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#1 RobertK



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Posted 01 May 2006 - 01:31 PM

"iti siila"m, iti samaadhi, iti pa~n~naa.
Such and such is sila, such and such is concentration, such and such is

Siilaparibhaavito samaadhi mahapphalo hoti mahaanisa"mso.
Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully
developed by sila

Samadhiparibhaavitaa pa~n~naa mahapphalaa hoti mahaanisa"msaa.
Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully
developed by concentration.

Pa~n~naaparibhaavita"m citta"m sammadeva aasavehi vimuccati, seyyathida"m –
kaamaasavaa, bhavaasavaa, avijjaasavaa"ti.

utterly freed from the intoxicants (aasavas) of Lust, of becoming and of
ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom.

The commentary explains that sila here is: paarisuddhi sila. Before I go
into the Co, I shall quote what I wrote about this subject in my "In Asoka's
Footsteps" (See Zolag web.)

<The ³Visuddhimagga², in the Chapter on Virtue, Síla, gives the following
fourfold classification of purity of síla (pårisuddhi síla):

the restraint of ³Påtimokkha² including 227 rules of discipline for

the monk,
the restraint of the sense faculties (indriya samvara síla),
the purity of livelihood (åjíva pårisuddhi síla),
the use of the four requisites of robe, dwelling, food and
medicines, that is purified by reflection (paccaya sannissita síla).

With regard to the restraint of the Påtimokkha, we read in the ³Book of
Analysis² (Ch 12, 244):

Herein a bhikkhu dwells restrained and controlled by the Påtimokkha
restraint, endowed with (proper) behaviour and a (suitable) alms resort,
seeing peril in (his) slightest faults, observing (the precepts) he trains
himself in the precepts....

As regards restraint of the sense faculties, there are different levels of
restraint. We read in the ³Middle Length Sayings² (no. 27, Lesser Discourse
on the Simile of the Elephant¹s Footprint) that the Buddha spoke to the
brahman Jånussoni about the monk who has restraint as to the

... Having seen visible object with the eye he is not entranced by the
general appearance, he is not entranced by the detail. If he dwells with
this organ of sight uncontrolled, covetousness and dejection, evil unskilled
states of mind, might predominate. So he fares along controlling it; he
guards the organ of sight, he comes to control over the organ of sight....

The same is said with regard to the other senses and the mind-door. When
awareness arises of visible object, sound or the other sense objects, there
is no opportunity for the arising of akusala citta. At such a moment one
does not harm anybody else through body or speech. When we understand which
paramattha dhamma síla is, namely, citta and cetasika, it will be clear that
there can be síla, even when one does not act or speak. Satipatthåna is the
Buddha¹s teaching, and thus, satipatthåna should not be separated from the
other ways of síla the monk should observe: the restraint of the
³Påtimokkha², the purity of livelihood and the use of the requisites which
is purified by reflection. As to the monk¹s livelihood, he should not try to
obtain the requisites by hinting, by scheming or hypocrisy. As to
purification of the use of the requisites by wise reflection, he should not
have attachment to them but see them as a means to protect his body and to
continue his life as a monk, developing paññå which leads to arahatship. We
read in the ³Visuddhimagga² (I, 124) about the ³reviewing² of the requisites
by the monk:

Herein, reviewing is of two kinds: at the time of receiving requisites and
at the time of using them. For use is blameless in one who at the time of
receiving robes, etc., reviews them either as (mere) elements or as
repulsive, and puts them aside for later use, and in one who reviews them
thus at the time of using them.

Both the monk and the layfollower should train themselves in purity of síla,
but the monk¹s síla is higher than the síla of the layfollower, they cannot
be compared with each other. Khun Sujin remarked that they are as different
from each other as heaven and earth. The monk has left the household life
with all its amenities in order to train himself to become an arahat, a
perfected one. His lifestyle is like the arahat¹s. Thus, the monk must have
purity of síla, and if he commits a transgression he should make amends for
it. If the transgression is very serious, such as killing, he is no longer a
monk and he will be expelled from the order. However, also layfollowers can,
in their own situation, apply what is laid down as the fourfold purification
of síla. The restraint of the senses is achieved by satipatthåna, and this
can be developed by both monks and layfollowers. As regards purity of
livelihood, also layfollowers should not be engaged in wrong livelihood, for
example by bribery or deceit. As regards using the ³requisites² wisely, this
can also be applied by layfollowers. When one considers food as a medicine
for the body it will help one not to indulge in overeating. It is natural
that we are attached to clothing, food and home, but sometimes there can be
conditions for kusala citta with wise reflection. ..>
Later on I shall continue.
You wrote:
And there seem to be indications that even a sotapanna can
transgress some precepts. (S 55.24)
N: I cannot find this annotation, it must be in K V, Streamwinning, but
where? Could you indicate the sutta. It cannot be one of the five precepts,
but it could be a precept of Vinaya.

