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#1 Robert

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Posted 08 April 2012 - 02:52 PM

RobertK: a couple of questions please
1. I have put this here temporarily, please move at your discretion.
2. How many posts or how large a list can i move without overburdening
your webpage?
3. Do i move all of the: "Nina's trans. and/or exposition of tika:" also?
4. I hope nobody is going to be pissed with me doing this?
5.What should be the heading, and should there be some message/introduction
at the top of the list.
6. Doing this kind of thing on the internet is all new, so i hope i know what
i'm doing??
7. Here is the first line-up
8. I won't add any more until i here back, ok!

Robert

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) XIV

1. Now concentration was described under the heading of "Consciousness"
in the stanza.

'When a wise man, established well in Virtue, develops Consciousness and
understanding'.

And that has been developed in all its aspects by the bhikkhu who is
thus possessed of the more advanced development of concentration that
has acquired with direct-knowledge the benefits. But "Understanding"
comes next. And that has yet to be developed. Now that is not easy,
firstly even to know about, let alone to develop, when it is taught very
briefly. In order, therefore, to deal with the detailed method of its
development there is the following set of questions:

(i) What is understanding?

(ii) In what sense is it understanding?

(iii) What are its characteristic, function, manifestation, and
proximate cause?

(iv) How many kinds of understanding are there?

(v) How is it developed?

(vi) What are the benefits of developing understanding?




"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) XIV

2. What is understanding? Understanding (pa~n~naa) is of many sorts and
has various aspects. An answer that attempted to explain it all would
accomplidsh neither its intention nor its purpose, and would, besides
lead to distraction; so we shall confine ourselves to the kind intended
here, which is understanding consisting in insight knowledge associated
with profitable consciousness.


"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) XIV

3. In what sense is it understanding? It is understanding (pa~n~naa) in
the sense of act of understanding (pajaanana). What is
this act of understanding? It is knowing (jaanana) in a particular mode
separate from the modes of perceiving (sa~njaanana) and cognizing
(vijaanana). For though the state of knowing (jaanana-bhaava) is equally
present in perception (sa~n~naa), in consciousness (vi~n~naa.na), and in
understanding (pa~n~naa), nevertheless perception is only the mere
perceiving of an object as, say, 'blue' or 'yellow'; it cannot bring
about the penetration of its characteristics as impermanent, painful,
and not-self. Consciousness knows the object as blue or yellow, and it
brings about the penetration of its characteristics, but it cannot bring
about, by endeavouring, the manifestation of the [supramundane] path.
Understanding knows the object in the way already stated, it brings
about the penetration of the characteristics and it brings about, by
endeavouring, the manifestation of the path.


"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) XIV

4. Suppose there were three people, a child without discretion, a
villager, and a money-changer, who saw a heap of coins lying on a money
changer,s counter. The child without discretion knows merely that the
coins are figured and ornamented, long, square, or round; he does not
know that they are reckoned as valuable for human use and enjoyment. And
the villager knows that they are figured and ornamented, etc., and that
they are reckoned as valuable for human use and enjoyment; but he does
not know such distinctions as 'This one is genuine, this one is false,
this is half-value'. The money-changer knows all those kinds, and he
does so by looking at the coins, and by listening to the sound of it
when struck, and by smelling its smell, tasting its taste, and weighing
it in his hand, and he knows that it was made in a certain village or
town or city or on a certain mountain or by the banks of a certain
river,and that it was made by a certain master. And this may be
understood as an illustration.

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) XIV

5. Perception is like the child without discretion seeing the coin,
because it apprehends the mere mode of appearance of the object as blue
and so on. Consciousness is like the villager seeing the coin, because
it apprehends the mode of the object as blue, etc., and because it
extends further, reaching the penetration of its characteristics.
Understanding is like the money-changer seeing the coin, because, after
apprehending mode of the object as blue, etc., and extending to the
penetration of the characteristics, it extends still further, reaching
the manifestation of the path.


