Intro Vis. 101:
The five sense-cognitions of seeing etc., receiving-consciousness (sampa.ticchana-citta) and investigating-consciousness (santiira.na-citta) can be kusala vipaakacitta or akusala vipaakacitta, depending on the kamma that produces them. In this section the Vis. deals with the types of citta that are akusala vipaakacittas.
'Unprofitable resultant', though is without
root-cause only. It is of seven kinds as (50) eye-consciousness,
(51)-(54) ear-, nose-, tongue-, and body-consciousness, (55)
mind-element with the function of receiving, and (56)
mind-consciousness-element with the function of investigating, etc., and
having five positions. It should be understood as to characteristic,
etc., in the same way as the profitable resultant without root-cause
N: There are seven types of akusala vipaakacitta, whereas in the case of ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas, there are eight types. The reason is that there are two types of investigating-consciousness which are kusala vipaaka: one type accompanied by pleasant feeling (when the object is very pleasant) and one type by indifferent feeling. There is only one type of investigating-consciousness that is akusala vipaaka, and it is accompanied by indifferent feeling.
There are five positions (.thaana) of santiira.na-citta which is akusala vipaakacitta, and this means that this type of citta can perform the functions of investigating (santiira.na), of retention (tadaaramma.na), of rebirth, of bhavanga and of dying.
As the Vis. text states: It should be understood as to characteristic, etc., in the same way as the profitable resultant without root-cause.
N: Akusala vipaakacitta is never accompanied by roots, it is ahetuka, rootless.
The Tiika states that it is said that akusala vipaaka is rootless, because the nature of vipaaka is not reprehensible; it cannot have the roots of lobha, etc. that are the causes of unwise attention (ayoniso manasikaara), and also because it is akusala vipaaka it cannot be associated with the roots of alobha etc., the cause of what is profitable.
Thus, akusala vipaakacitta is not called ahetuka akusala vipaakacitta; the word ahetuka, rootless, is superfluous because it is always without roots. It is without the akusala roots of lobha, dosa, moha, and without the beautiful roots (sobhana hetus) of alobha, adosa and amoha. It is not reprehensible, unprofitable, nor blameless, profitable.
In the case of kusala vipaakacittas, the differentiation of sahetuka and ahetuka has to be made, since kusala kamma can produce eight sahetuka vipaakacittas that can be accompanied by the two roots of alobha and adosa, or by three roots, by alobha, adosa and paññaa, and also eight rootless, ahetuka, kusala vipaakacittas.
When seeing arises it may be kusala vipaakacitta or akusala vipaakacitta. It is conditioned by kusala kamma or by akusala kamma. It is not beneficial to try to find out whether seeing is kusala vipaakacitta or akusala vipaakacitta. It is only one moment and it falls away immediately. After it has fallen away javanacittas which are kusala cittas or akusala cittas arise. When there is wise attention to visible object kusala cittas arise, and when there is unwise attention, akusala cittas arise, depending on conditions. Kusala citta is of the jaati that is kusala and akusala citta is of the jaati that is akusala, whereas kusala vipaakacitta and akusala vipaakacitta are only of one jaati, the jaati of vipaaka. As we have seen in the section of kusala vipaakacitta, the Tiika explains that vipaaka is passive, it does not produce any result. Whereas kusala and akusala are active. We read: <Activity (ussaaho) is so named because it is reckoned as the capacity to produce vipaaka, so long as ignorance, clinging and conceit in the succession of cittas have not been eradicated (anupacchinnaavijjaata.nhaamaanasantaane).>
The investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta that is akusala vipaakacitta can perform the function of rebirth, bhavanga and cuti (dying). It can be the result of akusala kamma, motivated by one of eleven types of akusala cittas :
eight akusala cittas rooted in attachment (lobha-muula-cittas), two akusala cittas rooted in aversion (dosa-muulacittas) and one akusala citta rooted in ignorance (moha-muula-citta) accompanied by doubt. The moha-muula-citta accompanied by restlessness (uddhacca) produces result only in the course of life.
Thus, eleven types can motivate akusala kamma that produces an unhappy rebirth. In that case the rebirth-consciousness is akusala vipaakacitta which is the same type as the the investigating-consciousness, santiira.na-citta. As we have seen, this type of citta can perform the functions of investigating (santiira.na), of retention (tadaaramma.na), of rebirth, of bhavanga and of dying.
Only one type of akusala vipaakacitta, the santiira.na-citta that is akusala vipaakacitta, can perform the function of rebirth in unhappy planes, but it has many intensities. There are four classes of unhappy planes: the Hell planes, the plane of demons (asuras), the plane of Petas (ghosts) and the animal world. Nobody can escape the result of kamma. Even kamma of many lives ago may have an opportunity to produce an unhappy rebirth.
Intro Vis. 102.
In this section the Visuddhimagga deals with the feelings that accompany the akusala vipaakacittas, namely indifferent feeling and unpleasant bodily feeling.
Text Vis. 102.
102. Profitable resultant, though, has desirable or desirable-neutral
objects only, while these have undesirable or undesirable-neutral
objects only. The former are of three kinds, being classed according to
equanimity, bodily pleasure, and mental joy, while these are of two
kinds, being classed according to bodily pain and equanimity. For here
it is only body-consciousness that is accompanied by bodily pain; the
rest are accompanied by equanimity. And the equanimity in these is
inferior, and not very sharp as the pain is; while in the former it is
superior, and not very sharp as the pleasure is.
So with these seven kinds of unprofitable resultant and the previous
sixteen kinds of profitable resultant, sense-sphere resultant
consciousness is of twenty-three kinds.
Explanation of this text:
Profitable resultant, though, has desirable or desirable-neutral
objects only, while these have undesirable or undesirable-neutral
N: The ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas experience a desirable or a moderately desirable object, whereas the akusala vipaakacittas experience an undesirable or a moderately undesirable object.
The Tiika explains why there are two types of investigating-consciousness (mind-consciousness-element) which are kusala vipaaka: one type is accompanied by pleasant feeling, when the object is very pleasant and one type by indifferent feeling, when the object is moderately pleasant. There is only one type of investigating-consciousness that is akusala vipaaka, and this is accompanied by indifferent feeling, no matter whether the object is very unpleasant or moderately unpleasant. Therefore, the akusala vipaakacittas are classified as sevenfold, whereas ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas are classified as eightfold.
