (See also Exposition of the Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 61). ........

(I omitted these opinions)

 

continuation of the text of the Vis:

So this derived matter of twenty-four sorts and the aforesaid matter of

the primary elements, which is of four sorts, together amount to

twenty-eight sorts, neither more nor less.

Pali Vis:  iti ida.m catuviisatividha.m upaadaaruupa.m pubbe vutta.m catubbidha.m bhuutaruupa~ncaati a.t.thaviisatividha.m ruupa.m hoti anuunamanadhika.m.

 

Tiika:

 “Itii”ti ida.m “a.t.thaviisatividhan”ti iminaa sambandhitabba.m,

As to the expression, this, this should be connected with the expression, twentyfour kinds, 

 

iminaa vuttakkamena a.t.thaviisatividha.m hotiiti.

by this procedure that was mentiond there are twentyeight kinds (of materiality).

 

So ca kho paa.liya.m aagatanayenevaati anuunataa veditabbaa.

And this should truly be known as being complete since it is handed down in this manner in the texts. 

 

Anadhikabhaavo pana dassito eva.

This is shown as being indeed not more (than that).

*****

 English of Tiika:

 

As to the expression, this, this should be connected with the expression, twentyfour kinds, 

by this procedure that was mentiond there are twentyeight kinds (of materiality).

And this should truly be known as being complete since it is handed down in this manner in the texts. 

This is shown as being indeed not more (than that).

*****

Remarks:

The Tiika gives an additional emphasis to the text of the Vis. about the number of rupas as exactly twentyeight. There are not more than these twentyeight, as the monks of Abhayagiri suggested. They are all ruupas, realities, not ideas or concepts.

*****

Vis. XIV,  72:

And all that [matter of twenty-eight sorts] is of one kind as

'not-root-cause, root-causeless, dissociated from root-cause, with

conditions, mundane, subject to cankers' (Dhs. 584), and so on.

It is of two kinds as internal and external, gross and subtle, far and

near, produced ('nipphanna') and unproduced, sensitive matter and

insensitive matter, faculty and non-faculty, clung to and not-clung to,

and so on.

 

Nina’s Intro to Tiika Vis. 72 (part I).

 

The Tiika explains all the expressions of the Vis. used for: being without roots. This part seems very technical, but it is truly about life.

Vis text: And all that [matter of twenty-eight sorts] is of one kind as

not-root-cause, root-causeless, dissociated from root-cause.

Vis. Pali: na hetu, ahetuka.m, hetuvippayutta.m.

Tiika explains: non-root, na-hetu, rootless, ahetuka.m, dissociated from roots, hetuvippayutta.m.

Sampayutta is associated with and vippayutta is dissociated from. These expressions are used in the classifications of cittas. Kusala citta, for example, can be associated with or dissociated from pa~n~naa. Akusala citta can be associated with or dissociated from wrong view.  

Ruupa is na-hetu, meaning, non-root. Ruupa it is not one of the akusala roots that are attachment, aversion, ignorance; or one of the sobhana (beautiful) roots that are: non-attachment, non-aversion and wisdom.

In the Abhidhamma all realities can be classified as: root (hetu) and non-root (na-hetu). Citta, all the cetasikas other than these roots and nibbaana are non-root.

In Pali the terms ahetuka, without roots, and hetu-vippayutta, dissociated from roots are used. The term ahetuka is used for citta without roots, ahetuka citta. In the English translation the meaning of these terms cannot be rendered justice. It seems that there is a mere repetition of the same terms.

However, the Tiika text emphasizes with all these synonyms that ruupa is entirely different from naama, that it is not associated with any of those roots. Ruupa does not know anything. How could the Element of earth, solidity or hardness, be angry or attached? How could eyesense or visible object be attached? This seems obvious, but in the development of insight doubts are bound to arise when they actually appear. For example, the root of dosa, anger or fear, conditions bodily phenomena, such as hardness. Sati can be aware of one object at a time, but we may be confused as to the object that presents itself: is it the naama which  has aversion or is it the ruupa that is just hardness? Hardness is non-root. When visible object is seen, we can be reminded that it is only ruupa, not a person. Visible object cannot be angry or attached, it is non-root. When we burn ourselves the element of heat impinges on the bodysense. Heat and bodysense are ruupas, they are non-root, they cannot be accompanied by aversion. Painful bodily feeling and mental unhappy feeling may arise closely one after the other. It is difficult to distinguish these different dhammas. Painful bodily feeling is ahetuka vipaakacitta and unhappy feeling is sahetuka, it accompanies the root that is dosa.

At the first stage of insight naama and ruupa are clearly distinguished from each other. It is beneficial to reflect on this concise text of the Tiika, it can remind us that understanding of the difference between naama and ruupa should be developed. 

The word veneyya, people to be taught, is used in this text. Because of people’s different capacities to absorb the Dhamma, different methods of teaching are used. We see the Buddha’s great compassion in using different terms and different approaches.

 

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Tiika of Vis. 72.  Sampayuttadhammaraasi hinoti etena pati.t.thahatiihi hetu, muula.t.thena lobhaadiko, alobhaadiko ca, taadiso hetu na hotiiti nahetu.

 

As to the group of associated dhammas, this is the term for the roots that are foundations, meaning the roots of attachment etc., and non-attachment, and so on, and non-root means that there are not such roots.

 

Naassa hetu atthiiti ahetuka.m, sahetukapa.tiyogibhaavato hetunaa saha na uppajjatiiti attho.

Rootless (ahetuka) means that there is no root for it (ruupa), meaning, it does not arise with a root since the state of being accompanied with roots is inapplicable.

 

Ahetukameva hetunaa vippayuttataaya hetuvippayutta.m.

Since it is indeed rootless (ahetuka) it is because of its dissociation from roots, thus, it is dissociated from roots (hetuvippayutta).

 

Dhammanaanattaabhaavepi hi saddatthanaanattena veneyyavasena dukantaradesanaa hotiiti dukapadavasena ceta.m vutta.m.

Also, because there are different kinds of dhammas, different kinds of faithful and different people who are capable of being taught, there is the teaching of  additional compounds, and thus this was expressed by way of compound    words *.

****

English:

As to the group of associated dhammas, this is the term for the roots that are foundations, meaning the roots of attachment etc., and non-attachment, and so on, and non-root means that there are not such roots.

Rootless (ahetuka) means that there is no root for it (ruupa), meaning, it does not arise with a root since the state of being accompanied with roots is inapplicable.

Since it is indeed rootless (ahetuka) it is because of its dissociation from roots, thus, it is dissociated from roots (hetuvippayutta).

 Also, because there are different kinds of dhammas, different kinds of faithful and different people who are capable of being taught, there is the teaching of  additional compounds, and thus this was expressed by way of compound    words *.

_________

*Hetu-vippayutta, dissociated from roots is a compound.