"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) XIV

6. However, it [understanding] is not always to be found where
perception and consciousess are. (2) But when it is, it is not
disconnected from those states. And because it cannot be taken as
disconnected thus 'This is perception, this is consciousness, this is
understanding', its difference is consequently subtle and hard to see.
Hence the venerable Nagasena said 'A difficult thing, O King, has been
done by the Blessed One. --What, venerable Nagasena, is the difficult
thing that has been done by the Blessed One? --The difficult thing, O
King, done by the Blessed One was the defining of the immterial states
of consciousness and its concomitants, which occur with a single object,
and which he declared thus: This is contact, this is feeling, this is
perception, this is volition, this is consciousness' (Miln. 87).

(2) 'In arisings of consciousness with two root-causes [i.e. with
non-greed and non-hate but without non-delusion], or without root-cause,
understanding does not occur' (Pm. 432).

'Just as pleasure is not invariably inseparable from happiness so
perception and consciousness are not invariable inseparably from
understanding. But just as happiness is invariably inseparable from
pleasure so understanding is inseparable invariably from perception and
consciousness' (Pm. 432).



"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) ch. XIV

7. What are its characteristic, function, manifestation and proximate
cause? Understanding has the characteristic of penetrating the
individual essenses of states. (3) Its function is to abolish the
darkness of delusion, which conceals the individual essenses of states.
It is manifested as non-delusion. Because of the words 'One who is
concentrated knows and sees correctly' (A.v.3) its proximate cause is
concentration.

(3) 'A phenomenon's own essence (sako bhavo) or existing essence (samano
va bhavo) is its individual essence (sabhava)' (Pm. 433). Cf. Ch. VIII,
Note 68, where Pm. gives the definition from saha-bhava with essence).

Vism. VIII, 245. One who wants to develop recollection of peace
mentioned next to mindfulness of breathing (Ch.III,105) should go into
solitary retreat and recollect the special qualities of nibbana, in
other words, the stilling of all suffering, as follows:

'Bhikkhus, in so far as there are dhammas, whether formed or unformed,
fading away is pronounced the best of them, that is to say, the
disillusionment of vanity, the elimination of thirst, the abolition of
reliance, the termination of the round, the destruction of craving,
fading away, cessation, nibbana' (A.ii,34).

246. Herein "in so far" means as many as. "Dhammas" [means] individual
essences. (68) ....

Note 68. 'In such passages as "Dhammas that are concepts" (Dhs., p.
1;1308) even a non-entity (abhava) is thus called a "dhamma" since it is
borne (dhariyati) and affirmed (avadhariyati) by knowledge. That kind of
dhamma is excluded by his saying "Dhammas [means] individual essences".
The act of becoming (bhavana), which constitutes existingness
(vijjamanata) in the ultimate sense, is essence (bhava); it is with
essence (saha bhavena), thus it is an individual essence (sabhava); the
meaning is that it is possible (labbhamanarupa) in the true sense, in
the ultimate sense. For these are called "dhammas (bearers)" because
they bear (dharana) their own individual essences (sabhava), and they
are called "individual essences" in the sense already explained' (Pm.
282; cf Ch. VII, n. 1 [Larry: this note explains the meaning of
"dhamma", see Nina's recent posts]).