#2 RobertK



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Posted 01 May 2006 - 01:32 PM

Now follows more from my "In Asoka's Footsteps". Note also what I wrote
about citta, concentration and higher concentration, adhicitta. You will see
in the Co (to which we return later on) that with this kind of siila the
lokuttara samaadhi is reached. Thus, it really is far-reaching.

<The sense-doors are ³guarded² through the development of satipa.t.thåna. We
read in the Gradual Sayings (Book of the Threes, Ch II, § 16, The Sure
Course) that a monk who possesses three qualities is ³proficient in the
practice leading to the Sure Course² and ³has strong grounds for the
destruction of the åsavas². These three qualities are moderation in eating,
the guarding of the six doors and vigilance. We read concerning the guarding
of the six doors:

And how does he keep watch over the door of his sense faculties?
Herein, a monk, seeing an object with the eye, does not grasp at the general
features or at the details thereof. Since coveting and dejection, evil,
unprofitable states might overwhelm one who dwells with the faculty of the
eye uncontrolled, he applies himself to such control, sets a guard over the
faculty of the eye, attains control thereof....
The same is said about the other doorways. The six doorways should be
guarded. How does one, when seeing an object with the eye, not ³grasp at the
general features or at the details thereof²? In being mindful of the reality
which appears. This is the way to see realities as they are, to see them as
impermanent, dukkha and non-self.
The ³Visuddhimagga² describes first síla, then the development of
concentration and after that the development of right understanding.
However, we should note that under síla he describes not only síla through
bodily action and speech, but also síla which is purity of citta, síla which
includes samatha and vipassanå. In Ch I, 19, the ³Visuddhimagga² quotes the
³Path of Discrimination², where we read about all the different levels of
síla. Included in síla are the subduing of the defilements which are the
³hindrances², the development of concentration and the different stages of
jhåna, and also the stages of insight. We read, for example, about the
stages of vipassanå:

Through contemplation of impermanence in the case of perception of
permanence... Through contemplation of dukkha in the case of perception of
pleasure... through contemplation of not-self in the case of perception of
self... through contemplation of dispassion in the case of
delighting...virtue is in the sense of its restraint, virtue is in the sense
of its non-transgression.

Dispassion is the result of vipassanå ñåna. We read further on that included
in síla are also the four stages of enlightenment up to arahatship when all
defilements are eradicated and there are no conditions for their arising
If someone believes that he, as a layman, should first keep the five
precepts and that he then can develop samatha and after that vipassanå, he
overlooks the fact that there is no self who can regulate this. The Buddha
taught satipatthåna so that the wrong view of self can be eradicated.
Through satipatthåna right understanding is developed and without
satipatthåna síla cannot become ³well established². For the sotåpanna who
has developed vipassanå, síla is ³well established². Through satipatthåna
there can be training in ³higher síla² (adhi-síla sikkhå), ³higher citta²
(adhi-citta sikkhå) and ³higher wisdom² (adhi-paññå sikkhå). As to higher
citta or concentration, this includes all levels of concentration, not
merely jhåna.
Concentration, samådhi, is the cetasika which is one-pointedness, ekaggatå
cetasika. It arises with each citta and has the function of focussing the
citta on one object. When satipaììhåna arises, ekkagatå cetasika
³concentrates² for that short moment on the nåma or rúpa which appears so
that understanding of that reality can develop. In the development of
samatha concentration is developed to a high degree so that jhåna can be
attained, but this cannot be achieved without paññå which has right
understanding of the citta and cetasikas which develop calm. In the
³Visuddhimagga² all levels of concentration, jhåna included, are described,
but this does not mean that everybody must develop jhåna in order to attain
Instead of thinking of classifications and names or thinking of a specific
order as to the development of síla, concentration and paññå, we can
gradually develop understanding of the nåma and rúpa which appear and then
there is training in higher síla, higher citta and higher paññå. Even when
attachment arises there can be mindfulness of it and at that moment one does
not harm anyone; that is síla. Or we may be inclined to engage in wrong
speech, such as slandering or useless speech, but if sati arises and it is
aware of nåma or rúpa, there are conditions to abstain from akusala. We
speak many times in a day, but do we know whether our speech is kusala or
akusala? We need to know the nature of citta so that there can be training
in higher síla.
We are inclined to observe síla with an idea of self who has síla. When
satipatthåna is being developed síla can become free from the wrong view of
self. Then there will be purity of síla, ³síla visuddhi²>