*****

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Text Vis. XIV, 72 (part 2)

with conditions, mundane, subject to cankers' (Dhs. 584), and so on.

It is of two kinds as internal and external, gross and subtle, far and

near, produced ('nipphanna') and unproduced, sensitive matter and

insensitive matter, faculty and non-faculty, clung to and not-clung to,

and so on.

 

Pali: sappaccaya.m lokiya.m saasavamevaatiaadinaa nayena ekavidha.m.

 ajjhattika.m baahira.m, o.laarika.m sukhuma.m, duure santike, nipphanna.m anipphanna.m, pasaadaruupa.m napasaadaruupa.m, indriya.m anindriya.m, upaadi.n.na.m anupaadi.n.nantiaadivasena duvidha.m.

 

 Relevant text Vis 72:

...with conditions, mundane, subject to cankers' (Dhs. 584), and so on.

sappaccaya.m lokiya.m saasavamevaatiaadinaa nayena ekavidha.m.

 

Tiika Vis. 72 (part 2) Paccayaadhiinavuttitaaya saha paccayenaati sappaccaya.m.

As to the expression, with conditions, this is with reference to what was said about conditions and so on *. 

 

Attano paccayehi loke niyutta.m, viditanti vaa lokiya.m.

It (ruupa) is by its own conditions joined to the world, or it is known as  mundane **. 

 

Aa bhavagga.m, aa gotrabhu.m vaa savantiiti aasavaa, saha aasavehiiti saasava.m, aasavehi aalambitabbanti attho.

The intoxicants (cankers) flow up to the topmost plane of existence, and up to the adaptation-consciousness, and thus they are intoxicants *** , (materiality) occurs with the intoxicants and thus it is co-intoxicant, and this means that it takes hold of the intoxicants ****.

 

Aadisaddena sa.myojaniiya.m oghaniiya.m yoganiiya.m niivara.niiya.m sa.mkilesika.m paraama.t.tha.m

As to the expression, ‘and so on’ (subject to cankers and so on), this refers to its being object of clinging for the fetters, the floods, the yokes, the hindrances, the defilements *****.

 

acetasika.m cittavippayutta.m naruupaavacara.m na-aruupaavacara.m na-apariyaapanna.m

Ruupa is not cetasika, dissociated from citta, not jhaanacitta of material or immaterial jhaana, it is not unincluded (not lokuttara),

 

aniyata.m aniyyaanika.m aniccanti evamaadiina.m sa"ngaho da.t.thabbo.

it is inconstant, not leading out (of the cycle), it is indeed impermanent, and thus this treatise should be regarded.

*****

English:

 Relevant text Vis 72:

...with conditions, mundane, subject to cankers' (Dhs. 584), and so on.

Tiika Vis. 72 (part 2)

As to the expression, with conditions, this is with reference to what was said about conditions and so on *.  

It (rupa) is by its own conditions joined to the world, or it is known as  mundane **. 

The intoxicants (cankers) flow up to the topmost plane of existence, and up to the adaptation-consciousness, and thus they are intoxicants *** , (materiality) occurs with the intoxicants and thus it is co-intoxicant, and this means that it takes hold of the intoxicants ****.

As to the expression, ‘and so on’ (subject to cankers and so on), this refers to its being object of clinging for the fetters, the floods, the yokes, the hindrances, the defilements *****.

Ruupa is not cetasika, dissociated from citta, not jhaanacitta of material or immaterial jhaana, it is not unincluded (not lokuttara),

it is inconstant, not leading out (of the cycle), it is indeed impermanent, and thus this treatise should be regarded.

_______________

* Ruupa arises because of conditions and it is itself a condition for other ruupas and for naama.

**Expositor I, p. 63: States which are joined to the world by being included therein are termed worldly. All those ruupas experienced through the six doors are the world in which we live. 

*** The word association is lost in the English translation: “aa” is “up to” and “savati” is to flow. Aa-sava is canker or intoxicant. They are: the intoxicant of sensuous desire, of desire for rebirth, of wrong view and of ignorance. They are to be found even in the highest plane of existence. They are only eradicated stage by stage by the lokuttara magga-cittas. The adaptation-consciousness, gotrabhuu,  is the last mundane citta arising in the process during which enlightenment occurs.

**** the co-intoxicants are the ruupas which are the objects of intoxicants that arise. Remark: ruupa is the object of numerous kinds of defilements. However, its duration is extremely short, only as long as seventeen moments of citta and then it is gone completely. It is very insignificant, but we think with intoxicants about ruupa and make it into something very great and important. 

*****These are different defilements classified as groups: the fetters fetter us to the cycle of birth and death, the floods submerge us in the cycle, the bonds tie us to it, the hindrances obstruct us, the defilements are impure and defile the mind.   

Note: ruupa is not cetasika, not associated with citta: this reminds us that ruupa is entirely different from nama and should be known as such.

*******

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Vis. 73. This part gives an all over review of all the twentyeight rupas we have studied. They are all included in ruupakkhandha. Khandha is past, future or present, it arises and falls away.

 

A selection of parts of the Visuddhimagga and its Tiika:

 

Vis. 73:

 Herein, the five kinds beginning with the eye are 'internal' because

they occur as an integral part of the selfhood (in oneself); the rest

are 'external' because they are external to that selfhood (personality).

Pali:  tattha  cakkhaadipa~ncavidha.m attabhaava.m adhikicca pavattattaa ajjhattika.m, sesa.m tato baahirattaa baahira.m.

 Nina: the Pali word attabhaava, self nature, is here translated as selfhood or personality. It can also be translated as individuality.

The Expositor (II, p. 404) explains: “Because it is grasped by foolish folk, as ‘this body or this collection of the five aggregates is my self,’ therefore both the bodily frame or this collection of the five aggregates is called ‘self-state’ (attabhaava, i.e. personality).

‘Included in personality’ is comprised in and depending on just that.”

 

Individuality can be used to refer to the ruupas in one’s body.

 

The Tiika explains: 

Aahito aha.m maano etthaati attaa, attabhaavo.

Self includes here “I” conceit, and thus there is the word selfhood, personality.

 

Ta.m attaana.m adhikicca uddissa pavattaa ajjhattaa indriyabaddhadhammaa, tesu bhava.m ajjhattika.m, cakkhaadi.

Beginning with the eye, they occur as an integral part of the individuality (in oneself), internal, dhammas that are connected with faculties, and thus their nature is internal. 

 

Text Visuddhimagga: The eighteen kinds of matter, that is to say, the four elements, the thirteen beginning with the eye, and physical nutriment, are 'produced' because they can be discerned through their own individual nature,

having exceeded the [purely conceptual] states of [matter as] delimitation, [matter as] alteration, and [matter as] characteristic; the rest, being the opposite, are 'unproduced'.