In the Pitakas the word "sabhava" seems to appear only once (Ps.ii,178).
It next appears in the Netti (p.79), the Milindapanha
(pp.90,164,22,360). It is extensively used for exegetical purposes in
the Visuddhimagga and main commentaries and likewise in the
sub-commentaries. As has just been shown, it is narrower than dhamma
(see also Ch. XXIII,n.18). It often roughly corresponds to "dhatu"
(element--see e.g.DhsA.263) and to "lakkhana" (characteristic--see
below), but less nearly to the vaguer and (in Pali) untechnical pakati
(nature), or to "rasa" (function--see Ch.I,21). The Attasalini observes:
'It is the individual essence, or the generality, of such and such
dhammas that is called their characteristic' (DhsA.63); on which the
Mula Tika comments: 'The "individual essence" consisting in, say,
hardness as that of earth, or touching as that of contact, is not common
to all dhammas. The "generality" is the individual essence common to all
consisting in impermanence, etc.; also in this context (i.e.Dhs.1) the
characteristic of being profitable may be regarded as general because it
is the individual essence common to all that is profitable; or
alternatively it is their individual essence because it is not common to
the unprofitable and indeterminate [kinds of consciousness]' (DhsAA.63).
The individual essence of any formed dhamma is manifested in the three
instants of its existence (atthita, vijjamanata), namely, ariing,
presence (=ageing) and dissolution. It comes from nowhere and goes
nowhere (Ch.XV,15) and is borne by the mind. Dhammas without individual
essence (asabhava-dhamma) include the Attainment of Cessation (see Ch.
XXIII,n.18) and some concepts. Space and time belong to the last
mentioned. Of space (akasa) the Tika in the Majjima Nikaya says: 'Though
time is determined by the kind of consciosness [e.g. as specified in the
first paragraph of the Dhammasangani] and is non-existent (avijjamana)
as to indivdual essence, yet as the non-entity (abhava) before and after
the moment in which those [conascent and co-present] dhammas occur, it
is called the "container 'adhikarana'"; it is perceived (symbolized)
only as the state of a receptacle (adhara-bhava)' (DhsAA.62). Of nibbana
(for which see Ch. XVI,64ff.), which has its own individual essence, the
Mula Tika says: Nibbana is not like other dhammas; because of its
extreme profundity it cannot be made an object of consciousness
(alambitum) by one who has not realized it. That is why it has to be
realized by Change-of lineage. It has profundity surpassing any
individual essence belonging to the three periods of time' (Vbh.AA.38).

'Sabhava' has not the extreme vagueness of its parent 'bhava', which can
mean anything between 'essence' (see e.g.DhsA.61) and '-ness' (e.g.
'natthi-bhava' = non-existingness -- Ch.X,35). This may be remembered
when 'sabhava' is defined as above thus 'It is with essence (saha
bhavena) thus it is individual essence (sabhava)' (Pm.282), and when it
is again defined thus 'A dhamma's own essence or its existing essence
(sako va bhavo samano va bhavo) is its individual essence (sabhava)'
(Pm.433). "Sabhava' can also be the basis of a wrong view, if regarded
as the sole efficient cause or condition of any formed thing
(Ch.XVI,n.23). The Sanskrit equivalent, 'svabhava', had a great vogue
and chequered history in philosohical discussions on the Indian
mainland.

This (unlike the word 'dhamma', which has many 'referents') is an
instance in which it is of first importance to stick to one rendering.
The word is purely an exegetical one; consequently vagueness is
undesirable. 'Individual essence' has been chosen principally on
etymological grounds, and the word 'essence' (an admittedly slippery
customer) must be understood from the contexts in which it is used and
not prejudged. Strictly it refers here to the triple moment of arising
etc., of formed dhammas that can have such 'existence' in their own
right and be experienced as such; and it refers to the realizability of
nibbana. We are here in the somewhat magical territory of Ontology, a
subject which is at present undergoing one of its periodical upheavals
in Europe, this time in the hands of the Existentialists. Consequently
it is important to approach the subject with an open mind.




"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV

8. How many kinds of understanding are there?

1. Firstly, as having the characteristic of penetrating the individual
essences of states, it is of one kind.

2. As mundane and supramundane it is of two kinds.

3. Likewise as subject to cankers and free from cankers, and so on,

4. As the defining of mentality and materiality,

5. As accompanied by joy or by equanimity,

6. As the planes of seeing and of development.

7. It is of three kinds as consisting in what is reasoned, consisting in
what is learnt (heard), and consisting in development.