The Tiika explains that there is no unpleasant feeling, domanassa, on account of a very unpleasant object since unpleasant feeling cannot arise without aversion (pa.tigha).
N. As we have seen, the two akusala cittas rooted in aversion, dosa-muula-cittas, are the only two cittas that are accompanied by unpleasant feeling. Akusala vipaakacittas cannot be accompanied by unpleasant feeling, they are not akusala cittas with aversion, dosa, but merely results.
The former are of three kinds, being classed according to
equanimity, bodily pleasure, and mental joy, while these are of two
kinds, being classed according to bodily pain and equanimity. For here
it is only body-consciousness that is accompanied by bodily pain; the
rest are accompanied by equanimity.
N: The ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas are classified by way of three feelings, as was explained above. The akusala vipaakacittas are classified by way of two feelings, bodily pain and indifferent feeling.
The Tiika explains that the painful feeling accompanying body-consciousness that is akusala vipaakacitta should be understood in the way opposite to what has been said about pleasant bodily feeling that is kusala vipaaka. The whole day we are touching things and there is impingement of tangible object on the bodysense which is all over the body. We may believe that the bodily feeling is indifferent, but this is not so. Bodily feeling is merely result and it is very ephemeral, only lasting for one moment. Moreover, bodily unpleasant feeling has nothing to do with unhappy feeling accompanying citta rooted in aversion which is akusala and arises because of different conditions. Unhappy feeling that is akusala may arise very shortly after the body-consciousness and then one may take unhappy feeling for bodily unpleasant feeling.
And the equanimity in these is inferior, and not very sharp as the pain is; while in the former it is superior, and not very sharp as the pleasure is.
N. Bodily pleasant feeling and painful feeling are keen, because the impact of tangible object on the bodysense is more violent than the impact of the other sense objects on the relevant sense-bases.
The sense-cognitions other than body-consciousness, seeing, hearing, etc., are accompanied by indifferent feeling, upekkhaa. The indifferent feeling that is kusala vipaaka is superior, whereas the indifferent feeling that is akusala vipaaka is inferior.
The Tiika explains that since akusala vipaaka is the result of what is surely inferior also indifferent feeling accompanying the akusala vipaakacitta is inferior because it is of a nature of affliction (dukkhasabhaavatta). It states: <Therefore he said, ‘it is like pain but not as acute’ ( “dukkha.m viya naatitikhi.naa”ti.)>
N: Upekkhaa that is akusala vipaaka is inferior, it should be seen as a kind of suffering or affliction, although it is not as acute as bodily pain.
The Tiika states: <bodily pain is very acute and sharp, and this (indifferent feeling) is not like that, but here it also occurs as having the nature of affliction.
The result of akusala is not devoid of suffering (na hi akusalassa vipaako adukkho hoti).The nature of upekkhaa should be seen as the indifference of a weak man who is oppressed by a strong man and who is unable to strike back.>
N: This shows the passive nature of indifferent feeling that accompanies akusala vipaaka. It is a kind of affliction.
It cannot be changed, because it has been conditioned by kamma already. Whatever arises is conditioned and we cannot be master of it.
There are many moments of seeing and hearing, and these are accompanied by indifferent feeling. They are kusala vipaakacittas or akusala vipaakacittas accompanied by indifferent feeling which is also vipaaka. Indifferent feeling is superior when it accompanies kusala vipaakacitta and inferior when it accompanies akusala vipaakacitta. However, they are fleeting moments that fall away very quickly. It is difficult to realize that one short moment of akusala vipaakacitta is a kind of affliction or suffering. When we think of something unpleasant we saw or heard, we actually join many different moments together into a whole of impressions. We think with ignorance and aversion of situations and persons that caused us to experience unpleasant objects. We do not realize the difference between the moment of akusala citta that is accompanied by unhappy feeling and the moment of vipaakacitta.
We tend to blame other people, but in fact, it is akusala kamma, not a person, that conditions unpleasant sense-cognitions. There can be detachment from the idea of self and person when we have more understanding of paramattha dhammas that appear one at a time through one of the six doors. We can learn the difference between vipaaka and thinking about it with akusala citta. Life is actually one fleeting moment of experiencing an object.
We can begin to study the different dhammas as explained by the Visuddhimagga. This can give us a foundation of intellectual understanding of non-self, and this can be a condition for the arising of direct understanding of dhammas as they are.
So with these seven kinds of unprofitable resultant and the previous sixteen kinds of profitable resultant, sense-sphere resultant consciousness is of twenty-three kinds.
N: There are altogether twentythree types of vipaakacittas of the sense-sphere (kaamaavacara), namely: eight types of kusala vipaakacittas with roots (sahetuka), eight types of kusala vipaakacittas without roots (ahetuka) and seven types of akusala vipaakacittas.
Intro Vis. 103 and 104.
After the Visuddhimagga has dealt with kusala vipaakacittas and akusala vipaakacittas of the sense-sphere, kaamavacaara cittas, it now deals with the vipaakacittas of higher planes of citta: the plane of ruupaavacaara citta or ruupajhaanacitta (fine-material jhaana) and aruupavacaaracitta or aruupajhaanacitta (immaterial jhaana). Thus, these cittas are the results of kusala kamma that is ruupajhaana and aruupajhaana.
That of the 'fine-material sphere', however, is of five
kinds (57)-(61) like the profitable (9)-(13).
But the profitable occurs in a cognitive series with the impulsions as an attainment [of jhana], while this occurs in an existence [in the fine-material sphere] as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and death.
And as that of the fine-material sphere [was like the
profitable of that sphere] so that of the 'immaterial sphere' (62)-(65)
is of four kinds like the profitable too (14)-(17). And its occurrence
is classed in the same way as that of the fine-material sphere.
Text Vis. 103:
That of the 'fine-material sphere', however, is of five
kinds (57)-(61) like the profitable (9)-(13).