Pali: catasso dhaatuyo, cakkhaadiini terasa, kaba.liikaaraahaaro caati a.t.thaarasavidha.m ruupa.m paricchedavikaaralakkha.nabhaava.m atikkamitvaa sabhaaveneva pariggahetabbato nipphanna.m, sesa.m tabbipariitataaya anipphanna.m.

 

Remark: The Pali does not have the words that are in brackets: the [purely conceptual] states of [matter as] delimitation....

It has: paricchedavikaaralakkha.nabhaava.m atikkamitvaa, meaning, having gone beyond the nature of delimitation, [matter as] alteration, and [matter as] characteristic.

They are concrete matter, different from characteristics of ruupas such as delimitation (the space that separates groups) etc.  All of them are included in the twentyeight rupas. The expression “purely conceptual” could imply that they are not paramattha dhammas.

 

*******

Text Vis 72: ...The five kinds beginning with the eye are 'sensitive matter' through their being conditions for the apprehension of visible data, etc., because they are, as it were, bright like the surface of a looking glass.

Pali: cakkhaadipa~ncavidha.m ruupaadiina.m gaha.napaccayabhaavena aadaasatala.m viya vippasannattaa pasaadaruupa.m

 

Tiika:

Sotaadiinampi cakkhuno viya pasannasabhaavattaa eva yathaasaka.m visayaggaha.napaccayataati dassento aaha “cakkhaadi..pe.. pasaadaruupan”ti.

He taught with reference to the earsense in like manner as to the eyesense, namely, that they that they are, because of their nature of brightness and of the condition of apprehending each their own object, "beginning with the eye... sensitive matter”.

 

Nina: There is a word association that is lost in the English translation: pasanna: bright, vipassanna: very bright, and pasaada: clearness, brightness. Pasaada rupas are the sense-organs, or sensitive matter that is bright. They are compared in the Vis with the surface of a looking glass. When an object impinges upon them it can appear clearly to the relevant sense-cognition. Seeing clearly experiences visible object that impinges on the pasaada ruupa of the eyesense.

 

Text Vis: Sensitive matter itself, together with the three beginning with the

femininity faculty, is 'faculty' in the sense of predominance.

Pali:itthindriyaadittayena saddhi.m adhipatiya.t.thena indriya.m

 

Tiika:

Adhipatiya.t.thenaati ettha cakkhaadiina.m taava pa~ncanna.m cakkhuvi~n~naa.naadiisu aadhipateyya.m tesa.m  tumandabhaavaanuvattanato,

As to the expression, in the sense of predominance, this means here, that the eye and so on are the rulers over the five sense-cognitions of eye-consciousness and so on, in as far as the latter are compliant (to the “rulers”) in a keen or slow manner *.

 

Tiika: itthipurisindriyadvayassa sakicce jiivitindriyassa sahajaruupaanupaalane.

As to (predominance of) the pair of the faculties of femininity and masculinity, these have each their own task, and as to the life-faculty, this maintains the conascent materiality.

 

Vis text: What we shall later describe as 'kamma-born' (par. 75 and Ch. XX, par. 27) is 'clung to' because that is 'clung-to', [that is, acquired] by kamma.

 Pali:

ya.m kammajanti parato vakkhaama, ta.m kammena upaadi.n.nattaa upaadi.n.na.m

 

Tiika:

Upaadinnattaati gahitattaa.

As to the expression, clung to, this is in the sense of acquired.

 

Kammanibbatta~nhi “mameta.m phala.m”nti kammunaa gahita.m viya hoti apa.tikkhepato.

It is not refuted that originated by kamma means as it were acquired by kamma, with the thought, “this fruit is mine”. 

*****

_________________

* The eyesense may be keen or slow, and this is conditioned by kamma, by sickness or decay. It is the same with the other senses. This is compared with being prompt or slow in following the ruler, the faculty.

Remark: The Vis. said that the senses are bright like the surface of a looking glass. By means of them the relevant sense objects appear very clearly to the sense-cognitions. We are very impressed by what we experience through the senses and attach great importance to it. The world comes to us through the senses. We are attached to the image of a whole, a long lasting world with people. But actually, there is only one moment at a time of experiencing an object, and all these realities we are attached to do not last.   

******

 

Vis. 73

 Herein, the five kinds beginning with the eye are 'internal' because

they occur as an integral part of the selfhood (in oneself); the rest

are 'external' because they are external to that selfhood (personality).

The nine beginning with the eye and the three elements excepting the

water element, making twelve kinds in all, are to be taken as 'gross'

because of impinging; the rest are 'subtle' because they are the

opposite of that. What is subtle is 'far' because it is difficult to

penetrate, the other is 'near' because it is easy to penetrate. The

eighteen kinds of matter, that is to say, the four elements, the

thirteen beginning with the eye, and physical nutriment, are 'produced'

because they can be discerned through their own individual essences,

having exceeded the states of [matter as] delimitation, [matter as] alteration, and [matter as] characteristic (see par. 77); the rest, being the opposite, are 'unproduced'.

The five kinds beginning with the eye are 'sensitive matter' through their being conditions for the apprehension of visible data, etc., because they are,

as it were, bright like the surface of a looking glass; the rest are

'insensitive matter' because they are the opposite of that. [451]

Sensitive matter itself, together with the three beginning with the

femininity faculty, is 'faculty' in the sense of predominance; the rest

are 'not-faculty' because they are the opposite of that. What we shall

later describe as 'kamma-born' (par. 75 and Ch. XX, par. 27) is 'clung

to' because that is 'clung-to', [that is, acquired] by kamma. The rest

are 'not-clung to" because they are the opposite of that.

 

Vis. 74

74. Again, all matter is of three kinds according to the visible

(sanidassana) triad, the kamma born triad, etc. (see Dhs., p.2). Herein,

as regards the gross, a visible datum is 'visible with impact'; the rest

are 'invisible with impact'; all the subtle kinds are 'invisible without

impact'. So firstly it is of three kinds according to the visible triad.

 

Remark Nina:

Dhammas can be classified as triads. We see for example in the Gradual Sayings, and even more in the Abhidhamma that dhammas are grouped as ones, twos, threes, etc. This may seem technical, but there are several reasons for it. It is in this way made easier to recite and memorize, especially at the time when there was only the oral way of handing down the Dhamma. The classification by way of numbers is a way of teaching different aspects for people with different inclinations: for people who are capable to be taught (veneya satta). This method is also a recapitulation and it serves as a way to verify for ourselves whether we have really understood what we learnt.

In this case there are all the twentyeight rupas dealt with again, but now under other aspects. Here the visible triad is dealt with first. The only rupa that is visible is visible object or colour. The gross rupas are the five senses and the relevant sense objects that impinge on them. Only visible object is visible and impinging, the others are invisible and impinging. As to the third of the visible triad: those are the subtle rupas that are invisible and not impinging.

 

We read in the Matika of the Dhammasangani:

22: States [dhammas] that are visible and reacting; invisible and reacting; neither.

