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Anguttara Nikaya

Catukkanipata

Bhandagamavaggo 6) Learning and Virtue

Brethren, there are to be seen existing in the world these four beings.

Which four? He that is ill-versed

(in the Norm) and leads not a virtuous life; he that is ill-versed but leads a virtuous life ; he that is well-versed but leads not a virtuous life, and he that is well-versed and also leads a virtuous life.

Brethren, who is the ill-versed person that leads not a virtuous life ? Here (in the world) a certain one is but slightly versed in the Sutta, Geyya, Veyyākarana, Gathā, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Jātaka, Abbhuta-dhamma and Vedalla,'(2) but, is ignorant of the primary and interpreted meaning (of the Norm) and has not reached complete righteousness. This indeed, brethren, is the ill-versed person who leads not a virtuous life.

Brethren, who is the ill-versed person that leads a virtuous life ? Brethren, here (in the world) a certain one, though slightly versed (in the Norm consisting of the Sutta; and the rest), knows the primary and the interpreted meaning of that little, and governs his life accordingly.

This indeed, brethren, is the one who is ill-versed but leads a virtuous life.

Brethren, who is the well-versed person that leads not a virtuous life ? Brethren, here (in the world) a certain person is well-versed in the Sutta and the rest, aind knowing the primary and the interpreted meaning of the much he has learnt governs not his life accordingly. Brethren, this indeed is the person who is well-versed but leads not a virtuous life.

Brethren, who is the well-versed person that leads a virtuous life ? Here (in the world) -a certain one who is well-versed (in the Norm consisting of the said Nine Factors) and, knowing the primary and interpreted meaning of the text, governs his life thereby. Brethren, this is the person who is well-versed and leads a virtuous life. Brethren, these four persons are indeed to be seen existing in the world.'

He who is ignorant and careless in his ways-
Men blame him for his ways and lack of learning too.
He who is ignorant, but careful in his ways-
Men praise his character, the' knowledge is not his
He who is deep in lore, but careless in his ways-
Men blame his character; his knowledge goes for naught.
He who is deep in, lore and careful in his
Men praise his character and learning deep as well.

,

 

But deep in love, knowing the Norm,
In wisdom perfect following
The all- enlightened One as guide,
A lump of solid gold is he.
Who rightly can speak ill of him?
Even the devas praise that man:
Brahmā himself speaks well of him.

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1 The four persons are. (1) the ignorant and sinful one, (2) the ignorant but vrrtuous one (3) the-versed but sinful one, and (4)the well versed and passion-free One (Arahant).-Comy.

 Anusota-gāmin,

 Patisota-gāmin.

Thitatto,

 Pāragato

 

2 These are called the 'Nine Factors of the Norm '—Navanga Buddha-sāsana.

Sutta is discourses including the two Vibhangas, Niddesa, Khandaka, Parivāra, Sutta Nipāta, Mangala úutta and other discourses bearing the name of Suttas.

Geyya is discourses with accompanying verses, especially the Sagāthaka Vagga of the Samutta

Veyyakarana consists of the whole of Abhidhamma Pitaka, and discourses unaccompanied by verses, but unincluded in the other eight divisions.

Gathā, consists of Dhammapada, Thera- and Theri~gāthā, Sutta Nipiita and pure verses not called discourses.

Udāna forms the eighty-two ' Sayings of Joy' of the Master.

Itivuttaka is the sayings of the Master-Logia.

Jataka is the five hundred ancl fifty stories relating to the Bodhisatta's past lives.

Abbhuta-Dhamma is the record of the Lord's wonderful phenomena.

Vedalla includes Culla-Vedalla, Maha-Vedalla and Sammā Ditthi and other discourses of exultafion.

[Sabbampi sagaathaka.m

sutta.m geyyanti veditabba.m, visesena sa.myuttake sakalopi sagaathaavaggo. Sakalampi abhidhammapi.taka.m, niggaathakasutta.m,

ya~nca a~n~nampi a.t.thahi a"ngehi asa"ngahita.m buddhavacana.m, ta.m veyyaakara.nanti veditabba.m. Dhammapada-theragaathaa-theri-

gaathaa suttanipaate nosuttanaamikaa suddhikagaathaa ca gaathaati veditabbaa.]