N: The ruupaavacaara vipaakacittas produced by ruupaavaacaara kusala cittas are accompanied by the same jhaana-factors. Recapitulating the ruupaavaacaara kusala cittas, classified according to five stages of jhaana, as given by Vis. XIV, 86:
Vis.86.< The consciousness of the 'fine-material sphere' is fivefold,
being classed according to association with the jhaana factors. That is
to say, (9) the first is associated with applied thought, sustained
thought, happiness(piiti or enthusiasm), bliss (sukha, happy feeling), and concentration, (10) the second leaves out applied thought from that, (11) the third leaves out sustained thought from that, (12) the fourth makes happiness fade away from that, (13) the fifth is associated with equanimity and concentration, bliss having subsided. >
Text Vis. 103:
But the profitable occurs in a cognitive series with the impulsions as an attainment [of jhaana],while this occurs in an existence [in the fine-material sphere] as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and death.
N: The translator uses <existence>, but the Pali gives <upapatti>, which literally means rebirth. Thus, the vipaakacitta occurs in the following life.
Kusala rupaavacaaracitta (ruupa-jhaanacitta) arises within a process of cittas, during the moments of javana-cittas (impulsion). These cittas which are of a high degree of kusala kamma do not produce result in the same life. If one’s skill in jhaana does not decline and the last javanacittas arising before the dying-consciousness are jhaanacittas, the jhaanacitta can produce vipaaka in the form of rebirth-consciousness of the following life. And then also the bhavanga-cittas and the dying-consciousness are of the same type of ruupaavacaara vipaakacitta.
As we have seen before, kusala kamma of the level of ruupa-jhaana, fine-material jhaana, can lead to rebirth in ruupa-brahma planes where there are less sense impressions. There are no nose, tongue, body or sexuality in those planes. Only seeing, hearing, and the experience of mental objects occur. There are no cittas rooted in dosa, since there are no conditions for aversion in these planes. But there can be cittas rooted in lobha.
Those who have a limited degree of absorption of the first jhaana will be reborn in the lowest plane of ruupa-brahmans, namely, the plane of Brahma’s Retinue. Those with a medium and a high degree of absorption of the first jhaana will be reborn accordingly in higher ruupa-brahma planes: the plane of Brahma’s Ministers and the Great Brahmaas. Each stage of jhaana can be of a limited, a medium or a high degree of absorption, Each of these degrees produces its result accordingly (Commentary to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha, Abhidhamma Topics, p. 108, 109) >
The Tiika states that the ruupaavacaara vipaakacitta is similar to the ruupaavacaara kusala citta that produces it, with regard to the accompanying cetasikas, contact, etc. and with regard to the object.
Jhaanacitta can have as object the meditation subjects of samatha, such as the kasinas, the brahmavihaaras, etc. <The vipaakacitta occurs with the same object as the kusala citta>. It does not occur with another object. The kamma and the vipaaka in this case are of the same plane of citta (bhuumi). Thus, of the fine-material plane of citta, ruupaavacaara bhuumi.
The Tiika explains that with the fifth jhaana the supranatural powers can be attained, but that this does not give a result.
We read in The Expositor (p. 380):<Herein, because the resultant of the sensuous realm is both like and unlike its own moral [kusala] consciousness, therefore it has not been classified as simply a sequel similar to that moral consciousness. But in the case of these two realms-of Ruupa and Aruupa- the results of kamma are like the moral consciousness in each, just as the shadows of elephants, horses, mountains, etc., resemble these. Therefore, it has been classified on this principle. Again, kamma of the sensuous realm gives result at one time or other; but the kamma of the Ruupa and Arupa realms, being unobstructed, gives result in the second individuality.>
N: Thus, in the following life.
Text Vis. 104:
And as that of the fine-material sphere [was like the profitable of that sphere] so that of the 'immaterial sphere' (62)-(65) is of four kinds like the profitable too (14)-(17).
N: To recapitulate:
There are four stages of aruupajhaana and all four aruupa-jhaanacittas are accompanied by the same two factors as the fifth ruupa-jhaanacitta, by equanimity and concentration.
The four meditation subjects of aruupa-jhaana are not dependent on any materiality. They are: Boundless Space, Unbounded Consciousness, Nothingness, Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception.
And its occurrence is classed in the same way as that of the fine-material sphere.
N: Thus, the Kusala arupaavacaaracitta (aruupa-jhaanacitta) arises within a process of cittas, during the moments of javana-cittas, and these can produce their results accordingly in the next life as rebirth-linking, life-continuum, and dying-consciousness. The aruupaavacaara vipaakacittas have the same object as the aruupaavacaara kusala citta which produces it.
Intro Vis. 105.
As we have seen, there are four planes (bhumi) of citta: cittas of the sense-sphere (kaamaavaraa cittas), of the fine-material sphere (ruupa-jhaana), of the immaterial sphere (aruupa-jhaana) and supramundane or lokuttara cittas. The magga-cittas, lokuttara kusala cittas, arise when enlightenment is attained. As we have seen in XIV, 88, there are four stages of enlightenment: the stage of the streamwinner, of the once-returner, of the non-returner and of the arahat. At each of these stages defilements are successively eradicated.
The Vis. deals here with supramundane vipaakacittas, the phala-cittas (fruition-consciousness), which are the results of the magga-cittas (path-consciousness).
Text Vis. 105: The 'supramundane resultant' is of four kinds (66)-(69)
because it is [respectively] the fruitions of the consciousnesses
associated with the four paths (18)-(21). It occurs in two ways, that is
to say, as [fruition in] the cognitive series of the path and as
fruition attainment (see Ch. XXII).
So resultant consciousness in all four planes is of thirty-six kinds.
As the Vis. text states: The 'supramundane resultant' is of four kinds (66)-(69)because it is [respectively] the fruitions of the consciousnesses
associated with the four paths (18)-(21).
It occurs in two ways, that is to say, as [fruition in] the cognitive series of the path and as fruition attainment (see Ch. XXII).
N: The Tiika mentions that during the process when enlightenment occurs, there are two or three moments of phalacitta. However, when there is fruition attainment, phalasamaapatti, it occurs uninterruptedly, and thus there are two ways (positions or .thaana) of its occurring.
At the moment of enlightenment, magga-citta arises, and then it is followed in the same process by phalacittas, fruition consciousness. The magga-citta conditions the vipaakacitta, fruition consciousness by way of anantara-paccaya and other conditions. There is no delay, it is akaliko. Vis. VII, 31: <This, however, is undelayed (na kaalika) because its fruit comes immediately next to it...> Kamma that is worldly, lokiya, produces its result later on, but the kusala kamma that is magga-citta, is the only kamma that produces vipaaka in the same process.