We read in § 980:

<What is that [material] form which is invisible, non-reacting, and included in the sphere of [mental] states?

Sex... and bodily nutriment.>

The sphere of [mental] states is dhammaayatana, which includes the subtle ruupas that can be experienced only through the mind-door.

These are: feminine faculty, masculine faculty, life-faculty, bodily intimation, verbal intimation, space, the three rupas of changeability (lightness, plasticity and wieldiness), the four ruupas as characteristics, nutrition.

We are reminded that there is only one ruupa that is visible: colour or visible object. It seems that we are seeing all day long, but seeing falls away and then countless other types of cittas arise. If we had not learnt about the cittas arising and falling away in processes and also in between processes we would not know that each citta falls away immediately. 

It seems that we can see people and things, but we are clinging to an image we remember. When we touch something tangible object is experienced through the bodysense. Tangible object is invisible. The aspect of the visible triad can remind us of the truth. Hardness is invisible and impinging. The subtle ruupas do not impinge, they are invisible and not reacting. One may believe that verbal intimation impinges on the earsense, but this is not so. As we read in the Vis: <Verbal intimation is the mode (conformation) and the alteration (deformation) in the consciousness-originated earth element that causes

that occurrence in speech utterance which mode and alteration are a

condition for the knocking together of clung-to matter. Its function

is to display intention. It is manifested as the cause of the voice in

speech.> Thus, it is not the speech sound, it is a subtle ruupa that is the condition for it.

Studying this triad can be of help to correct wrong understanding of dhammas.

****

 "The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV, 75

 

75. According to the kamma-born triad, etc., however, that born from

kamma is 'kamma-born'; that born from a condition other than that is

'not-kamma-born'; that not born from anything is

'neither-kamma-born-nor-not-kamma-born'

That born from consciousness is 'consciousness-born'; that born from a

condition other than consciousness is 'not-consciousness-born'; that not

born from anything is 'neither-consciousness-

born-nor-not-consciousness-born'.

 

That born from nutriment is 'nutriment-born'; that born from a condition

other than that is 'not-nutriment-born'; that not born from anything is

'neither-nutriment-born-nor-not-

nutriment-born'.

 

That born from temperature is 'temperature-born'; that born from a

condition other than that is 'not-temperature-born'; that not born from

anything is 'neither-temperature-born- nor-not-temperature-born'.

************

Nina’s Intro to Vis 75: This is again a different classification of all ruupas. Ruupas of the body can be produced by kamma, by citta, by nutrition and by temperature. Ruupas outside the body are produced only by temperature.

Past kamma that has fallen away keeps on producing the sense-bases of eye, etc. which are faculties (leaders in their own field), and the other faculties. Nobody can make them arise, they depend on kamma. We are reminded of the other causes that produce ruupas of the body, and only the four characteristics inherent in all ruupas are not produced by any of the four causes. We read: what was born, what is born and what will be born, also all that is called kamma-born. Kamma produced ruupas of the body in the past, and will do so in the future and it does at this very moment.

What U Narada wrote in his Introduction to the translation of Dhåtu-Kathå,

an Abhidhamma text (PTS:Discourse on Elements) can be applied to ruupas, these are only elements. We read:

 

„The elements are not permanently present. They arise to exhibit their own

characteristic natures and perform their own characteristic functions when

the proper conditions are satisfied, and they cease after their span of

duration. Thus no being has any control over the arising and ceasing of

the elements and they are not at his mercy or will however mighty and

powerful he may be.  In other words, the elements  have no regard for

anyone, show no favour to anyone and do not accede to the wishes of

anyone.  They are entirely dependent on conditions.”

 

Tiika, Vis 75:

Kammato jaatanti ettha ya.m ekantakammasamu.t.thaana.m a.t.thindriyaani, 

As to kamma-born these are here the eight faculties which are solely originated by kamma *, 

hadaya~ncaati navavidha.m ruupa.m,

and with the heart(base) they are thus nine kinds of materiality,

 

ya~nca navavidhe catusamu.t.thaane kammasamu.t.thaana.m navavidhameva ruupanti eva.m a.t.thaarasavidhampi kammato uppajjanato kammaja.m.

 

and besides, among the nine kinds of materiality originated by the four causes, there are nine kinds originated by kamma **, and what is kamma-born materiality is thus also eighteen kinds, since they have arisen because of kamma.

 

Ya~nhi jaata~nca ya~nca jaayati ya~nca jaayissati,

What was born, what is born and what will be born,

 

ta.m sabbampi “kammajan”ti vuccati yathaa duddhanti.

also all that is called kamma-born...

 

Tada~n~napaccayajaatanti kammato a~n~napaccayato jaata.m utucittaahaaraja.m.

 

As to the expression, born from a condition other than that, this means, born from a condition other than kamma, namely, temperature, consciousness and nutrition.

 

Nakutocijaatanti lakkha.naruupamaaha.

As to the expression, not born from anything, he said that these are the material phenomena as characteristics ***.

 

Vi~n~nattidvaya.m, saddo, aakaasadhaatu, lahutaadittaya.m cittasamu.t.thaanaani avinibbhogaruupaaniiti eta.m pa~ncadasavidha.m ruupa.m cittaja.m.

 

The pair of intimation, sound, the element of space **** , the triad of lightness, are originated by citta, and with the inseparable rupas there are thus fifteen kinds born of consciousness.

 

Aakaasadhaatu, lahutaadittaya.m, aahaarasamu.t.thaanaani avinibbhogaruupaaniiti eta.m dvaadasavidha.m ruupa.m aahaaraja.m.

The element of space and the triad of lightness etc. are originated by nutrition, and together with the inseparable rupas there are thus twelve kinds originated by nutrition.

 

Ettha sadda.m pakkhipitvaa terasavidha.m ruupa.m ututo samu.t.thita.m utuja.m.

Here sound is included and thus thirteen kinds of materiality originated by temperature are materiality born of temperature

 

Sesa.m kammajatike vuttanayaanusaareneva veditabba.m.

The remaining part should be understood in accordance with what is said with regard to the triad of kamma *****.

*****

English:

As to kamma-born these are here the eight faculties which are solely originated by kamma,  

and with the heart(base) they are thus nine kinds of materiality,

and besides, among the nine kinds of materiality originated by the four causes, there are nine kinds originated by kamma **, and what is kamma-born materiality is thus also eighteen kinds, since they have arisen because of kamma.

What was born, what is born and what will be born,

also all that is called kamma-born...

As to the expression, born from a condition other than that, this means, born from a condition other than kamma, namely, temperature, consciousness and nutrition.

As to the expression, not born from anything, he said that these are the material phenomena as characteristics ***.

The pair of intimation, sound, the element of space **** , the triad of lightness, are originated by citta, and with the inseparable rupas there are thus fifteen kinds born of consciousness.

The element of space and the triad of lightness etc. are originated by nutrition, and together with the inseparable rupas there are thus twelve kinds originated by nutrition.