8. Likewise as having a limited, exalted, or measureless object,

9. As skill in improvement, detriment, and means,

10. As interpreting the internal, and so on.

11. It is of four kinds as knowledge of the four truths,

12. And as the four discriminations. (4)
----------------------------

(4) "Pa.tisambhidaa" is usually rendered by 'analysis' (see e.g. "Points
of Controversy" -- "Kathaavatthu" -- pp. 377ff.). But the Tipi.taka
explanations of the four "pa.tisambhidaa" suggest no emphasis on
analysis rather than synthesis. Pm. gives the following definition of
the term: 'Knowledge that is classified (pabhedagata = put into a
division) under meaning (attha) as capable of effecting the explanation
and definition of specific characteristics of the meaning class (meaning
division) is called "attha-pa.tisambhidaa"; and so with the other three
(Pm. 436). 'Discrimination' has been chosen for "pa.tisambhidaa"
because, while it has the sense of 'division', it does not imply an
opposite process as 'analysis' does. Also it may be questioned whether
the four are well described as 'entirely logical': 'entirely
epistemological' might perhaps be both less rigid and nearer; for they
seem to cover four interlocking fields, namely: meanings of statements
and effects of causes (etc.), statements of meanings and causes of
effects (etc.), language as restricted to etymological rules of verbal
expression, and clarity (or perspicuous inspiration) in marshalling the
other three.



"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV

[How many kinds of understanding are there?]

9. 1. Herein, the singlefold meaning is obvious in meaning.

2. As regards the twofold section, the "mundane" is that associated
with the mundane path and the "supramundane" is that associated with the
supramundane path. So it is of two kinds as mundane and supramundane.


From Nyanatiloka's "Buddhist Dictionary"
http://www.saigon.co...ict/dic_idx.htm

ásava: (lit: influxes), 'cankers', taints, corruption's, intoxicant
biases. There is a list of four (as in D. 16, Pts.M., Vibh.): the canker
of sense-desire (kámásava), of (desiring eternal) existence
(bhavásava), of (wrong) views (ditthásava), and of ignorance
(avijjásava). A list of three, omitting the canker of views, is
possibly older and is more frequent in the Suttas, e.g. in M. 2, M. 9,
D. 33; A. III, 59, 67; A. VI, 63. - In Vibh. (Khuddakavatthu Vibh.) both
the 3-fold and 4-fold division are mentioned. The fourfold division also
occurs under the name of 'floods' (ogha) and 'yokes' (yoga).

Through the path of Stream-Entry, the canker of views is destroyed;
through the path of Non-Returning, the canker of sense-desire; through
the path of Arahatship, the cankers of existence and ignorance. M. 2
shows how to overcome the cankers, namely, through insight,
sense-control, avoidance, wise use of the necessities of life, etc. For
a commentarial exposition, see Atthasálini Tr. I, p. 63f: II, pp.
475ff.

Khínásava, 'one whose cankers are destroyed', or 'one who is
canker-free', is a name for the Arahat or Holy One. The state of
Arahatship is frequently called ásavakkhaya, 'the destruction of the
cankers'. Suttas concluding with the attainment of Arahatship by the
listeners, often end with the words: "During this utterance, the hearts
of the Bhikkhus were freed from the cankers through clinging no more"
(anupádáya ásavehi cittáni vimuccimsú'ti).


"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) ch. XIV

[How many kinds of understanding are there?]

11. 4. In the third dyad, when a man wants to begin insight, his
understanding of the defining of the four immaterial aggregates is
understanding as "defining of mentality", [439] and his understanding of
the defining of the material aggregate is understanding as "defining of
materiality". So it is of two kinds as the defining of mentality and of
materiality.

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) ch. XIV

[How many kinds of understanding are there?]

12. 5. In the fourth dyad, understanding belonging to two of the kinds
of sense-sphere profitable consciousness, and belonging to sixteen (5)
of the kinds of path consciousness with four of the jhanas in the
fivefold method, is "accompanied by joy". Understanding belonging to two
of the kinds of sense-sphere profitable consciousness, and belonging to
(the remaining) four kinds of path consciousness with the fifth jhana is
"accompanied by equanimity". So it is of two kinds as accompanied by joy
or by equanimity.

(5.) 'I.e. the four paths with the first jhana and those with the
second, third, and fourth, out of the five' (Pm. 434).


"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) ch. XIV

[How many kinds of understanding are there?]

13. 6. In the fifth dyad, understanding belonging to the first path is
the "plane of seeing". Understanding belonging to the remaining three
paths is the "plane of development" (see Ch. XXII, 127). So it is of two
kinds as the planes of seeing and of development.
----------------

Vism. XXII, 127.