Also someone who is a sukkhavipassaka, with dry insight, experiences nibbaana with samaadhi of the degree of attainment concentration. The reason is that the object is nibbaana.
Those who have cultivated jhaana, can attain enlightenment with lokuttara cittas accompanied by the jhanafactors of the different stages of jhaana. They can, after the process during which enlightenment occurred, experience nibbaana again with phalacittas in the course of life. That is the meaning of the two ways or positions of occurring of the fruition-consciousness.
Text Vis: So resultant consciousness in all four planes is of thirty-six kinds.
N: The Tiika mentions that there are twentythree vipaakacittas of the sense-sphere (kaamaavaraa cittas). These are: eight sahetuka kusala vipaakacittas, eight ahetuka kusala vipaakacittas and seven akusala vipaakacittas (which are always ahetuka). There are five ruupaavacaara vipaakacittas (of the fine-material sphere), four aruupaavacaara vipaakacittas (of the immaterial sphere), and four lokuttara vipaakacittas. Thus, there are thirty-six kinds in all.
The Tiika states that this is according to a method which is neither too short nor too detailed.
N: When we include lokuttara jhaanacittas, lokuttara cittas accompanied by jhaana-factors, the classification is more detailed.
The Tiika explains that there is no lokuttara kiriyacitta. The result of lokuttara kusala citta is sure to occur without interval (anantaravipaaka). It refers to a text in the Minor Readings, VI, The Jewel Discourse: <Calling it concentration straight-resulting (samaadhim aanantarikaññam aahu): and which he called ‘straight-resulting concentration’ since it produces its fruit quite certainly straightway next to its own occurrence; for when path-concentration has arisen, there is no obstacle whatever that can prevent the arising of its fruit...>
This text speaks about samaadhi, concentration, and this is the ariyan right concentration which is lokuttara.
Middle Lngth Sayings III, no 117, The Great Forty, states: <And what, monks, is the ariyan right concentration with the causal associations, with the accompaniments? It is right view, right thinking, right speech, right action, right mode of livelihood, right endeavour, right mindfulness.>
Kusala kamma that is not lokuttara is a link in the cycle of birth and death. In the Expositor (II, p. 290) this kind of kamma that accumulates is compared to the building up a wall. The lokuttara magga-citta pulls down and demolishes this wall. Its result is completely different from the result of kamma of the other three planes of citta, it is not a link in the cycle of birth and death, it could not produce vipaaka in the form of rebirth-consciousness nor by way of a pleasant experience through one of the senses.
The magga-citta can arise when the right conditions have been cultivated so that enlightenment can be attained. As the Tiika to the Vis. 88 states, the six purifications, visuddhis, have to be reached which include all the stages of insight, before there can be the seventh purification, purification by knowledge and vision that is associated with the magga-citta, path-consciousness. The magga-citta is accompanied by all eight path-factors, including right action, right speech and right livelihood. The magga-citta eradicates the bases of wrong action, speech and livelihood in accordance with the stage of enlightenment that has been attained. The magga-citta produces, immediately after it has fallen away, the phala-citta, fruition-consciousness. The phala-citta is also accompanied by all eight path-factors, but at that moment the defilements that were to be eradicated by the magga-citta have been eradicated.
Kiriyacitta, inoperative or functional citta.
Visuddhimagga XIV, 106: The 'functional', however, is of three kinds according to plane: (A) of the sense sphere, ( of the fine-material sphere, © of the immaterial sphere. Herein, that of the 'sense sphere' is of two kinds, namely, (1) without root-cause, and (2) with root-cause.
Herein, that 'without root-cause' is that devoid of non-greed, etc., as the cause of result. That is of two kinds, being classed as (70) mind-element, and (71)-(72) mind-consciousness-element.
We read in the Expositor II, p. 385, about kiriyacittas:
...<Here ‘inoperative (kiriya) means the mere acting or doing of a function. In all inoperative consciousness that which has not attained the apperceptional state [N: javana or impulsion] is fruitless like a plant with a wind-snapped flower...>
N: the sense-door adverting-consciousness (pañcadvaaraavajjana-citta) and the mind-door adverting-consciousness which performs in a sense-door process the function of determining (votthapana), are neither kusala, akusala, being different from the javanacittas, nor are they vipaaka. They are fruitless and merely perform their function.
Text: <...that which has reached the apperceptional state is fruitless like the flower of an uprooted tree...>
N: The javanacittas of the arahat are kiriyacittas which are neither cause nor result. For them there are no longer roots, hetus, which are kusala or akusala and this is compared to the roots which could cause a tree to bear fruits.
Text Expositor: Nevertheless, because of procedure in accomplishing this and that function, there is the mere doing, hence [the activity] is called inoperative. The phrase ‘neither moral [kusala] nor immoral [akusala]’, etc., means that, owing to the absence of the moral condition called the moral root, it is not moral; owing to the absence of the immoral condition called the immoral root, it is not immoral. Owing to the absence of moral and immoral causes of wise and unwise attention, it is said to be neither moral nor immoral. Owing to the absence of the productive condition called moral and immoral, it is not result of kamma...>
Visuddhimagga 107. Herein, (70) the 'mind-element' has the characteristics of being the forerunner of eye-consciousness, etc., and of cognizing visible
data, and so on. Its function is to advert. It is manifested asconfrontation of visible data, and so on. Its proximate cause is the interruption of [the continued occurrence of consciousness as] life-continuum. It is associated with equanimity only.
N: the mind-element, mano-dhaatu, is the five-door adverting consciousness.
When a new object, visible object or sound, etc. has impinged on the relevant sense-base, there is not immediately seeing or one of the other sense-cognitions. There has to be first the citta which adverts to the object. Therefore, this citta is called the forerunner. The Tiika explains that this citta does not experience the flavour of the object completely, and that it occurs only once. No matter whether the object is desirable or undesirable, it is accompanied by indifferent feeling.