Here sound is included and thus thirteen kinds of materiality originated by temperature are materiality born of temperature.

The remaining part should be understood in accordance with what is said with regard to the triad of kamma *****.

 

_________

* the eight faculties of eyesense, earsense, smelling-sense, tasting-sense, bodysense, life-faculty, femininity, masculinity. 

** The four causes of kamma, citta, temperature (utu) and nutrition. The ruupas dealt with here are sometimes originated by kamma, sometimes by one of the three other causes. These ruupas are: the eight inseparable ruupas and space. When originated by kamma the inseparable ruupas arise in a group of at least nine rupas, including life-faculty that is solely originated by kamma. As to space: this delimits the groups of ruupas originated by the four causes, arising and falling away together with them. Thus, space is reckoned as originated by the four causes. 

*** The characteristics of origination, continuity, decay and impermanence. This is explained in Vis. XIV, 80.

**** åkåsa dhåtu, the word dhåtu is used to show that it is a paramattha dhamma, not a concept.

***** The triad of consciousness-born, not-consciousness born, neither consciousness-born-nor-not-consciousness-born. As to the second one, born from a condition other than consciousness, namely, kamma, temperature, and nutrition.

As to the last one of this triad, this is again the four characteristics of all materiality.

The same with the triads of temperature and of food.

*****

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Nina’s Intro to Vis. XIV, 76.

In some of the sutta texts we read about sense-cognitions as fourfold: what is seen, heard, sensed (muta) and cognized through the mind-door. Sensed includes the experience of odour, of flavour and of tangible object. The Vis. gives the reason, stating: <The three, that is to say, odours, flavours, and tangible data, are 'sensed' (muta) because they are the objective fields of faculties that take contiguous [objective fields].> 

Contiguous, in Pali sampatta, means: reached. The Atthasalini (II, 314, p. 411) explains: <Although [in the Commentary] it is said that ‘the object is said to be in physical contact because it has reached the sense-avenue’ yet the colour of the disc of the moon, etc. , appears not in physical contact (asampatto) and at a distance. And if sound also should come slowly, having arisen from far, it should be heard after some time. Coming by serial impact and striking the sentient organ of the ear, its direction might not be evident. Hence eye and ear have an object not in physical contact...>

It is a different matter in the case of odours, flavours, and tangible object. That is why their experience is taken separately by using the term muta, sensed. It reminds us of the direct contact of these objects with the relevant sense-organs.

Thus, this is a fourfold classification of the experience of objects through the six doors, of the aayatanas. The Vis. stresses that the different elements are coming together at the right time so that there can be the experience of objects. We read about a classification of what occurs now, all the time. They exhibit their own characteristics and are gone before one can do anything about them.

The word objective field is a translation of the Pali: visaya. This means sphere or field, and it is another term for object, aaramma.na.

 

Vis. 76. Again, it is of four kinds as seen, etc., as concrete matter, etc.,

and as the physical basis tetrads, and so on.

 

Herein, the visible-data base is 'seen' because it is the objective

field of seeing. The sound base is 'heard' because it is the objective

field of hearing. The three, that is to say, odours, flavours, and

tangible data, are 'sensed' (lit. contacted) because they are the

objective fields of faculties that take contiguous [objective fields].

The rest are 'cognized' because they are the objective field of

consciousness (cognition) only. So firstly it is of four kinds according

to the seen, etc., tetrad. (32)

 *****

Tiika (all English below):

76. Di.t.thaadicatukkavasena, ruuparuupaadicatukkavasena, vatthaadicatukkavasenaati paa.tekka.m catukkasaddo yojetabbo.

The word fourfold should be applied severally with regard to the seen etc., with regard to concrete matter (ruupa-ruupa) etc., and with regard to the physical bases *. ..

 

Dassanavisayattaati cakkhuvi~n~naa.navi~n~neyyattaa.

As to the expression, the objective field of seeing, this means it is to be seen by seeing-consciousness.

 

Savanavisayattaati sotavi~n~naa.navi~n~neyyattaa.

As to the expression, the objective field of hearing, this means it is to be heard by hearing-consciousness.

 

Gandharasapho.t.thabbattayanti gandho raso pho.t.thabbanti eta.m taya.m.

As to the expression, the three, that is to say, odours, flavours, and tangible data, these are these three (that are sensed).

 

Muta.m naama mutvaa patvaa gahetabbato. Tenaaha “sampattaggaahaka-indriyavisayattaa”ti.

They are called sensed, because they are apprehended after they have been sensed and reached (the sensebase). Therefore he said, “because they are the

objective fields of faculties that take contiguous [objective fields]” **

****

English:

The word fourfold should be applied severally with regard to the seen etc., with regard to concrete matter (ruupa-ruupa) etc., and with regard to the physical    bases *. ...

As to the expression, the objective field of seeing, this means, it is to be seen by seeing-consciousness.

As to the expression, the objective field of hearing, this means, it is to be heard by hearing-consciousness.

As to the expression, the three, that is to say, odours, flavours, and tangible data, these are these three (that are sensed).

They are called sensed, because they are apprehended after they have been sensed and reached (the sensebase). Therefore he said, “because they are the

objective fields of faculties that take contiguous [objective fields]” **

________

* There is a grouping of four tetrads: The first is: what is seen, heard, sensed and cognized.

The second, third and fourth tetrads are explained in the following paragraphs.

** See the explanation above, in the Intro.

----------------------------------------------------------

The Tiika text refutes different contrarious opinions at that time about tangible object. I omitted this.

At the end of this Tiika text (English below):

Sesanti yathaavutta.m ruupaadisattavidha.m ruupa.m .thapetvaa avasi.t.tha.m ekaviisatividha.m ruupa.m.

As is said, he declares visible object and so on as sevenfold *, and the remaining materiality are twentyone kinds of materiality.

 

Vi~n~naa.nassevaati manovi~n~naa.nasseva.

As to the expression, (they are the objective field ) of consciousness only, this means, only of mind-consciousness **.

 

Avadhaara.nena ruupaayatanaadiinampi manovi~n~naa.navi~n~neyyatte niyamaabhaavato na vi~n~naataruupataati sa"nkaraabhaava.m dasseti.

By stressing this, although colour etc. are to be known by mind-consciousness too, he keeps the ruupas that are not experienced exclusively through the mind-door separate (not mixing them with the others).

*****

English:

As is said, he declares visible object and so on as sevenfold *, and the remaining materiality are twentyone kinds of materiality.

As to the expression, (they are the objective field ) of consciousness only, this means, only of mind-consciousness **.

By stressing this, although colour etc. are to be known by mind-consciousness too, he keeps the rupas that are not experienced exclusively through the mind-door separate (not mixing them with the others).