(ii) The seeing of nibbana at the moment of the first path is "realizing
as seeing". At the other path moments it is "realizing as developing".
And it is intended as twofold here. So realizing of nibbana as seeing
and as developing should be understood as a function of this knowledge.


"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga)ch. XIV

[How many kinds of understanding are there?]

14. 7. As regards the triads, understanding acquired without hearing
from another is that "consisting in what is reasoned" because it is
produced by one's own reasoning. Understanding acquired by hearing from
another is that "consisting in what is heard", because it is produced by
hearing. Understanding that has reached absorption, having been somehow
produced by (meditative) development, is that "consisting in
development". And this is said: 'Herein, what is understanding
consisting in what is reasoned? In the spheres of work invented by
ingenuity, or in the spheres of craft invented by ingenuity, or in the
sorts of science invented by ingenuity, any preference, view, choice,
opinion, judgement, liking for pondering over things, that concerns
ownership of deeds (kamma) or is in conformity with truth or is of such
kind as to conform with (the axioms) "Materiality is impermanent" or
"Feeling ... perception ... formations ... consciousness is impermanent"
that one acquires without hearing it from another--that is called
understanding consisting in what is reasoned.

'(In the spheres ... ) that one acquires by hearing it from
another--that is called understanding consisting in what is learnt
(heard).

'And all understanding in anyone who has attained (an attainment) is
consisting in development' (Vbh. 324-25).

So it is of three kinds as consisting in what is thought out, in what is
heard, and in development.

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) ch. XIV

15. 8. In the second triad, the understanding that occurs contingent
upon sense-sphere states has a "limited" object. That which occurs
contingent upon fine-material-sphere states or immaterial-sphere states
has an "exalted" object. That is mundane insight. That which occurs
contingent upon nibbana has a "measureless" object. That is supramundane
insight. So it is of three kinds as having a limited, an exalted, or a
measureless object.


"The Path of Purification" ch. XIV

[How many kinds of understanding are there?]

16. 9. In the third triad, it is increase that is called
"improvement". That is twofold as the elimination of harm and the
arousing of good. Skill in improvement is skill in these, according as
it is said: 'Herein, what is skill in improvement? When a man brings
these things to mind both unarisen unprofitable things do not arise and
arisen unprofitable things are abandoned in him; or when he brings these
things to mind [440] both unarisen profitable things arise and arisen
profitable things advance to growth, increase, development, and
perfection in him. Whatever here is understanding, act of understanding
... [for words elided see Dhs. 16] ... non-delusion, investigation of
states, right view, is called skill in improvement' (Vbh. 325-26).

17. Non-increase is what is called detriment. That also is twofold as
the diminution of good and the arousing of harm. Skill in detriment is
skill in these, according as it is said: 'Herein, what is skill in
detriment? When a man brings these things to mind, both unarisen
profitable things do not arise ... ' (Vbh. 326) and so on.

18. But in either of these cases any skill in means to cause the
production of such and such things, which skill occurs at that moment
and is aroused on that occasion, is what is called "skill in means",
according as it is said: 'And all understanding of means thereto is
"skill in means"' (Vbh. 326).

So it is of three kinds as skill in improvement, in detriment, and in
means.

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV

19. 10. In the fourth triad, insight-understanding initiated by
apprehending one's own aggregates is "interpreting the internal" (6).
That initiated by apprehending another's aggregates or external
materiality not bound up with the faculties, [that is, inanimate
matter], is "interpreting the external". That initiated by apprehending
both is "interpreting the internal and external". So it is of three
kinds as interpreting the internal, and so on.