Its proximate cause is the interruption of the stream of bhavanga-cittas (life-continuum). The bhavanga-cittas experience the same object as the pa.tisandhi-citta, they do not experience an object that impinges on one of the six doors. It is unpredictable which object impinges on one of the sense-bases and interrupts the stream of bhavanga-cittas. This helps us to understand the anattaness of realities.
Only one sense-object at a time can impinge on the relevant sense-base. When visible object impinges on the eyesense, there cannot be sound impinging on the earsense at the same time. Neither can a person or a thing impinge on the eyesense. However, we join many different objects into a whole and believe that we see persons and things. Learning about the different cittas that arise in processes and experience one object through one doorway at a time, helps us to see that there is nobody in visible object, sound or the other sense-objects.
Visuddhimagga 108: But the 'mind-consciousness-element' is of two kinds, namely, shared by all and not shared by all.  Herein, (71) that 'shared by
all' is the functional [mind-consciousness-element] accompanied by
equanimity without root-cause. It has the characteristic of cognizing
the six kinds of objects. Its function is to determine at the five doors
and to advert at the mind door.
N: The mano-dvaaraavajjana-citta, mind-door adverting consciousness, is an ahetuka kiriyacitta that performs the function of determining, vo.t.thappana, through the five sense-doors and it is called after its function vo.t.thappana-citta. The Tiika explains as to the vo.t.thappana-citta that, after it has taken the object from the santiira.nacitta (investigating-consciousness), it occurs as it were (viya) defining or fixing the object. The word viya, as it were, is meaningful; it shows that its function is different from what we call in conventional language determining or fixing. It is neither kusala nor akusala, it is kiriyacitta, inoperative citta. It is only one moment of citta and it is followed (in the case of non-arahats) by kusala cittas or akusala cittas and these arise because of accumulated conditions. This reminds us of the uncontrollability of cittas: there is no time to decide whether kusala cittas or akusala cittas will arise. Cittas succeed one another extremely rapidly.
The mind-door adverting-consciousness performs the function of adverting, aavajjana, through the mind-door. It is the first citta of the mind-door process that arises after the bhavangacittas and after it has adverted to the object it is followed by kusala cittas or akusala cittas.
Thus, the mano-dvaaraavajjana-citta performs the function of determining, vo.t.thappana, through the five sense-doors and it performs the function of adverting, aavajjana, through the mind-door. It is one type of citta that performs two functions.
Vis. text: It is manifested as the states [of determining and adverting] corresponding to those [last-mentioned two functions]. Its proximate cause is the departure either of the resultant mind-consciousness-element without root-cause (40)-(41) [in the first case], or of one among the kinds of life-continuum [in the second]. (72) That 'not shared by all' is the functional [mind-consciousness-element] accompanied by joy without root-cause. It has the characteristic of cognizing the six kinds of objects. Its function is to cause smiling  in Arahants about things that are not sublime. It is manifested as the
state corresponding to that [last-mentioned]. Its proximate cause is always the heart-basis.
N: The Tiika explains as to the heart-base, that it arises in planes where there are five khandhas, naama and ruupa. When one smiles or laughs, there are ruupas originated from citta. This reminds us that we should not take laughing for self. There are only naama and ruupa.
Vis. text: So the sense-sphere functional without root-cause is of three kinds.
N: Namely: the five sense-door adverting-consciousness, the mind-door adverting-consciousness (performing two functions: determining, vo.t.thapana, through the five doors and adverting through the mind-door), and the smile- producing consciousness of the arahat, the hasituppaada-citta.
Note 41. 'With respect to such unsublime objects as the forms of
skeletons or ghosts' (Pm. 476). See e.g. Vin.iii,104.
N: We read in the Expositor (II, p. 386) about the smiling-consciousness of the arahat which arises in the processes of cittas experiencing objects through the six doors: <In the eye-door seeing a suitable place for religious application, the Arahant is joyful at this thought. In the ear-door he becomes joyful at this kind of thought:- ’when they, being seized by excessive greed, are making a great noise in the matket-place, such frivolous craving of lust have I put away.’ In the door of smell, joy arises when he is offering odours and flowers at a shrine. In the door of taste, joy arises when, after acquiring savoury alms and distributing them, he partakes of them and thinks: ’Surely I have fulfilled the duties of courtesy!’ In the door of tactile activities joy arises at the consciousness, ’Surely I have completed the minor duties!’ So far it is thus obtained in the five doors.
Moreover, in the mind-door joy arises with reference to past and future objects. For instance: -reflecting on the reaon of some act done in the time of the lad Jotipaala, of the King Makhaadeva, of the ascetic Ka.nha and others , the Tathaagata manifested a smile. And that reflection is a function of the knowledge of former existence and omniscience, at the conclusion of the practice of which this laughter-producing consciousness arises. >
We read that evenso the Tathaagata smiles at the thought of the arising of Silent Buddhas in the future.
N: First the Buddha directs his attention to the past or the future with mahaa-kiriyacittas, accompanied by wisdom, and after that he smiles with ahetuka kiriyacittas, which are hasituppaada cittas.
It is explained in the Expositor (II, p. 388) that ordinary persons laugh with four types of citta: four kusala cittas accompanied by joy, and four lobha-muula-cittas accompanied by joy. When we laugh, there are usually lobha-muulacittas. Arahats smile with four mahaa-kiriyacittas accompanied by joy and with one type of ahetuka kiriyacitta accompanied by joy. The last type of citta is ahetuka, it is without the hetus of alobha, adosa and paññaa. The cittas of the arahat are not always accompanied by paññaa.
Visuddhimagga 109. That, however, 'with root cause' is of eight kinds
(73)-(80), like the profitable (1)-(8), being classed according to joy
and so on. While the profitable [kusala] arises in trainers [ariyans who are non-arahats] and ordinary men only, this [N: kiriyacitta] arises in Arahants only. This is the difference here.
So firstly, that of the sense sphere is of eleven kinds.
That, however, of the 'fine-material sphere' (81)-(85), and that of the 'immaterial sphere' (86)-(89) are [respectively] of five kinds and of four kinds like the profitable. But they should be understood to differ from the profitable in that they arise only in Arahants.
So functional consciousness in the three planes is of twenty kinds in
Visuddhimagga 110: So the 21 kinds of profitable, the 12 kinds of unprofitable, the 36 kinds of resultant, and the 20 kinds of functional, amount in all to 89 kinds of consciousness.