_______

* The seven ruupas that appear all the time in daily life: the three that are tangible object (the Element of Earth, appearing as hardness or softness, the Element of Heat, appearing as heat or cold, and the Element of Wind, appearing as motion or pressure), and colour, sound, odour and flavour. They are experienced through their relevant sense-doors. Together with the twentyone remaining ruupas, there are twentyeight ruupas in all.

** The twentyone remaining ruupas are experienced only through the mind-door. The seven ruupas mentioned above are experienced each through the relevant sense-door and in the succeeding mind-door process through the mind-door.

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Visuddhimagga XIV,  77.

77. Here, however, 'produced matter' is 'concrete matter'; the

space-element is 'delimiting matter'; those from 'bodily intimation' up

to 'wieldiness' are 'matter as alteration'; birth, ageing and

dissolution are 'matter as characteristic'. So it is of four kinds as

concrete matter and so on.

 

  Tiika 77:

Nina’s Intro: a recapitulation.

Rúpas can be classified as sabhåva rúpas, rúpas with their own distinct nature, and asabhåva rúpas, rúpas without their own distinct nature. The sabhåva rúpas are also called “produced”, whereas the asabhåva rúpas are also called “unproduced”. The twelve gross rúpas (the five sense-organs, and the sense objects of visible object, sound, odour, flavour and three of the great elements that are tangible object) and six among the subtle rúpas that are: cohesion, nutrition, life faculty, heart-base, femininity and masculinity are rúpas each with their own distinct nature and characteristic, they are sabhåva rúpas. Thus there are eighteen sabhåva ruupas or produced ruupas in all.

The other ten subtle rúpas do not have their own distinct nature, they are asabhåva rúpas or unproduced ruupas. Among these are the two kinds of intimation, bodily intimation and speech intimation, which are a “certain, unique change” in the eight inseparable rúpas produced by citta. Moreover, the three qualities of lightness, plasticity and wieldiness that can be classified together with the two rúpas of intimation as vikåra rúpas (rúpa as changeability or alteration). Furthermore, there is the rúpa space (akåsa or pariccheda rúpa) that delimits the groups of rúpa. Also included are the four rúpas that are characteristics of rúpa, namely origination, continuity, decay and impermanence.

 

 

 A selection from the Tiika:

Vis text: Here, however, 'produced matter' is 'concrete matter'.

 

Tiika: 77. Nipphannaruupa.m panettha ruuparuupa.m naamaati

“Here, however, 'produced matter' is called 'concrete matter' ”

Nina: The Tiika explains that concrete matter is included among the twentyeight kinds of materiality and that it is associated with matter as characteristics.

N: All materiality has the characteristics of origination, continuity, decay and breaking up.

Tiika: Ruppana.m ruupa.m, ta.m etassa atthiiti ..

Materiality that is molested, this is the meaning of it...

N: Ruppana is a word association with ruupa, and ruppana means being molested. The Dispeller I, (Ch 1, p. 3) explains: it is being molested (disturbed or battered) by cold, heat, hunger, etc. We read: “it is well-beaten; it is oppressed, it is broken...”

Concrete matter is the translation of ruupa-ruupa. The Tiika explains that the reduplication in ruupa-ruupa is used in a way similar to dukkha-dukkha.

Dukkha can mean: dukkha-dukkha, suffering that is obvious such as bodily and mental suffering, dukkha because of change and dukkha as characteristic inherent in all conditioned dhammas.

 

Tiika text: ruppanasabhaava.m ruupanti attho...

Evenso the word ruupa-ruupa means that it has a nature of being molested...

 

Yadi eva.m, aakaasadhaatu-aadiina.m katha.m ruupabhaavoti?

How has the element of space and so on (that is not produced) the nature of materiality?

 

Nipphannaruupassa paricchedavikaaralakkha.nabhaavato taggatikamevaati “ruupan”tveva vuccati.

He called them just materiality because they have the nature of being the separation, changeability and being characteristics of produced materiality, and just referred to that.

Nina: remarks: Also the unproduced materiality is called ruupa, because they are attributes of the ruupas that are produced, thus, of concrete matter (ruupa-ruupa). They delimit the groups of ruupa, they are changeability of ruupa (the intimations that are a certain unique change of the elements, lightness etc.) and the four characteristics inherent in all ruupas.

Thus, as the Vis. text states, ruupas can, in this way, be classified as fourfold. Concrete matter is one class, and the unproduced materiality is classified as threefold. 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Intro to Vis. XIV, 78. This section deals first with the ruupas that are physical base and doorway in a sense-door process. A physical base, vatthu, is the place where a particular citta originates. Seeing originates at the eye-base, for example. The doorway is the means through which citta experiences an object. The eyesense is the doorway for citta that experiences visible object impinging on that doorway. Kamma produces the sense organs that are bases as well as doorways for the cittas concerned and also the heart-base. These ruupas produced by kamma are conditions for citta, they condition it by way of dependence-condition (nissaya-paccaya).

It may seem that we can see and hear at the same time, but the study of the Abhidhamma can help us to understand that seeing and hearing arise dependent each on a different base and experiencing a different object through the appropriate dooway. When we have more understanding of the conditions for seeing, hearing and the other cittas arising in a process, we shall understand the meaning of anattaa. There is no self in the experiencing. We should not forget that the goal of our study is the understanding of the present moment.

 

As to bodily intimation and speech intimation which are not concrete matter but an alteration in the elements, these are originated by citta. They are doorways of kamma. Kamma can be performed through body, speech and mind. When we stretch out our hand to give, there is kusala kamma through the body-door. When we speak falsehood there is akusala kamma through speech. We read in the Expositor (p.1220: <The action of one speaking falsehood, etc., by a sign of the hand is an act of speech, but the door is that of the body. Thus an immoral act of speech also arises in the body-door.>

 

Text Vis. XIV,78. Here, however, what is called materiality of the heart is 'physical basis, not door' (see DhsA. 82f.); the two intimations are 'door, not

physical basis'; sensitive matter is 'both physical basis and door'; the

rest are 'neither physical basis nor door'. So it is of four kinds according to the physical basis tetrad.

 

Tiika 78: English:(See my remarks interspersed and the note below.)

 

Consciousness and mental factors abide here, they occur here, thus, it is a base, materiality that has become a support (base) for the cittas that are connected with it. This is sixfold. 

 

Nina: The five sense-bases that are bases for the sense-cognitions and the heartbase that is base for all other cittas.

 

Text: Here the materiality of the heartbase is only a base for mind-element and mind-consciousness element.

Nina: Mind-element (mano-dhaatu): adverting-consciousness (first citta in a sense-door process) and the two types of receiving-consciousness, sampaticchana-citta, one being kusala vipaaka-citta and one akusala vipaaka-citta, arising after the sense-cognitions.

Mind-consciousness-element (mano-vi~n~naa.na-dhaatu): all cittas, except the five sense-cognitions and the three kinds of cittas classified as mind-element. It includes cittas experiencing an object through six doors as well as door-freed cittas, cittas not arising in processes, namely, rebirth-consciousness, bhavanga-cittas, dying-consciousness.