(6). The word "abhinivisati" with its noun "abhinivesa" means literally
'to dwell on', and so to adhere, or 'insist'. In the Tipi.taka it always
appears in a bad sense and always appears in contexts with wrong view
and clinging (see e.g. M.iii, 30-31, Nd. I, 436 and also Ps. quoted
above at Ch. I, 140). However, in the Commentaries the word appears also
in a good sense as at Ch. XIV, 130, Ch. XXI, 73 and 83f., and at
MA.i,250 (cf. "saddha.m nivisati", M.ii,173). In this good sense it is
synonymous with "right" interpretation of experience. All the bare
experience of perception is interpreted by the mind either in the sense
of permanence, pleasure, self, which is wrong because it is not
confirmed by experience, or in the sense of impermanence, etc., which is
right because it is confirmed by experience (see Ch. XIV, 130). There
is no not interpreting experience, and it is a function of the mind that
the interpretation adopted is 'dwelt upon', i.e. insisted upon. And so
it is this insistence or interpretation in accordance with reality as
confirmed by experience that is the "abhinivesa" of the Commentaries in
the good sense. For these reasons the words "interpretation",
"misinterpretation" and "insistence" have been chosen here as
renderings.

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga), Ch. XIV

[How many kinds of understanding are there]

20. 11. As regards the tetrads, in the first tetrad, knowledge that
occurs contingent upon the truth of suffering is "knowledge of
suffering"; knowledge that occurs contingent upon the origin of
suffering is "knowledge of the origin of suffering"; knowledge that
occurs contingent upon the cessation of suffering is "knowledge of the
cessation of suffering"; and knowledge that occurs contingent upon the
way leading to the cessation of suffering is "knowledge of the way
leading to the cessation of suffering". So it is of four kinds as
knowledge of the four truths.

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga), Ch. XIV

[How many kinds of understanding are there?]

21. 12. In the second tetrad, the four kinds of knowledge classed as
that concerned with meaning, etc., are called the "four
discriminations". For this is sad: 'Knowledge about meaning is the
discrimination of meaning (attha-pa.tisambhidaa). Knowledge about law is
the discrimination of law (dhamma-pa.tisambhidaa). Knowledge about
enunciation of language dealing with meaning and law is the
discrimination of language (nirutti-pa.tisambhidaa). Knowledge about
kinds of knowledge is discrimination of perspicuity
(pa.tibhaana-pa.tisambhidaa)' (Vbh. 293).

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV

[Regarding the four patisambhida.]

22. Herein, "meaning" (attha) is briefly a term for the fruit of a cause
(hetu). For in accordance with the cause it is served, (7) arrived at,
reached, therefore it is called 'meaning' (or 'purpose'). But in
particular the five things, namely, (i) anything conditionally produced,
[441] (ii) nibbana, (iii) the meaning of what is spoken, (iv) (kamma-)
result, and (v) functional (consciousness), should be understood as
"meaning". When anyone reviews that meaning, any knowledge of his,
falling within the category (pabheda) concerned with meaning, is the
"discrimination of meaning".

23. "Law" (dhamma) is briefly a term for a condition (paccaya). For
since a condition necessitates (dahati) whatever it may be, makes it
occur or allows it to happen, it is therefore called 'law' (dhamma). But
in particular the five things, namely,(i) any cause that produces fruit,
(ii) the noble path, (iii) what is spoken, (iv) what is profitable, and
(v) what is unprofitable, should be understood as "law". When anyone
reviews that law, any knowledge of his, falling within the category
concerned with the law, is the "discrimination of law".
---------------

(7) "Ariiyati--'to honor, to serve'. Not in P.T.S. Dict. Cf. ger.
ara.niiya (MA.i,21,173), also not in P.T.S. Dict. explained by Majjhima
.Tikaa as 'to be honored. (payiruupasitabbaa).

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV

[Regarding the discriminations of attha ("meaning") and dhamma
("law")...]

24. This same meaning is shown in the Abhidhamma by the following
analysis:

(a) 'Knowledge about suffering is the "discrimination of meaning".
Knowledge about the origin of suffering is the "discrimination of law".
[Knowledge about the cessation of suffering is the "discrimination of
meaning". Knowledge about the way leading to the cessation of suffering
is the "discrimination of law]...

(cool.gif 'Knowledge about cause is the "discrimination of law". Knowledge
about the fruit of a cause is the "discrimination of meaning"...