N: The 21 kinds of kusala cittas are: 8 kusala cittas of the sense sphere (kaamaavacara), five ruupaavacara kusala cittas, four aruupaavacara kusala cittas and four lokuttara kusala cittas.
There are 12 kinds of akusala cittas (rooted in lobha, in dosa and in moha). As to the 36 kinds of vipaakacittas: these are 8 sahetuka vipaaka (kusala vipaaka with roots), 8 ahetuka kusala vipaaka, 7 ahetuka akusala vipaaka, 5 ruupaavacara (ruupajhaana) kusala vipaaka, 4 aruupaavacara (aruupajhaana) kusala vipaaka and 4 lokuttara vipaaka (phalacittas, fruition-consciousness). As to the 20 kiriyacittas, there are 3 ahetuka kiriyacittas, 8 mahaakiriyacittas (of the sense-sphere) of the arahat, 5 ruupaavacara kiriyacittas and 4 aruupaavacara kiriyacittas (of the arahat).
This may seem to be a technical summing up, but all these 89 kinds of cittas are realities, each with their own characteristic. If the Buddha had not attained enlightenment and taught the Dhamma we would not know about the different kinds of cittas. We would take akusala citta rooted in attachment with pleasant feeling for kusala citta. We would take selfish affection for loving kindness. The Buddha’s teaching about the different cittas is of infinite value for our daily life.
The kaamaavacara cittas which are kusala, akusala and avyaakata (vipaaka and kiriya) occur in daily life time and again. They are cittas, not a person. They each have their own characteristic. They arise at the appropriate base and experience the appropriate object. Seeing experiences only visible object, hearing experiences only sound. Cittas do not know each other’s object. We should not merely know the names of the different cittas. When we consider their different characteristics there are conditions for the arising of sati and paññaa. Direct understanding can begin to penetrate the different characteristics of cittas.
Text Vis: And these occur in the fourteen modes of (a)
rebirth-linking, ( life-continuum, © adverting, (d) seeing, (e)
hearing, (f) smelling, (g) tasting, (h) touching, (i) receiving, (j)
investigating, (k) determining, (l) impulsion, (m) registration, and (n)
N: There are fourteen functions of citta. The Tiika states that there are no other functions except these fourteen. Each citta performs its own function. The cittas that arise in a process do so according to a fixed order. The javana-cittas (akusala cittas or kusala cittas) of the sense-door process arise after the determining-consciousness (vo.t.thappaana-citta) and the javana-cittas in a mind-door process arise after the mind-door adverting-consciousness. Nobody, not even the Buddha, can change the fixed order of cittas (citta niyama).
Text Vis. 111. How so? (a) When, through the influence of the eight kinds of
sense-sphere profitable [consciousness] (1)-(8), beings come to be
reborn among deities and human beings, then the eight kinds of
sense-sphere resultant with root-cause (42)-(49) occur,
N: The eight mahaa-kusala cittas (of the sense-sphere) with two roots (alobha and adosa) or with three roots, that is, accompanied by paññaa as well, produces rebirth in the human plane or in the six lower deva planes.
Vis. text: ..and also the resultant mind-consciousness-element without root-cause associated with equanimity (41), which is the weak profitable result with two root-causes in those who are entering upon the state of eunuchs, etc., among human beings--
N: Those reborn with a santira.na-citta (investigating-consciousness) which is ahetuka kusala vipaaka, are handicapped from birth. It is the result of weak kusala kamma. As we have seen, the santiira.na-citta which is ahetuka kusala vipaaka can in this case perform the function of rebirth. It is the same type of citta as the santiira.na-citta which performs in a sense-door process the function of investigating a sense-object.
Vis. text: thus nine kinds of resultant consciousness in all
occur as 'rebirth-linking'; and they do so making their object whichever
among the kamma, sign of kamma, or sign of destiny has appeared at the
time of dying (see also Ch. XVII, par.120).
Note 42 (of the translator in the text). See also MA.iv,124f. 'Here "kamma" is stored-up profitable kamma of the sense sphere that has got an opportunity to ripen; hence he said "that has appeared". "Sign of kamma" is the gift to be given that was a condition for the volition at the moment of accumulating the
kamma. "Sign of destiny" is the visible-data base located in the destiny
in which he is about to be reborn' (Pm. 477). See Ch. XVII, pr.136ff.
Intro Vis. 111:
Kamma conditions the last javana-cittas (kusala cittas or akusala cittas) that arise before the dying-consciousness. Whatever object these cittas experience, that is also the object of the next rebirth-consciousness. The dying-consciousness that follows upon these last javana-cittas has the same object as the rebirth-consciousness and life-continuum of the life that is about to end.
Nina: Any object appearing through one of the six doorways can be the object of the last javana-cittas before dying. Thus, it is an object that appears just like now. That object is conditioned by kamma. When kusala kamma will produce rebirth-consciousness, kamma conditions the object experienced by the last javana-cittas to be pleasant, and the javana-cittas which experience it to be kusala cittas. When akusala kamma will produce rebirth-consciousness, kamma conditions the object experienced by the last javana-cittas to be unpleasant, and the javana-cittas which experience it to be akusala cittas.
These objects are past, present or not so classifiable. The last javana-cittas of a life that is about to end may experience a sense object which is a present object. These javana-cittas are five in number, <because of slowing down due to the nearness of death>. These are followed by two moments of retention and one moment of dying-consciousness. The dying-consciousness experiences another object which is the same as the pa.tisandhi-citta and all bhavanga-cittas of the life that is about to end.
The pa.tisandhi-citta, rebirth-consciousness, experiences as it were a seal-imprint or copy of the object experienced by the last javana-cittas of the preceding life. We should remember that the rebirth-consciousness, the bhavanga-citta and the dying-consciousness are cittas which are door-freed (dvara-vimutta) and process-freed (viithi-vimutta). They do not experience an object that impinges on one of the six doors like the cittas arising in processes. They merely experience a <copy> or echo of the object experienced by the last javana-cittas of the preceding life. We are unable to know what kind of object this is. The "Dispeller of Delusion" states that the rebirth-consciousness can experience a present object, but this means that the last javana-cittas of the preceding life directly experienced a present object. However, the rebirth-consciousness does not experience it in the same way as those javana-cittas, it merely experiences a copy of it.
