20. The grades are these. There are three kinds of refuse-rag wearers: the strict, the medium, and the mild. Herein, one who takes it only from a charnel ground is strict. One who takes one left [by someone, thinking] One gone forth will take it’ is medium. One who takes one given by being placed at his feet [by a bhikkhu] is mild.
The moment any one of these of his own choice or inclination agrees to [accept] a robe given by a householder, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
The benefits are these. He
actually practices in conformity with the Dependence, because of the words
‘The Going Forth by ‘depending on the refuse-rag robe’ (Vin. I, 58, 96);
he is established in the first of the Noble One’s Heritages (see A. ii, 270);
there is no suffering due to protecting; he exists independent of others; there
is no fear of robbers; there is no craving connected with use [of robes]; it is
a requisite suitable for an ascetic; it is a requisite recommended by the
Blessed One thus ‘valueless, easy to get, and blameless’ (A. ii, 26); it
inspires confidence; it produces the fruits of fewness of wishes, etc.; the
right way is cultivated; a good example is set9
to later generations.
22. While striving for Death’s army’s rout
The ascetic clad in rag-robe clout
Got from a rubbish heap, shines bright
As mail-clad warrior in the fight.
This robe the world’s great teacher wore,
Leaving rare Kasi cloth and more; -
Who would not have a robe to keep
Of rags from off a rubbish heap?
Minding the words he did profess
When he went into homelessness,
Let him to wear such rags delight
As one in seemly garb bedight.
This, firstly, is the commentary on the undertaking, direct ions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice.
23. ii. Next there is the triple-robe-wearer’s practice. This is undertaken with one of the following statements: ‘I undertake the triple-robe-wearer’s practice’. 
When a triple-robe wearer has got cloth for a robe, he can put it by for as long as, owing to ill-health, he is unable to make it up, or for as long as he does not find a helper, or lacks needle, etc., and there is no fault in his putting it by. But it is not allowed to put it by once it has been dyed. That is called cheating the ascetic practice. These are the directions for it.
24. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict should, at the time of dyeing, first dye either the inner cloth or the upper garment, and having dyed it, he should wear that round the waist and dye the other. Then he can put that on over the shoulder and dye the cloak of patches. But he is not allowed to wear the cloak of patches round the waist. This is the duty when in an abode inside a village. But it is allowable for him in the forest to wash and dye two together. However, he should sit in place near [to the robes] so that, if he sees anyone, he can pull a yellow cloth over himself. But for the medium one there is a yellow cloth in the dyeing room for use while dyeing, and it is allowable for him to wear that [as an inner cloth] or to put it on [as an upper garment] in order to do the work of dyeing. For the mild one it is allowable to wear, or put on, the robes of bhikkhus who are in communion (i.e. not suspended, etc.) in order to do the work of dyeing. A bedspread that remains where it is10 is also allowable for him, but he must not take it about him. And it is allowed for him to use from time to time the robes of bhikkhus who are in communion. It is allowed to one who wears the triple robe as an ascetic practice to have a yellow shoulder-cloth too as fourth; but it must be only a span wide and three hands long.
The moment anyone of these three agrees to [accept] a fourth robe, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the who wears the triple robe as an ascetic practice to have a yellow shoulder-cloth too as fourth; but it must be only a span wide and three hands long.
The moment anyone of these three agrees to [accept] a fourth robe, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
The benefits are
these. The bhikkhu who is a triple-robe wearer is content with the robe as a
protection for the body. Hence he goes taking it with him as bird does its wings
(see M.i, 180); and such special qualities as having few undertakings, avoidance
of storage of cloth, a frugal existence, the abandoning of greed for many robes,
living in effacement by observing moderation even in what is permitted,
production of the fruits of fewness of wishes, etc., are perfected. 
26. No risk of hoarding haunts the man of wit
Who wants no extra cloth for requisite;
Using the triple robe where’er he goes,
The pleasant relish of content he knows.
So, would the adept wander undeterred
With naught else but his robes, as flies the bird
With its own wings, then let him too rejoice
That frugalness in garments be his choice.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the triple-robe-wearer’s practice.