© 'Knowledge about whatever things are born, become, brought to birth,
produced, completed, made manifest, is the "discrimination of meaning".
Knowledge about the things from which those things were born, became,
were brought to birth, produced, completed, made manifest, is the
"discrimination of law"...

(d) 'Knowledge about ageing and death is the "discrimination meaning".
Knowledge about the origin of ageing and death is the "discrimination of
law". [Knowledge about the cessation of ageing and death is the
"discrimination of meaning". Knowledge about the way leading to the
cessation of ageing and death is the "discrimination of law". Knowledge
about birth ... becoming ... clinging ... craving ... feeling ...
contact ... the sixfold base ... mentality-materiality ... consciousness
... knowledge about formations is the "discrimination of meaning".
Knowledge about the origin of formations is the "discrimination of
law".] Knowledge about the cessation of formations is the
"discrimination of meaning". Knowledge about the way leading to the
cessation of formations is the "discrimination of law" ...

(e) 'Here a bhikkhu knows the Dhamma (Law)--the Discourses, Songs,
[Expositions, Stanzas, Exclamations, Sayings, Birth Stories, Marvels,
and] Answers to Questions--this is called the
"discrimination of law". He knows the meaning of whatever is said thus :
"This is the meaning of this that was said; this is the meaning of this
that was said"--this is called the "discrimination of meaning" ...

(f) 'What states are profitable? On an occasion when profitable
consciousness of the sense sphere has arisen [that is accompanied by joy
and associated with knowledge, having a visible datum as its object ...
or a mental datum as its object, or contingent upon whatever it may be,
on that occasion there is contact ... (for elision see Dhs. 1) ... there
is non-wavering]--these things are profitable. Knowledge about these
things is the "discrimination of law". Knowledge about their result is
the "discrimination of meaning:' ... (Vbh. 293-95). (8)
-------------------

(8) This quotation has been filled out from the Vibha.nga text for
clarity.

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV

[Regarding the 4 discriminations, meaning, law, language, perspicuity]

25. "Knowledge about enunciation of language dealing with meaning and
law" (par.21): there is the language that is individual essence, the
usage that has no exceptions, (9) and deals with that meaning and that
law. Any knowledge falling within the category concerned with the
enunciation of that, with the speaking, with the utterance of that,
concerned with the root-speech of all beings, the Magadhan language that
is individual essence, in other words, the language of law (dhamma),
[any knowledge that] as soon as it hears it spoken, pronounced, uttered,
knows, 'This is the individual-essence language; this is not the
individual-essence language'--[such knowledge] is "discrimination of
language".(10) [442] One who has reached the discrimination of language
knows, on hearing the words 'phasso, vedanaa'. etc., that that is the
individual-essence language, and on hearing 'phassaa, vedano', etc., he
knows that that is not the individual-essence language.
----------------------

(9) Byabhicaara (vyabhicaara): not in P.T.S. Dict.; normal grammarian's
term for an 'exception'.

(10) The idea behind the term 'individual-essence language'
(sabhaavanirutti), that is to say, that there is a real name for each
thing that is part of that thing's individual essence, is dealt with at
DhsA. 391-92. Magadhan as 'the root speech of all beings' and the
'individual-essence language' is dealt with in greater detail at VbhA.
387.

'Phasso' and 'vedanaa' as respectively masc. and fem. nom. sing. have
the correct terminations. 'Phassaa' and 'vedano' are wrong.

"The Path of Purification" (Visuddhimagga) Ch. XIV

[Regarding the 4 discriminations: meaning, law, language, perspicuity]

26. "Knowledge about kinds of knowledge" (par.21): when a man is
reviewing and makes any of the foregoing kinds of knowledge the object
[of his knowledge], then any knowledge in him that has knowledge as its
object is "discrimination of perspicuity", and so is any knowledge about
these aforesaid kinds of knowledge, which is concerned with details of
their individual domains, functions, and so on.


#2 RobertK

RobertK

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Posted 14 April 2012 - 03:19 PM

hi Robert!
No overload , we have tons of space. I think keep each post about the length you have in the post above.
AND THANKS!