The next life follows upon this present life very rapidly, it all occurs in one flash.
Seeing at this moment may be followed by kusala javana-cittas or akusala javana-cittas and then the dying-consciousness may arise to be followed immediately by the rebirth-consciousness.
When kamma committed in the past is remembered during the last javana-cittas, the object is a past object.
When the object of the last javana-cittas is a sign of destiny, the place of one’s next rebirth, one may see a heavenly mansion or a picture of the flames of hell, for example.
Text Vis. 112. When, through the influence of the profitable of the fine-material sphere (9)-(13) and the immaterial sphere (14)-(17), beings are reborn
[respectively] in the fine-material and immaterial kinds of becoming,
then the nine kinds of fine-material (57)-(61) and immaterial (62)-(65)
resultant occur as 'rebirth-linking'; and they do so making their object
only the sign of kamma that has appeared at the time of dying.
Note 43. ' "The sign of kamma" here is only the kamma's own object
consisting of an earth kasina, etc.' (Pm.478).
N: When ruupajhaana or aruupajhaana has been developed and the jhaana has not declined, kamma conditions the last javana-cittas which have as object the meditation subject of ruupa-jhaana or aruupa-jhaana, and it will produce rebirth in ruupa-brahma planes or aruupa-brahma-planes, depending on the stage of jhaana which has been attained.
Vis. text: 113. When, through the influence of the unprofitable (22)-(33), they are reborn in a state of loss, then the one kind of unprofitable resultant
mind-consciousness-element without root-cause (56) occurs as
rebirth-linking; and it does so making its object whichever among the
kamma, sign of kamma, and sign of destiny has appeared at the time of
N: There is only one type of akusala vipaakacitta that performs the function of rebirth, bhavanga and dying and this is the santiira.na-citta that is akusala vipaakacitta. This type has many degrees and arises in the unhappy planes of existence: the animal world, the ghost world, the demon world and the hell planes.
Vis. text: This firstly is how the occurrence of nineteen kinds of resultant
consciousness should be understood as rebirth-linking.
N: these types are:
1 akusala vipaaka santiira.na-citta (ahetuka, result of akusala kamma)
1 kusala vipaaka santiira.na-citta (ahetuka, result of weak kaamaavacara kusala kamma)
8 mahaa-vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of kaamaavacara kusala kammas)
5 ruupaavacara vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of ruupa-jhaanacittas)
4 aruupaavacara vipaakacittas (sahetuka, results of aruupa-jhaanacittas)
Thus, nineteen types of citta can perform the function of rebirth, bhavanga (life-continuum) and dying.
Vis. text: Ch. XIV, 114.
( When the rebirth-linking consciousness has ceased, then,
following on whatever kind of rebirth-liking it may be, the same kinds,
being the result of that same kamma whatever it may be, occur as
'life-continuum' consciousness with that same object; and again those same kinds.
Note 44, taken from the Tiika: "With that same object": if kamma is the life-continuum's object, then it is that kamma; if the sign of the kamma, or the sign of the destiny, then it is one of those' (Pm. 478).
N: All bhavanga-cittas arising throughout life in between the processes are the result of the same kamma that produced the rebirth-consciousness and they have the same object.
Vis. text: And as long as there is no other kind of arising of consciousness to interrupt the continuity, they also go on occurring endlessly in periods of dreamless sleep, etc., like the current of a river.
N: The Tiika explains the word continuity as: the continuity of the bhavangacittas. The bhavanga-cittas succeed one another like a stream, until there is the interruption of this stream when an object impinges on one of the six doorways and a process of cittas begins which experience that object.
The Tiika explains that there is the interruption of this stream by another type of citta reckoned as adverting-consciousness (avajjana-citta). This citta is the five sense-door adverting-consciousness which adverts to a sense object, or it is the mind-door adverting-consciousness which adverts to an object through the mind-door. This citta succeeds the last bhavanga-citta before the mind-door process begins. The last bhavanga-citta is in this case the mind-door.
Note 45, taken from the Tiika: ' "occurring endlessly": this is, in fact, thus called "bhava.nga" (life-continuum), lit. "limb" (or "practice"--see Ch. II,
par. 11) of becoming) because of its occurring as the state of an
'a.nga' ("limb" or "practice") of the rebirth-process becoming
(uppatti-bhava)' (Pm. 478).
N: a.nga: limb, constituent part or quality. Bhava.nga: constituent part of becoming or life. It keeps the continuity in the life of an individual. There is no moment without citta, also in between the processes or in dreamless sleep when there is not the experience of an object impinging on one of the six doors.
Vis. text: This is how the occurrence of those same [nineteen kinds of]
consciousness should be understood as life-continuum.
N: Just like the rebirth-consciousness, the bhavanga-citta can be of nineteen types. (see Vis. 113).
N: The Co. to the Book of Analysis, Dispeller of Delusion II, p. 154 explains that dreamless sleep is interspersed again and again with kusala citta, akusala citta or kiriyacitta. One may see or hear in one’s dream, but these are experiences through the mind-door. One remembers what one has experienced before. A footnote, (no 22, on p. 215, quoting a subcommentary to the Book of Analysis, the Muula.tiikaa) explains about the kiriyacitta that dreams: the adverting-consciousness which is a kiriyacitta (inoperative or indeterminate) may arise two or three times, taking the place of the javana cittas and may then be followed by bhavanga-cittas again. Thus, in this case there is dreaming very shortly and then dreamless sleep again. The kiriyacitta does not refer to arahats, because arahats do not dream.
The Dispeller of Delusion (p. 154, quoting the Co to the Gradual Sayings) explains about the result of kusala citta and akusala citta in a dream. Since it is weak it cannot produce rebirth-consciousness, but it can give result in the course of life when supported by other kammas.
Vis. Ch. XIV, 115.
115. © With the life-continuum continuity occurring thus, when
living beings' faculties have become capable of apprehending an object,
Tiika: faculties, namely the faculties of the eye, etc.
As to the words, capable of apprehending an object, the Tiika explains that the faculties of living beings only gradually ripen.