 

Text: It is not a doorway for those (cittas) that have another support such as in the case of the eye.  

 

N: The heart-base is not the mind-door. The mind-door is the last bhavanga-citta arising before the mind-door process begins.

 

Text: In as far as the eye etc. is concerned, this is a doorway for the receiving-consciousness and so on in the process, but this is not so in the case of the heartbase.  

Therefore it is said: “Here, however, what is called materiality of the heart is physical basis, not door”

The two intimations are doorways, because they are the doors of kamma.

 

Nina: Kamma can be performed by the doorways of body, speech and mind. Bodily intimation and speech intimation are the doorways of kusala kamma and akusala kamma.

Text: They are not base because there is no citta arising in dependence on them.

The materiality that are the sense organs are base for seeing-consciousness and so on, which are thus dependent on that base itself,

and doorway for the receiving-consciousness and so on that are dependent on another base.

 

Nina: A sense organ such as eyesense is base as well as doorway for seeing. The eyesense functions as doorway for all the cittas of the eye-door process, such as receiving-consciousness, investigating-consciousness and so on. The doorway is the means through which they experience visible object. However, eyesense it is not the physical base for them, they are dependent on the heart-base.

Text: The remaining twentyone rupas on the contrary are neither doorway nor base.

Nina: The five sense-bases, the heart-base and the two intimations are eight kinds. The remaining ruupas among the twentyeight ruupas are thus twentyone rupas.

 

*****

 

Visuddhimagga XIV,  79.

Again, it is of five kinds as born of one, born of two, born of

three, born of four, and not born of anything.

Herein, what is kamma-born only or consciousness-born only is called

'born of one'. Of these, materiality of the faculties, together with the

heart-basis, is kamma-born only; the two intimations are

consciousness-born only. But what is born [now] of consciousness and

[now] of temperature is called 'born of two'. That is the sound base

only.(33) What is born of temperature, consciousness, and nutriment

[452] is called 'born of three'. But that is the three beginning with

'lightness' only. What is born from the four beginning with kamma is

called 'born of four'. That is all the rest except 'matter as

characteristic'.

-

Tiika 79 (for Pali, see below):

“Born from one”, means: only born from one cause.

Is it not so that there is no arising of what is conditioned by only one cause?

True, this does not exist, but here born of one means born by (one of) the conditions that generate materiality.

 

Nina: It means materiality originated solely by kamma or by any one of the other three factors.

The way different conditions operate is very intricate. For instance, kamma produces at the time of birth three decads of ruupas, and heat is among these. This heat, when the rebirth-consciousness has fallen away, produces in its turn other ruupas. However, when it is said, born solely from kamma, other conditions are not taken into account.

 

Tiika Text:

He does not consider (here) another condition for the arising of materiality apart from the condition that generates materiality.

 

Nina: Thus, only kamma, citta, temperature or nutrition that originates materiality is taken into account here.

 

Tiika:As to born of two etc. this is according to the same method.

As to the expression, because of these (it is of five kinds), this means, according to the classification of these.

As to the expression kamma-born only, this means born solely from kamma.

As to the expression consciousness-born only has here the same meaning.

As to the expression born from consciousness and from temperature, this should be understood as sometimes born from consciousness and sometimes born from temperature.

 

Nina: Sound that originates from temperature is, for example, the sound of wind or of a waterfall. Sound that originates from consciousness is speech sound.

We read in the “Manual of Abhidhamma” (Abhidhammattha Sangaha), in the notes of Ven Narada: <Articulate sounds are caused by mind; inarticulate sounds are caused by utu (temperature). Musical notes caused by men are produced by utu, conditioned by mind.>

 

Tiika Text:

That is born of two, thus, by two factors. Elsewhere, these two factors should also be understood according to this method.

 

Nina:  That is sound only. 

*****

Note 33(part of this Tiika), to the Vis. text: <But what is born [now] of consciousness and

[now] of temperature is called 'born of two'. That is the sound base

only.>

 

Nina’s remarks: There are different opinions about sound. Some teachers think that, when originated by citta, it must always be cognizable, others believe that sound is purely mental. For us today these debates may not be very relevant, but at that time it was an issue, as we shall see in the Kathaavatthu and its Co. The Great Commentary is the authoritive Commentary that Buddhaghosa found in the Great Monastery and that he translated from Singhala into Pali.

I omitt the opinions of different teachers.

 

--------------------



#9 RobertK

RobertK

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Posted 16 October 2014 - 08:07 AM

Pali-English:

Tiika 79:

Ekato eva jaata.m ekaja.m.

“Born from one”, means: only born from one cause.

 

Nanu ca ekato eva paccayato paccayuppannassa uppatti natthiiti?

Is it not so that there is no arising of what is conditioned by only one cause?

 

Sacca.m natthi, ruupajanakapaccayesu ekatoti ayamettha adhippaayo.

True, this does not exist, but here born of one means born by (one of) the conditions that generate materiality.

 

 Na hi ruupuppatti ruupajanakato a~n~na.m paccaya.m apekkhati.

He does not consider (here) another condition for the arising of materiality apart from the condition that generates materiality.

 

Dvijanti-aadiisupi eseva nayo.

As to born of two etc. this is according to the same method.

 

Imesanti imesa.m pabhedaana.m vasena.

As to the expression, because of these (it is of five kinds), this means, according to the classification of these.

 

Kammajamevaati kammato eva jaata.m. Cittajamevaati etthaapi eseva nayo.

As to the expression kamma-born only, this means born solely from kamma.

As to the expression consciousness-born only has here the same meaning.

 

Cittato ca ututo ca jaatanti kaalena cittato, kaalena ututoti eva.m cittato ca ututo ca jaata.m da.t.thabba.m.

As to the expression born from consciousness and from temperature, this should be understood as sometimes born from consciousness and sometimes born from temperature.

 

Ta.m dvija.m dviihi jaatanti. Parato dviisupi eseva nayo.

That is born of two, thus, by two factors. Elsewhere, these two factors should also be understood according to this method.

 

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Vis.XIV, 80

80. But 'matter as characteristic' is called 'not born of anything'.

Why? Because there is no arising of arising, and the other two are the

mere maturing and breakup of what has arisen. Though in the passage,

'The visible-data base, the sound base, the odour base, the favour base,

the tangible-data base, the space element, the water element,  lightness

of matter, malleability of matter, wieldiness of matter, growth of

matter, continuity of matter, and physical food--these states are

consciousness-originated' (cf. Dhs. 667) and so on, a state of birth

[that is, growth] being born from somewhere can be understood as

allowable since the point of view here is the moment when the conditions

that are giving birth to the kinds of materiality are exercising their

function.

 

This, firstly, is the section of the detailed explanation dealing with

the materiality aggregate.