27. iii. The alms-food-eater’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: ‘I refuse a supplementary [food] supply’ or ‘I undertake the alms-food-eater’s practice’.
Now this alms-food eater should not accept the following fourteen kinds of meal a meal offered to the Order, a meal offered to specified bhikkhus, an invitation, a meal given by a ticket, one each half-moon, a meal given for visitors, a meal for travelers, a meal for the sick, a meal for sick-nurses, a meal supplied to a [particular] residence, a meal given in a principal house,11 a meal given in turn.
If, instead of saying ‘Take a meal given to the Order’, [meals] are given saying ‘The Order is taking alms in our house; you may take alms too’, it is allowable to consent. Tickets from the Order that are not for actual food,12 and also a meal cooked in a monastery, are allowable as well.
These are the directions for it.
28. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict takes alms brought both from before and from behind, and he gives the bowl to those who take it while he stands outside a door. He also takes alms brought to the refectory and given there. But he does not take alms by sitting [and waiting for it to be brought later] that day. The medium one takes it as well by sitting [and waiting for it to be brought later] that day; but he does not consent to [its being brought] next day. The mild one consents to alms [being brought] on the next day and on the day after. Both these last miss the joy of an independent life. There is, perhaps, a preaching on the Noble Ones’ Heritages (A. ii, 28) in some village. The strict one says to the others ‘Let us go, friends, and listen to the Dhamma’. One of them says ‘I have been made to sit [and wait] by a man, venerable sir’, and the other ‘I have consented to [receive] alms tomorrow, venerable sir’. So they are both losers. The other wanders for alms in the morning and then he goes and savors the taste of the Dhamma. 
The moment any one of these three agrees to the extra gain consisting of a meal given to the Order, etc., his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
The benefits are these. He actually practices in conformity with
the Dependence because of the words ‘The Going Forth by depending on the
eating of lumps of alms food’ (Vin. I, 58, 96); he is established in the
second of the Noble Ones’ Heritages; his existence is independent of others;
it is a requisite recommended by the Blessed One thus ‘Valueless, easy to get,
blameless’ (A.ii, 26); idleness is eliminated; livelihood is purified’ the
practice of the minor Training Rules [of the Patimokkha] is fulfilled; he is not
maintained by another; he helps others’ pride is abandoned; craving for tastes
is checked; the training precepts about eating as a group, substituting one meal
[invitation for another] (See Vin. Pacittiya 33 and Comy.), and good behavior,
are not contravened; his life conforms to [the principles of] fewness of wishes;
he cultivates the right way; he has compassion for later generations.
30. The monk content with alms for food
Has independent livelihood,
And greed in him no footing finds;
He is as free as the four winds.
He never need be indolent,
His livelihood is innocent,
So let a wise man not disdain
Alms-gathering for his domain.
Since it is said:
‘If a bhikkhu can support himself on alms
‘And live without another’s maintenance,
‘And pay o heed as well to gain and fame,
‘The very gods indeed might envy him’ (Ud. 31)
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the alms-food-eater’s practice.
The house-to-house-seeker’s practice is undertaken with one
of the following statements ‘I refuse a greedy alms round’ or ‘I undertake
the house-to-house-seeker’s practice’.
Now the house-to-house-seeker should stop at the village gate and make sure that there is no danger. If there is danger in any street or village, it is allowable to leave it out and wander for alms elsewhere. When there is a house door or a street or a village where he [regularly] gets nothing at all, he can go [past it] not counting it as the village. But wherever he gets anything at all it is not allowed [subsequently] to go [past] there and leave it out. This bhikkhu should enter the village early so that he will be able to leave out any inconvenient place and go elsewhere.  But if people who are giving a gift [of a meal] in a monastery or who are coming along the road to take his bowl and give alms food, it is allowable. And as this [bhikkhu] is going along the road, he should, when it is time, wander for alms in any village he comes to and not pass it by. If he gets nothing there or only a little, he should wander for alms in the next village in order. These are the directions for it.
32. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict does not take alms brought from before or brought from behind or brought to the refectory and given there. He hands over his bowl at a door, however; for in this ascetic practice there is none equal to the Elder Maha Kassapa, yet an instance in which even he handed over his bowl is mentioned (see Ud. 29). The medium one takes what is brought from before and from behind and what is brought to the refectory, and he hands over his bowl at a door. But he does not sit waiting for alms. Thus he conforms to the rule of the strict alms-food eater. The mild one sits waiting [for alms to be brought] that day.
The ascetic practice of these three is broken as soon as the greedy alms round starts [by going only to the houses where good alms food is given]. This is the breach in this instance.
are these. He is always a stranger among families and is like the moon (see S.
ii, 197); he abandons avarice about families; he is compassionate impartially;
he avoids the dangers in being supported by a family; he does not delight in
invitations; he does not hope for [meals] to be brought; his life conforms to
[the principles of \] fewness of wishes, and so on.
34. The monk who at each house his begging plies
Is moonlike, ever new to families,
Nor does he grudge to help all equally,
Free from the risks of house-dependency.
Who would the self-indulgent round forsake
And roam the world at will, the while to make
His downcast eyes range a yoke-length before,
Then let him wisely seek from door to door.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, graders, breach, and benefits, in the case of the house-to-house-seeker’s practice. 
35. v. The one-sessioner’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: ‘I refuse eating in several sessions’ or ‘I undertake the one-sessioner’s practice’.
When the one-sessioner sits down in the sitting hall, instead of sitting
on an elder’s seat, he should notice which seat is likely to fall to him and
sit down on that. If his teacher or preceptor arrives while the meal is still
unfinished, it is allowable for him to get up and do the duties. But the Elder
Tipitaka Cula-Abhaya said ‘He should either keep his seat [and finish his
meal] or [if he gets up he should leave the rest of] his meal [in order not to
break the ascetic practice]. And this is one whose meal is still unfinished;
therefore let him do the duties, but in that case let him not eat the [rest of
the] meal’. These are the directions.
36. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict may not take anything more than the food that he has laid his hand on, whether it is little or much. And if people bring him ghee, etc., thinking ‘The Elder has eaten nothing’. While these are allowable for the purpose of medicine, they are not so for the purpose of food. The medium one may take more as long as the meal in the bowl is not exhausted; for he is called ‘One who stops when the food is finished’. The mild one may eat as long as he does not get up from his seat. He is either ‘One who stops with the water’ because he eats until he takes [water for] washing the bowl, or ‘One who stops with the session’ because he eats until he gets up.
The ascetic practice of these three is broken at the moment when food has been eaten at more than one session. This is the breach in this instance.
are these. He has little affliction and little sickness; he has lightness,
strength, and a happy life; there is no contravening [rules] about food that is
not what is left over from a meal; craving for tastes is eliminated; his life
conforms to the [principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
38. No illness due to eating shall he feel
Who gladly in one session takes his meal;
No longing to indulge his sense of taste
Tempts him to leave his work to go to waste.
His own true happiness a monk may find
In eating in one session, pure in mind.
Purity and effacement wait on this;
For it gives reason to abide in bliss.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the one-sessioner’s practice. 
‘Apadana—institution (or production)’: not
‘Tatra-tthaka-paccattharana—a bedspread that remains there’: ‘A name for what
has been determined upon as a bedspread in one’s own resting place or in
someone else’s. They say accordingly it is said in a commentary) that
there is no breach of the ascetic practice even when these two, that is, the
bedspread and the undyed cloth, are kept as extra robes’ (Pm. 78-9). For tatratthaka
(fixture) see also §61.
‘A meal to be given by setting it out in a principal house only (Pm.
79). This meaning of dhura-bhatta not in the P.T.S. Dict.
‘Tickets that are not for actual food, but deal with medicine, etc.’
(Pm. 79). Patikkamana—refectory’
(§28) = ‘bojun hal (eating hall)’ in Sinhalese