N: In the case of human birth kamma produces at the first moment of life three decads (groups of ten ruupas): the decad of bodysense, of sex and of heartbase. There are not yet eyesense, earsense, smellingsense and tasting sense. We read in the Co to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (T.A. p. 249) that later on the eyedecad appears, one week after that the eardecad, one week after that the nosedecad, and one week after that the tongue decad.
Vis. text: then, when a visible datum has come into the eye's focus, there is impinging upon the eye-sensitivity due to the visible datum.
Thereupon, owing to the impact's influence, there comes to be a disturbance in [the continuity of] the life-continuum.
N: The Tiika states: Because of the force of the impact (gha..t.tanaabalena), the bhavanga-citta is disturbed. The Tiika mentions that there is a different condition (for citta), that is, the pleasant or unpleasant object that impinges on the eyesense.
As to disturbance of the bhavanga-citta, the words of the Tiika are contained in the footnote 46:
"A disturbance in the life-continuum" is a wavering of the
life-continuum consciousness; the meaning is that there is the arrival
at a state that is a reason for dissimilarity in its occurrence twice
in that way.
N: An object, different from the object experienced by the bhavanga-citta impinges on the relevant doorway. The first bhavanga-citta that is disturbed is the vibrating bhavanga-citta, bhavanga calana, and this is succeeded by the arrest bhavanga-citta, upaccheda bhavanga, the last bhavanga-citta arising before the first citta of a process experiencing the object that has impinged.
Text Tiika: For it is called disturbance (calana) because it is like a
disturbance (movement) since there seems to be a cause for an occasion
(avatthaa) in the mind's continuity different from the previous
occasion. Granted, firstly, that there is impact on the sensitivity
owing to confrontation with an object, since the necessity for that is
established by the existence of the objective field and the possessor
of the objective field,
N: The word possessor is used in figurative sense. It is not a person. The Pali uses the i-suffix, indicating a possessive noun(visayii, having an object).
The object impinges on the sense organ so that there are conditions for citta to experience it.
Text Tiika: but how does there come to be disturbance (movement) of the life-continuum that has a different support? Because it is connected with it. And here the example is this: when grains of sugar are put on the surface of a drum and one of the grains of sugar is tapped, a fly sitting on another grain of sugar moves' (Pm. 478).
Text of the Co. to the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Topics of Abhidhamma, p. 126):
<...For when there is impact with the object by virtue of its being positioned in a place that is suitable for the five sense organs, the sequence of existence-continuum gets interrupted by the experience of that impact on the sense organs [though] it is not interrupted suddenly. As when a man who is running fast wants to stop, stops only after he has taken one or two further steps, so it is interrupted only after it has occurred twice...But surely, when visible forms, etc., make impact with the sense organs it is only vibration of what is supported by those [sense organs] that makes sense, so how is there vibrating of the existence-continuum which is supported by the heart-base?
Because of [their]being bound together as a continuity. For when a fly has alighted on a grain of sugar on one surface of a drum, and the other surface is struck with a stick or whatever, the sugar is made to vibrate by the vibration in turn of the drum’s skin and cords, etc., and the fly flies off and goes.
Similarly when visible form, etc., makes impact with the sense organs, the essential elements, which are their supports, are vibrated, and as a result of the successive vibrating of the other material elements that are bound up with them the heartbase is vibrated, and the vibrating of the existence-continuum that is supported by that causes activity to occur. It is said:
One should illustrate by the simile of the grain of sugar how, when one base is struck, there is disturbance of what is supported by some other [base] by reason of their being bound together.>
Text Vis: : Then, when the life-continuum has ceased, the functional mind- element (70) arises making that same visible datum its object, as it were cutting off the life-continuum and accomplishing the function of 'adverting'. So too in the case of the eardoor and so on.
N: The adverting-consciousness adverts to the new object that has impinged on one of the sense-doors. This is a kiriyacitta (inoperative citta, neither cause nor result), and it is called mano-dhaatu, mind-element.
The Tiika explains that the visible object which has come into focus has become the condition for the disturbance of the bhavangacitta.
It seems that we can see and hear at the same time, but in reality these cittas arise in different processes of cittas. All the time there is disturbance of the stream of bhavanga-cittas and a new object comes into focus. Seeing or hearing do not arise immediately, but first the adverting-consciousness arises which adverts to the object. Visible object or sound could not appear if the stream of bhavanga-cittas were not interrupted. When there is bhavangacitta, nothing appears, and then there are conditions for visible object to appear, but it falls away immediately and there is nothing left. The stream of bhavangacittas is resumed and then interrupted again when a new object appears. It all happens so rapidly, we do not notice that there are countless cittas arising and falling away. We do not notice the diversity of objects that appear and then fall away immediately.
Text Vis. XIV, 116. When an object of any one of the six kinds has come into focus in the mind door,
N: When visible object, sound, or another sense object has been experienced by the cittas of a sense-door process, it is experienced by cittas of the mind-door process, after there have been bhavanga-cittas in between these processes. Later on mind-door processes of cittas which have concepts as objects may arise.
Vis. text: then next to the disturbance of the life-continuum
the functional mind-consciousness-element without root-cause (71) arises
accompanied by equanimity, as it were cutting off the life-continuum and accomplishing the function of 'adverting'.
N: The Tiika explains that after the arising of the retention (tadaaramma.na-citta which may arise at the end of a sense-door process), to be followed immediately by bhavanga-cittas, the five-sense-door adverting consciousness adverts to the object and that it should be said that this is immediately followed by seeing, etc. However, the Tiika states that in this exposition the two kinds of adverting-consciousnesses are dealt with. Therefore, the latter cittas (seeing etc.) are not mentioned here.
With regard to the words, as it were cutting off the life-continuum, the Tiika adds: as it were interrupting the continuity of bhavanga-cittas.
This is how the occurrence of two kinds of functional consciousness
should be understood as adverting.
N: These are the kiriyacittas which are the five-sense-door adverting-consciousness and the mind-door adverting-consciousness.
Nobody can direct the adverting-consciousness to interrupt the stream of bhavanga-cittas, nor can anyone cause the adverting-consciousness to advert to a particular object.
The object has impinged already on one of the sense-organs and interrupted the stream of bhavanga-cittas already. It all happens too quickly and cittas follow their course because of the appropriate conditions.