 

 

Remarks:

As we have seen there are four ruupas as characteristics: origination, continuity, decay and impermanence. These are inherent in all groups of ruupa. Since they are characteristics, they are not originated by any of the four causes that originate ruupas. Strictly speaking, there is no arising of arising, however, from another viewpoint it can be said (it is allowable as the Vis text states) that when kamma and the other three causes originate ruupas, they also cause the arising (or birth) of the characteristics of origination and continuity which are bound up with the other ruupas in a group.

The Vis. enumerates the ruupas that are originated by citta or as appropriate by the other causes, and includes here the two ruupas of growth of

matter, continuity of matter. These two are actually the origin or birth of ruupa as we have seen. Continuity or development follows immediately upon growth, which is the first moment of a group of ruuupas. When we consider the moment that a cause such as citta begins to originate a group of ruupas, it is allowable to see also the characteristics of origination and continuity inherent in a group of ruupas as being caused by citta. Thus in that sense there is arising of arising. This cannot be said of decay and impermanence, since these manifest themselves after the moments of growth and development.

 

*********

 

Tiika Vis 80:

As to the expression, matter as characteristic is called “not born from anything”, because they are not arisen from any cause...

How should it be understood that materiality as characteristic does not arise?

Because it is without that characteristic.

 

Nina: It is itself the characteristic of arising etc. and therefore it does not have the characteristic of arising.

In the texts about origination of visible object and so on, the characteristics of birth etc. are to be found, but not (the characteristics of) birth (arising) etc. itself.

Therefore, it should be known that arising etc, does not arise, etc. ..

 

Nina: Origination, being a characteristic, does not arise.

 

Text:

Therefore he said, “Because there is no arising of arising, and the other two are the mere maturing and breakup of what has arisen”, and this refers to old age and death.

 

Nina: Old age and death can be taken in the conventional sense. But when it is used in the ultimate sense with reference to the characteristics of ruupas, the decay and impermanence of groups of ruupa are meant.

 

Text:

Here, in this case, with the words, there is no arising, he spoke about the fact that old age and death do not arise....

 

Nina: the Tiika then explains the words of the Vis text: Though in the passage,

'The visible-data base, the sound base, .. where it is shown that it is allowable to say that a factor such as citta, when it originates a group of rupas, also originates the characteristic of arising that is bound up with that group.

 

Tiika Text:

Why did he say that old age and death have arisen dependent on a condition?

Because of the ripening and breaking up of the dhammas that have arisen dependent on conditions, when these occur, not when they do not occur.

 

Nina: Here the method of explanation is the method of the Dependent Origination. When there is birth, there have to be decay and death.

 

Tiika text: 

What is not born does not mature or break up, therefore, with reference to birth that is dependent on conditions he said, by way of the method of teaching in the suttas, “old age and death have arisen in dependence on conditions.”....

 

N: The Tiika concludes this section of Ruupakkhandha by stating that what was not mentioned here with regard to birth in sensuous planes etc. by kamma-condition etc.,will be explained elsewhere in the teaching on the Dependent origination.

 

Tiika: 

This is the section of the detailed explanation dealing with the materiality aggregate.

*****

Nina: Concluding remarks:

We are reminded here that all the ruupas, the four great Elements and the derived ruupas, originated by the four factors, have the characteristics of origin, continuation (development), decay and breaking up. Of all those ruupas, visible object or colour is the only ruupa that can be seen. All the other ruupas are invisible. Visible object is a ruupa that is present in each group of ruupas, it is one of the inseparable rupas. Visible object or colour of the body is originated by kamma, citta, temperature or nutrition. We cling to visible object and it seems to last, but we should remember that also visible object arises and then falls away completely. No matter how solid the body may appear, the ruupas that arise because of the appropriate conditions have to fall away. What is born, arisen from a cause, has to mature and has to break up.

In this way we are reminded time and again that what we take for the body are only ruupas that are impermanent, dukkha and non-self.

 

****

Tiika Vis 80;

Lakkha.naruupa.m pana nakutocijaatanti kutocipi paccayato na jaata.m,

As to the expression, matter as characteristic is called “not born from anything”, because they are not arisen from any cause...

 

Katha.m paneta.m vi~n~naatabba.m lakkha.naruupa.m na jaayatiiti?

How should it be understood that materiality as characteristic does not arise?

 

Lakkha.naabhaavato.

Because it is without that characteristic.

 

Uppattimantaana.m hi ruupaayatanaadiina.m jaati-aadiini lakkha.naani vijjanti, na eva.m jaati-aadiina.m.

In the texts about origination of visible object and so on, the characteristics of birth etc. are to be found, but not (the characteristics of) birth etc. itself.

 

Tasmaa vi~n~naatabbameta.m jaati-aadiini na jaayantiiti....

Therefore, it should be known that arising etc, does not arise, etc. ..

 

Tenaaha “na hi uppaadassa uppaado atthi, uppannassa ca paripaakabhedamatta.m itaradvayan”ti, jaraamara.nanti attho.

Therefore he said, “Because there is no arising of arising, and the other two are the mere maturing and breakup of what has arisen”, and this refers to old age and death.

 

Tattha “uppaado natthii”ti etena uppaadassa jaraamara.naabhaavamaaha....

Here, in this case, with the words, there is no arising, he spoke about the fact that old age and death do not arise....

 

Nina: the Tiika then explains the words of the Vis text: Though in the passage,

'The visible-data base, the sound base, .. (yampi..) where it is shown that it is allowable to say that a factor such as citta, when it originates a group of rupas, also originates the characteristic of arising that is bound up with that group.

 

Text:Yadi eva.m katha.m “jaraamara.na.m pa.ticcasamuppannan”ti (sa.m. ni. 2.20) vutta.m?

Why did he say that old age and death have arisen dependent on a condition?

 

Yasmaa pa.ticcasamuppannaana.m dhammaana.m paripaakabha"ngataaya tesu santesu honti, na asantesu.

Because of the ripening and breaking up of the dhammas that have arisen dependent on conditions, when these occur, not when they do not occur.

 

Na hi ajaata.m paripaccati, bhijjati vaa, tasmaa ta.m jaatipaccayata.m sandhaaya “jaraamara.na.m pa.ticcasamuppannan”ti (sa.m. ni. 2.20) pariyaayena suttesu vutta.m.

What is not born does not mature or break up, therefore, with reference to birth that is dependent on conditions he said, by way of the method of teaching in the suttas, “old age and death have arisen in dependence on conditions.”....

 

N: The Tiika concludes this section of Rupakkhandha by stating that what was not mentioned here with regard to birth in sensuous planes etc. by kamma-condition etc.,will be explained elsewhere in the teaching on the Dependent origination.

 

Tiika: Iti ruupakkhandhe vitthaarakathaamukha.m.

This is the section of the detailed explanation dealing with the materiality aggregate.

 

*****

(end of ruupakkhandha).







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